INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS: THEORY AND PROBLEMS
MPS 002 Solved Free Assignment 2023
IGNOU MPS 002 Solved Free Assignment January 2023
Answer five questions in all, selecting at least two questions from each section.
Q 1. Explain the role of UN in the current world order
Ans. The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization established in 1945 after the end of World War II.
The organization was created with the aim of promoting international cooperation and resolving conflicts peacefully.
The UN has played a crucial role in shaping the current world order by providing a forum for international cooperation, promoting human rights, supporting development, and facilitating global peace and security.
One of the primary functions of the UN is to serve as a forum for international cooperation. MPS 002 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The organization brings together member states from all over the world to discuss and address global issues, ranging from climate change to poverty reduction to the prevention of armed conflict.
The UN also provides a platform for member states to negotiate treaties, conventions, and other international agreements.
Through these agreements, the UN promotes global cooperation and helps to create a more interconnected and integrated world.
Another significant role of the UN is the promotion of human rights. The organization is committed to protecting and promoting the rights of all people, regardless of their race, gender, religion, or nationality.
The UN Charter, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and other international treaties and agreements form the foundation of the UN’s human rights work.
The UN has established various mechanisms to monitor and promote human rights, including the Human Rights Council, the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, and various treaty bodies. MPS 002 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Through these mechanisms, the UN works to hold governments accountable for human rights violations and to promote respect for human rights around the world.
The UN also plays a significant role in supporting development. The organization works to promote sustainable development, reduce poverty, and improve access to education, healthcare, and other essential services.
The UN has established various development agencies, including the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), and the World Health Organization (WHO), to support these efforts.
These agencies work with governments, civil society organizations, and other partners to promote development and improve the lives of people around the world.
Perhaps the most visible role of the UN is in the promotion of global peace and security. MPS 002 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The organization has played a crucial role in preventing conflicts, resolving disputes peacefully, and promoting stability and security around the world.
The UN Charter grants the Security Council the responsibility for maintaining international peace and security.
The Security Council has the power to authorize the use of force, impose sanctions, and take other measures to address threats to international peace and security.
The UN has also established various peacekeeping missions, which are deployed to areas of conflict to help prevent violence, protect civilians, and support the implementation of peace agreements.
Despite the UN’s many achievements, the organization faces significant challenges in the current world order. MPS 002 Solved Free Assignment 2023
One of the most significant challenges is the lack of political will among member states to cooperate and address global issues.
The UN’s effectiveness is dependent on the willingness of member states to work together and commit to common goals.
However, in recent years, there has been a growing trend of nationalism and protectionism, which has led some countries to prioritize their own interests over global cooperation. MPS 002 Solved Free Assignment 2023
This trend has made it more challenging for the UN to address global issues, such as climate change, terrorism, and migration.
Another challenge facing the UN is the difficulty of addressing new and emerging threats to global security.
The world is rapidly changing, with new technologies, geopolitical shifts, and other developments posing new challenges to global stability and security.
The UN must adapt to these changes and develop new approaches to address these challenges effectively.
One of the most significant challenges facing the UN in the current world order is the proliferation of armed conflict and violence.
Despite the UN’s efforts to prevent conflict and promote peace, the world remains plagued by violence and instability. MPS 002 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The UN has faced criticism for its peacekeeping efforts, with some arguing that the organization is not doing enough to protect civilians and prevent violence in conflict zones.
Additionally, the UN faces challenges in addressing the root causes of conflict, such as poverty, inequality, and political grievances.
Another challenge for the UN is the issue of funding. The organization relies on member states’ contributions to fund its operations and programs, and many countries do not fulfill their financial obligations to the UN.
This funding shortfall can limit the UN’s ability to carry out its mandate effectively.
At Last, the UN plays a vital role in the current world order, promoting international cooperation, human rights, development, and global peace and security.
The organization has made significant achievements over the years, but it also faces significant challenges in the current geopolitical climate.
The UN must adapt to new and emerging threats, address the root causes of conflict and violence, and work to overcome political and funding challenges to continue to be an effective force for global cooperation and progress.
Q 2. Define international terrorism. How does patriotism become the epicenter of terrorism?
Ans. International terrorism is defined as acts of violence committed by individuals or groups against civilian populations or governments with the aim of causing fear and terror for political, religious, or ideological reasons.
It involves the use of violence to achieve political or ideological goals and is often characterized by a lack of respect for human life and fundamental human rights.
Patriotism is the love and devotion one feels for their country, culture, or way of life. While patriotism itself is not inherently negative, it can become the epicenter of terrorism when taken to an extreme level.
When individuals or groups feel that their country or way of life is under threat, they may turn to violence to defend it, even if it means causing harm to innocent civilians or violating human rights.MPS 002 Solved Free Assignment 2023
One example of how patriotism can become the epicenter of terrorism is through nationalist and separatist movements.
These movements seek to create or protect a separate identity for a particular ethnic or cultural group within a nation-state.
When these movements are unable to achieve their goals through peaceful means, they may turn to violence as a way of achieving their aims.
In some cases, nationalist and separatist movements may target civilians from other ethnic or cultural groups, leading to violence and conflict.
Religious extremism is another example of how patriotism can become the epicenter of terrorism. MPS 002 Solved Free Assignment 2023
When individuals or groups believe that their religious beliefs are under threat, they may turn to violence to defend them.
This can lead to acts of terrorism against religious minorities, as well as attacks on government institutions and other symbols of authority.
Patriotism can also become the epicenter of terrorism through political extremism. When individuals or groups feel that their political beliefs are under threat, they may turn to violence as a means of achieving their goals.
This can lead to attacks on government officials and institutions, as well as on civilian populations.MPS 002 Solved Free Assignment 2023
It is essential to recognize that not all acts of terrorism are motivated by patriotism or nationalist, religious, or political extremism.
Many terrorist acts are carried out for other reasons, such as economic gain or personal grievances.
However, patriotism and extremist ideologies remain a significant factor in many acts of terrorism around the world.
To combat terrorism, it is essential to address the underlying causes of extremism and to promote a culture of peace, tolerance, and mutual respect.
This can involve measures such as education and awareness campaigns, economic development initiatives, and efforts to promote intercultural dialogue and understanding. MPS 002 Solved Free Assignment 2023
It is also essential to develop effective law enforcement and intelligence-gathering capabilities to prevent terrorist attacks and bring those responsible to justice.
international terrorism is a complex phenomenon that involves the use of violence goals.
While not all acts of terrorism are motivated by patriotism or extremist ideologies, these factors can become the epicenter of terrorism, leading to violence and conflict.
It is essential to address the underlying causes of extremism, including poverty, inequality, and political grievances, to prevent radicalization and the spread of extremist ideologies. MPS 002 Solved Free Assignment 2023
This can involve efforts to promote economic development, social inclusion, and political participation, as well as measures to counter hate speech, propaganda, and disinformation.
Governments and civil society organizations must work together to address the threat of terrorism and extremism.
This can involve developing effective strategies for preventing and countering violent extremism, strengthening law enforcement and intelligence-gathering capabilities, and promoting intercultural dialogue and understanding.
It is also essential to promote respect for human rights, fundamental freedoms, and the rule of law, which can help to prevent radicalization and extremism.
Finally, international cooperation is critical in addressing the threat of terrorism and extremism. MPS 002 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The United Nations and other international organizations play an important role in promoting global peace and security, and they can provide a platform for cooperation among governments, civil society organizations, and other stakeholders.
By working together to address the underlying causes of terrorism and extremism, and by developing effective strategies for preventing and countering violent extremism, the international community can help to promote a more peaceful and secure world for all.
Q 6. a) Realist Theory
Ans. Realist theory, also known as political realism, is a prominent approach in the field of international relations. MPS 002 Solved Free Assignment 2023
It emphasizes the importance of power and national interest in shaping states’ behavior and international relations.
According to realists, states are the primary actors in the international system, and their behavior is driven by a desire to maximize their power and security.
Realists believe that international relations are characterized by anarchy, meaning that there is no central authority to regulate states’ behavior.
This anarchic system leads to a self-help system, where states must rely on their own capabilities to survive and thrive. This competition for power and security often leads to conflict and war.MPS 002 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Realists view the balance of power as a central concept in international relations. States seek to balance against other states that they perceive as a threat to their security and interests.
This balancing can take the form of forming alliances, increasing military capabilities, or engaging in diplomacy to prevent other states from becoming too powerful.
Realists also believe that international organizations, such as the United Nations, have limited ability to influence states’ behavior.
States will only cooperate with international organizations when it serves their interests, and they will act unilaterally when necessary to protect their security and interests.MPS 002 Solved Free Assignment 2023
According to realists, cooperation between states is limited, and conflicts of interest are inherent in international relations.
Therefore, states must be prepared to use force when necessary to defend their interests and security.
Realists believe that military power is essential to deter potential adversaries and to achieve political goals.MPS 002 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Realist theory has been criticized for its focus on power and national interest, which can lead to a disregard for human rights and ethical considerations.
Realists also tend to overlook the role of non-state actors, such as multinational corporations and non-governmental organizations, in shaping international relations.MPS 002 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Despite these criticisms, realist theory remains a significant approach in the study of international relations.
Its emphasis on power and security provides a useful framework for understanding state behavior in the international system.
Realist theory highlights the importance of military power and the balance of power in shaping international relations and can provide insights into state behavior in times of crisis or conflict.
b) Democratic peace theory
Ans (b) Democratic peace theory is a theory in international relations that suggests that democratic states are less likely to go to war with each other than non-democratic states. MPS 002 Solved Free Assignment 2023
This theory is based on the idea that democratic states share common values, such as a commitment to human rights, the rule of law, and peaceful conflict resolution.
According to democratic peace theory, democratic states tend to have more peaceful relations with one another because they are more likely to settle disputes through negotiation and diplomacy.
This is because democratic states are accountable to their citizens, who are more likely to oppose war and support peaceful conflict resolution.
Furthermore, democratic states tend to have a more stable and predictable political system, which reduces the likelihood of conflicts arising from domestic instability.
Research has shown that there is empirical evidence to support democratic peace theory. MPS 002 Solved Free Assignment 2023
For example, democratic states have been involved in fewer conflicts with one another than non-democratic states.
Additionally, democratic states have been shown to be less likely to engage in militarized interstate disputes, such as wars, than non-democratic states.
Critics of democratic peace theory argue that it oversimplifies complex international relations and neglects the fact that democratic states have engaged in wars with non-democratic states.
Furthermore, some argue that the theory fails to take into account other factors that may contribute to peaceful relations between states, such as economic interdependence, cultural similarities, and shared security interests.
Despite these criticisms, democratic peace theory remains a significant approach in the study of international relations. MPS 002 Solved Free Assignment 2023
It highlights the importance of democratic values in promoting peaceful conflict resolution and provides a framework for understanding the relationship between domestic political systems and international relations.
Additionally, democratic peace theory can provide insights into the conditions necessary for peaceful relations between states and may inform policies aimed at promoting international peace and security.
Q 7. a) The role of International Monetary Fund (IMF)
Ans. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization that works to promote global monetary cooperation, facilitate international trade, promote economic growth, and reduce poverty.
The IMF was established in 1944, in the aftermath of World War II, to promote international monetary stability and to prevent countries from engaging in competitive devaluations of their currencies.
The IMF has a variety of functions, including providing financial assistance to member countries experiencing economic difficulties, providing technical assistance and training to member countries to help them strengthen their economic institutions, and conducting research and analysis on global economic issues.
One of the primary functions of the IMF is to provide financial assistance to member countries experiencing economic difficulties.
This assistance can take the form of loans, technical assistance, and policy advice. The IMF provides this assistance in exchange for the implementation of economic policies designed to promote economic stability and growth, such as reducing budget deficits, increasing tax revenues, and implementing structural reforms.
The IMF also works to promote global economic growth and reduce poverty.
It does this by providing policy advice and technical assistance to help countries improve their economic institutions and policies, which can lead to increased investment, job creation, and economic growth.
The IMF also works to promote trade liberalization and reduce trade barriers, which can lead to increased economic growth and development.
Critics of the IMF argue that its policies can be too restrictive and can lead to austerity measures that harm the most vulnerable members of society.
Others argue that the IMF promotes a neoliberal economic agenda that prioritizes the interests of developed countries over those of developing countries.
Despite these criticisms, the IMF remains an important institution in the global economy. MPS 002 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Its functions and activities help to promote global economic stability, reduce poverty, and facilitate international trade.
The IMF plays an important role in helping member countries to address economic challenges and promote sustainable economic growth and development.
b) Issues of Human Rights
Ans (b) Human rights are a set of basic rights and freedoms that every person is entitled to, regardless of their race, gender, religion, or nationality.
These rights include the right to life, liberty, and security of person, the right to freedom of expression and opinion, the right to fair trial, and the right to education and healthcare.MPS 002 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Despite the recognition of human rights as a universal principle, there are many issues related to the protection and enforcement of human rights around the world. These issues include:
Violations of human rights: Many governments and non-state actors violate human rights through practices such as torture, extrajudicial killings, forced disappearances, and discrimination.
Lack of accountability: In many cases, perpetrators of human rights violations are not held accountable for their actions. This can be due to a lack of political will, weak legal systems, or corruption.
Inequality: In many countries, there are significant disparities in access to human rights, such as education and healthcare, based on factors such as race, gender, and socioeconomic status.MPS 002 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Challenges facing marginalized communities: Women, ethnic and religious minorities, refugees and migrants, and other marginalized communities are often particularly vulnerable to human rights violations.
The role of corporations: Corporations have a significant impact on human rights, particularly in the areas of labor rights, environmental rights, and the right to privacy.
Some corporations have been accused of complicity in human rights violations.
Globalization: Globalization has led to increased economic interdependence, but it has also created new challenges for the protection of human rights.
For example, the globalized economy has led to increased competition for resources, which can lead to the exploitation of workers and environmental degradation.
The protection and promotion of human rights is a complex issue that requires the cooperation of governments, civil society organizations, corporations, and individuals. MPS 002 Solved Free Assignment 2023
International human rights law provides a framework for protecting human rights, but it is up to governments and other actors to implement and enforce these laws.
Efforts to address human rights issues should prioritize the needs and voices of marginalized communities, and should work towards creating a more equitable and just society for all people.
Q 8. a) Nuclear threats
Ans. Nuclear threats pose one of the most significant security challenges to the international community.
The potential consequences of a nuclear weapon being used, whether intentionally or accidentally, are catastrophic. MPS 002 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Despite the risks, the proliferation of nuclear weapons and the development of nuclear capabilities continue to be a concern for global security.
There are several factors that contribute to the nuclear threat, including the existence of nuclear weapons, the possibility of nuclear terrorism, the risk of accidents or miscalculations, and the potential for nuclear proliferation.
The possession of nuclear weapons by certain states creates a power dynamic that can lead to heightened tensions and instability in regions of the world.
The possibility of nuclear terrorism, where non-state actors acquire and use nuclear weapons, adds an additional layer of complexity to the nuclear threat.
Accidents or miscalculations that could lead to the unintended use of nuclear weapons, such as the false alarms that occurred during the Cold War, also increase the risk of nuclear conflict. MPS 002 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The potential for nuclear proliferation, where more states acquire nuclear weapons or nuclear capabilities, further increases the risk of nuclear war.
To address the nuclear threat, there have been several international efforts to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and promote disarmament.
The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is a landmark agreement that aims to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and promote disarmament.
The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is another international agreement that aims to ban all nuclear explosions, including those conducted for peaceful purposes.MPS 002 Solved Free Assignment 2023
However, the success of these efforts has been limited, and the threat of nuclear war continues to be a major concern for global security.
The international community must continue to work towards promoting disarmament, preventing proliferation, and reducing tensions between states with nuclear capabilities.
To address the nuclear threat, it is also essential to address the root causes of conflict, such as poverty, inequality, and political instability.
By addressing these underlying issues, we can reduce the risk of nuclear conflict and create a more peaceful and secure world.MPS 002 Solved Free Assignment 2023
b) East-West divide
Ans (b) The East-West divide refers to the historical and cultural division between the Eastern and Western regions of the world. This divide has been shaped by a range of factors, including religion, politics, and geography.
One of the most significant factors contributing to the East-West divide is religion. The West is predominantly Christian, while the East is predominantly Muslim, Hindu, Buddhist, or Confucian.
These religious differences have led to a divergence in cultural practices and beliefs, which has contributed to the divide between the two regions.
Another factor is politics, particularly the divide between capitalist and socialist ideologies.MPS 002 Solved Free Assignment 2023
During the Cold War, the East was dominated by socialist and communist regimes, while the West was dominated by capitalist democracies.
This ideological divide contributed to tensions between the two regions and shaped the geopolitical landscape of the 20th century.
Geography also plays a role in the East-West divide, as the two regions are separated by vast expanses of land and water.
This physical distance has made communication and transportation between the two regions more difficult, which has contributed to cultural and economic differences.
Despite these differences, there have been efforts to bridge the East-West divide in recent years. MPS 002 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Globalization has led to increased economic and cultural exchange between the two regions, and there has been growing cooperation on issues such as climate change and international security.
However, there are still significant challenges to bridging the East-West divide. Differences in political ideology, religion, and cultural practices continue to shape the global landscape, and there are ongoing conflicts in regions such as the Middle East and Central Asia that perpetuate these divisions.
To bridge the East-West divide, it is essential to promote mutual understanding and respect between different cultures and regions.
This can be achieved through education, cultural exchange programs, and diplomatic efforts to build trust and cooperation between different countries and regions.