Media Ethics and Laws
MJM 025 Solved Free Assignment 2023
IGNOU MJM 025 Solved Free Assignment January & July 2023
Q 1. Private news channels are often criticised for carrying our sting operations unethically. What are the ethical practices and laws that govern the use of hidden cameras and recording without a person’s consent and knowledge? Discuss your answer in light of any recent example.
Ans. Private news channels have been at the forefront of conducting sting operations to uncover malpractices and expose corruption in various fields. However, they have also been criticized for carrying out these operations unethically.
The use of hidden cameras and recording without a person’s consent and knowledge is a contentious issue and governed by certain ethical practices and laws.
Ethical Practices: MJM 025 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Sting operations are carried out to expose wrongdoing or unethical practices. However, to ensure that they are conducted in an ethical manner, there are certain guidelines that journalists and news organizations should follow.
Some of the key ethical practices include:
Public Interest: Sting operations should be carried out in the public interest. Journalists should be mindful of the fact that they are carrying out these operations to uncover something that is of great public interest, and not just for the sake of sensationalism.MJM 025 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Accuracy: The information obtained through sting operations should be accurate and verified before being published. Journalists should ensure that they do not jump to conclusions and only report verified facts.
Consent: Sting operations should only be carried out with the consent of the people involved. Journalists should inform the person that they are being recorded, and only proceed if the person consents to the recording.
Transparency: Journalists should be transparent about their methods and objectives. They should clearly state their purpose and methods to the person they are recording.
Proportionality: The sting operation should be proportionate to the wrongdoing being exposed. Journalists should not use excessive force or coercion to obtain information.
There are also certain laws that govern the use of hidden cameras and recording without a person’s consent and knowledge. These laws vary from country to country, but some of the key laws include:MJM 025 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Privacy laws: Most countries have privacy laws that protect a person’s right to privacy. These laws restrict the use of hidden cameras and recording without a person’s consent.
Wiretapping laws: In some countries, it is illegal to record conversations without the consent of all parties involved.
This means that journalists cannot use hidden recording devices to record conversations without the consent of all parties.
Surveillance laws: Some countries have laws that regulate the use of surveillance devices, including hidden cameras. These laws restrict the use of hidden cameras without a person’s consent.MJM 025 Solved Free Assignment 2023
A recent example of a sting operation that has come under criticism for being unethical is the India Today Group’s investigation into the TRP (Television Rating Points) scam.
The investigation was carried out by using hidden cameras to record conversations with people involved in the scam.
The investigation alleged that certain television channels were involved in manipulating TRP ratings to increase their viewership.
However, the investigation came under criticism for not following ethical practices and laws. MJM 025 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The people involved in the scam were not informed that they were being recorded, and their consent was not obtained.
The information obtained through the investigation was also not verified and was based on the statements of a few individuals.
The investigation was also criticized for being sensationalist and not in the public interest.
The investigation also violated certain laws, including privacy laws and wiretapping laws. The people involved in the scam had a right to privacy, which was violated by the use of hidden cameras. MJM 025 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The investigation also recorded conversations without the consent of all parties involved, which is illegal in India.
In the case of the India Today Group’s investigation into the TRP scam, the investigation violated ethical practices and laws, leading to criticism from the public and media watchdogs.
It is important for journalists and news organizations to learn from this example and ensure that future sting operations are carried out ethically and in accordance with the law.MJM 025 Solved Free Assignment 2023
In addition to following ethical practices and laws, it is also important for journalists and news organizations to consider the potential consequences of their sting operations.
Sting operations can have serious repercussions for the people involved, and it is important for journalists to consider whether the potential harm caused by the investigation outweighs the public interest in exposing wrongdoing.
Q 2. Discuss the role of codes of ethics in the context of journalism as a professional practice, examining its problematic and positive aspects and whether codes are the most effective way of securing ethical media practice without unduly restraining practitioners?
Ans. The role of codes of ethics in journalism is to provide a set of guidelines that journalists can use to ensure that their work is conducted ethically.
These codes outline the standards that journalists should adhere to in their professional practice, including the principles of accuracy, objectivity, and fairness.
While codes of ethics have positive aspects, they also have some problematic aspects. MJM 025 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Positive Aspects of Codes of Ethics:
Codes of ethics provide journalists with a clear set of guidelines for ethical practice. By adhering to these guidelines, journalists can ensure that they are conducting their work in a professional and ethical manner.
Codes of ethics also help to maintain public trust in journalism by demonstrating that journalists are committed to upholding certain ethical standards.
Another positive aspect of codes of ethics is that they provide a means for accountability. MJM 025 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Journalists who violate the code of ethics can be held accountable for their actions, which can help to deter unethical behavior.
In addition, codes of ethics can be used to inform public debates about media ethics and to encourage dialogue among journalists about ethical issues.
Problematic Aspects of Codes of Ethics:
Despite their positive aspects, codes of ethics also have some problematic aspects. One issue is that codes of ethics are often vague and open to interpretation.
This can lead to inconsistencies in how the code is applied, which can make it difficult for journalists to know how to behave ethically in certain situations.
Another problem with codes of ethics is that they can be overly prescriptive and restrictive. MJM 025 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Some critics argue that codes of ethics can stifle creative or innovative journalism by placing too many limitations on what journalists can do.
This can be especially problematic in situations where journalists need to take risks or push boundaries to uncover important stories.
Codes of Ethics as a Means of Securing Ethical Media Practice:
While codes of ethics can be helpful in guiding journalists toward ethical practice, they may not be the most effective means of securing ethical media practice without unduly restraining practitioners.
This is because codes of ethics are often difficult to enforce and can be ignored by journalists who prioritize other goals, such as breaking a big story or winning a Pulitzer Prize.MJM 025 Solved Free Assignment 2023
One alternative to codes of ethics is professional licensing or certification, which would require journalists to meet certain standards of education and training before being allowed to practice journalism.
This would provide a more formal system of accountability and could help to ensure that journalists are practicing ethically.
However, it may also be too restrictive and could limit access to journalism as a profession.
Another alternative is to create a culture of ethical practice within the media industry. This could involve encouraging journalists to participate in ethical training and education programs, as well as creating a system of peer review or mentoring.
By creating a culture that values ethical practice and encourages journalists to take responsibility for their actions, the media industry could help to ensure that journalists are practicing ethically without the need for overly prescriptive codes of ethics.MJM 025 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Moreover, it is important to recognize that codes of ethics are not static documents, but are subject to evolution over time.
As the media landscape changes and new ethical challenges emerge, codes of ethics must be updated to reflect these changes.
This requires ongoing dialogue among journalists, media organizations, and the public about what constitutes ethical practice in journalism.
One recent example of the evolution of codes of ethics is the way in which journalists have grappled with the use of social media.
In recent years, social media has become a powerful tool for journalists, enabling them to reach new audiences and to break news stories in real-time.
However, the use of social media also poses ethical challenges, particularly around issues of accuracy, verification, and privacy.
To address these challenges, several professional organizations have updated their codes of ethics to include guidelines for social media use.
For example, the Society of Professional Journalists (SPJ) added a section on social media to its Code of Ethics in 2014, which emphasizes the need for accuracy, transparency, and respect for privacy in social media use.
Similarly, the Online News Association (ONA) has developed a set of social media guidelines for journalists, which provide detailed recommendations for how journalists should use social media in an ethical manner.
These examples demonstrate the importance of ongoing dialogue and evolution in codes of ethics. MJM 025 Solved Free Assignment 2023
As new ethical challenges emerge, journalists and media organizations must work together to develop new ethical standards and guidelines.
By doing so, they can help to ensure that the profession of journalism remains committed to upholding ethical standards and serving the public interest.
Q 3. Fake news and rumour mongering has become a menace due to the lack of gatekeeping across social medial. What in your opinion should be the ethical code of self-adherence to reduce the spread of such unidentified news?
Ans. The spread of fake news and rumors through social media has become a major concern in recent years.
With the rise of citizen journalism and the proliferation of unverified information online, it has become increasingly difficult for individuals to distinguish between fact and fiction.
This has led to a growing recognition of the need for ethical self-adherence among social media users to reduce the spread of such unidentified news.
Firstly, it is important to recognize that the spread of fake news and rumors is often driven by a desire to gain attention or to further a particular agenda.
Therefore, one of the key ethical codes that individuals can adhere to is to be mindful of their motives when sharing information online.
Before sharing any news, one should pause and ask themselves whether the news is true or not, whether it is relevant, and whether sharing it serves any purpose.
In addition, it is important to avoid sharing news or rumors that are intended to provoke or incite violence, hatred, or discrimination.
Secondly, individuals should practice critical thinking when consuming news online. This means taking the time to fact-check information before sharing it, and being skeptical of information that is not from a reliable source.
Social media users should be aware of the importance of verifying information and cross-checking sources to ensure that they are not contributing to the spread of fake news.MJM 025 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Thirdly, individuals should be mindful of the potential consequences of sharing fake news and rumors.
The spread of false information can have serious consequences, including harm to individuals, communities, and society as a whole.
Social media users should be aware of the potential impact of their actions and should avoid sharing unverified or false information that could cause harm.
Fourthly, social media users should be aware of their responsibility to the wider community when sharing information online.
This means taking into account the impact that their actions may have on others and being mindful of the potential consequences.
Individuals should recognize that their actions can have far-reaching consequences and should take steps to ensure that they are not contributing to the spread of fake news or rumors.MJM 025 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Finally, individuals should also be aware of the role that they play in shaping public opinion and should strive to present balanced and accurate information.
This means avoiding sensationalism, exaggeration, or misrepresentation in the information that they share, and being transparent about their sources and methods of verification.
Social media users should be aware of their responsibility to the public and should strive to be a positive force in shaping public opinion.
Finally, individuals should be aware of the importance of accountability when sharing information online.
This means taking responsibility for the accuracy and reliability of the information that they share, and being willing to correct or retract information that is found to be false. MJM 025 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Social media users should be aware of the potential consequences of spreading false information and should take steps to ensure that they are not contributing to the spread of rumors or misinformation.
In conclusion, there are a number of ethical codes that individuals can adhere to in order to reduce the spread of fake news and rumors on social media.
These codes promote critical thinking, responsible sharing of information, transparency, context, and accountability.
By following these codes, individuals can help to promote a more responsible and ethical use of social media and contribute to the fight against the spread of fake news and rumors.MJM 025 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Q 4. Reading news and seeing gory photographs of riots, wars or accidents can be mentally harassing for the audience. Nevertheless, such reporting is essential from journalistic view. Is there a need of educating journalists on Trauma Literacy for responsible reporting of accidents or riots? Justify your answer.
Ans. The reporting of traumatic events, such as accidents, riots, and wars, can be mentally and emotionally challenging for journalists.
However, such reporting is essential to provide accurate and timely information to the public.
It is crucial for journalists to report such events responsibly, with sensitivity and empathy towards those affected. To achieve this, there is a need for educating journalists on Trauma Literacy.
Trauma Literacy is the ability to recognize and understand the impact of trauma on individuals and communities, as well as the ability to respond in a sensitive and responsible manner. MJM 025 Solved Free Assignment 2023
In the context of journalism, Trauma Literacy involves understanding the psychological impact of traumatic events on victims, witnesses, and journalists themselves, as well as the potential impact of graphic images and details on audiences.
One of the reasons why Trauma Literacy is important is that journalists are often exposed to traumatic events as part of their job.
Witnessing or reporting on traumatic events can have a lasting psychological impact on journalists, leading to symptoms such as anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
Without proper Trauma Literacy training, journalists may not be aware of the potential risks to their mental health, and may not take adequate steps to protect themselves from harm.
Another reason why Trauma Literacy is important is that journalists have a responsibility to report on traumatic events in a way that is sensitive and empathetic towards those affected. MJM 025 Solved Free Assignment 2023
This means avoiding sensationalism, gratuitous violence, and graphic details that could be triggering or harmful to some readers or viewers.
Journalists must also be aware of the potential impact that their reporting can have on communities affected by trauma, and take steps to minimize harm.
There are several ways in which journalists can be educated on Trauma Literacy. Firstly, journalism schools and training programs should incorporate Trauma Literacy into their curriculums.
This could include courses on the psychological impact of trauma, the ethics of reporting on traumatic events, and techniques for sensitive reporting.
Journalists could also benefit from ongoing training and support, including access to counseling services and peer support networks.
Media organizations themselves can also play a role in promoting Trauma Literacy among their staff. MJM 025 Solved Free Assignment 2023
This could involve providing guidelines and policies on sensitive reporting, providing training and support for journalists covering traumatic events, and encouraging a culture of empathy and support within the newsroom.
In recent years, there have been several high-profile cases of journalists suffering from mental health problems as a result of their reporting on traumatic events.
For example, in 2018, veteran war correspondent Marie Colvin was killed while reporting on the Syrian conflict, and several of her colleagues have since spoken out about the impact of trauma on their mental health.
In another example, in 2017, a journalist for the New York Times, who had been reporting on the war in Syria, took his own life.
These cases highlight the need for Trauma Literacy training for journalists, as well as the importance of providing ongoing support and resources for those who are affected by trauma in the course of their work.
Trauma Literacy can also benefit news organizations by improving their credibility and reputation. MJM 025 Solved Free Assignment 2023
By reporting on traumatic events responsibly, news organizations can establish themselves as trusted sources of information, rather than sources of sensationalism and exploitation.
This can lead to increased audience trust and loyalty, and ultimately, financial success for the organization.
Moreover, responsible reporting of traumatic events can also have a positive impact on the communities affected by trauma.
By avoiding sensationalism and graphic details, journalists can reduce the risk of retraumatizing survivors and witnesses.
This can help to prevent the spread of misinformation and rumor, and can promote healing and resilience within affected communities.
However, some argue that Trauma Literacy could be seen as a form of censorship, limiting journalists’ ability to report on events in a truthful and accurate manner.
They argue that journalists have a responsibility to report the truth, regardless of how uncomfortable or distressing it may be for some readers or viewers.
While it is true that journalists have a responsibility to report the truth, they also have a responsibility to do so in a way that is sensitive and responsible.
Trauma Literacy does not seek to censor or limit journalists’ reporting, but rather to provide them with the tools and knowledge they need to report on traumatic events in a way that is ethical and responsible.MJM 025 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Furthermore, Trauma Literacy can actually improve the accuracy and quality of reporting on traumatic events.
By avoiding sensationalism and graphic details, journalists can focus on the key facts and issues related to the event, rather than on the sensational or shocking aspects.
This can lead to more accurate and comprehensive reporting, and can help to promote a better understanding of the event among the public.
Q 5. Personal data created by individuals using the internet creates both footprints and fingerprints. Discuss the ways that data-matching on the internet pose new legal and ethical issues for media platforms and media practitioners. [Data matching means the use of personal information given in one context (or held on one database) with data given (or held) in another]
Ans. The explosion of data created by individuals using the internet has created new opportunities and challenges for media platforms and media practitioners.
One of the most significant challenges is the issue of data-matching, which involves the use of personal information given in one context (or held on one database) with data given (or held) in another. MJM 025 Solved Free Assignment 2023
This practice raises a number of legal and ethical issues that must be addressed by media platforms and practitioners.
One of the most pressing ethical issues raised by data-matching is the potential for invasion of privacy.
When personal information is collected and matched across different databases, it is possible for individuals to be identified, tracked, and even targeted by advertisers or other entities.
This can be particularly concerning for vulnerable populations, such as children, the elderly, or those with sensitive medical conditions, who may be at risk of harm or discrimination as a result of their personal data being shared or matched without their knowledge or consent.
Another ethical concern related to data-matching is the potential for discrimination or bias. MJM 025 Solved Free Assignment 2023
When data is collected and matched across different databases, there is a risk that certain groups may be unfairly targeted or excluded based on factors such as race, gender, or socioeconomic status.
This can have serious consequences for individuals and communities, and can perpetuate inequality and discrimination.
From a legal perspective, data-matching raises a number of issues related to data protection and privacy laws.
In many jurisdictions, there are strict rules governing the collection, use, and sharing of personal data, and media platforms and practitioners must ensure that they are complying with these regulations.
Failure to do so can result in significant legal and financial penalties, as well as reputational damage.MJM 025 Solved Free Assignment 2023
In addition, data-matching also raises issues related to intellectual property rights and copyright law.
When personal data is collected and matched across different databases, there is a risk that copyrighted material may be used or reproduced without proper attribution or permission.
This can lead to legal disputes and reputational damage for media platforms and practitioners, and can undermine public trust in the media more broadly.
Despite these challenges, there are also a number of potential benefits to data-matching for media platforms and practitioners.
For example, data-matching can help to improve the accuracy and relevance of targeted advertising, which can benefit both consumers and advertisers.
It can also help media platforms and practitioners to better understand their audiences and tailor their content and services to meet their needs and preferences.
However, in order to realize these benefits, media platforms and practitioners must take a responsible and ethical approach to data-matching.
This includes being transparent about the data that is being collected and how it is being used, obtaining informed consent from individuals, and ensuring that data is collected and used in compliance with relevant laws and regulations.
Moreover, media platforms and practitioners must also be aware of the potential risks and challenges associated with data-matching, and must take steps to mitigate these risks. MJM 025 Solved Free Assignment 2023
This may include investing in data security and privacy measures, partnering with ethical data providers, and providing training and education to staff and stakeholders on responsible data practices.
In addition to the legal and ethical issues raised by data-matching, there are also broader societal implications to consider.
One of the key concerns is the impact of data-matching on democracy and civic engagement.
As personal data is collected and matched across different databases, there is a risk that individuals may be targeted with political advertising or messaging based on their personal beliefs, preferences, or behaviors.
This can have a significant impact on the political process, as it can skew the distribution of political information and resources in favor of certain candidates or parties, and can make it more difficult for individuals to make informed decisions about who to vote for.
It can also undermine the transparency and accountability of the political process, as it can be difficult for voters to discern the true source of political messaging or to hold politicians accountable for their actions.
Moreover, the impact of data-matching on democracy and civic engagement is compounded by the fact that many individuals may be unaware of the extent to which their personal data is being collected and used.
This lack of transparency can erode trust in media platforms and practitioners, and can make it more difficult for individuals to make informed decisions about their online behavior.MJM 025 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Another societal concern related to data-matching is the potential for it to exacerbate existing power imbalances.
As data is increasingly collected and controlled by a small number of large corporations, there is a risk that these companies may become gatekeepers of personal information, with significant influence over how this information is collected, analyzed, and used.
This can have a number of negative consequences for individuals and society as a whole, including the potential for discrimination, exclusion, and exploitation.
It can also lead to a concentration of power and wealth in the hands of a small number of companies, limiting competition and innovation in the tech sector.
Given these concerns, it is clear that media platforms and practitioners must take a proactive and responsible approach to data-matching.
This includes being transparent about how personal data is collected and used, obtaining informed consent from individuals, and ensuring that data is protected and used in compliance with relevant laws and regulations.