MFN 006 Solved Free Assignment 2023
IGNOU MFN 006 Solved Free Assignment January 2023
Q 1. a) Discuss the concept and levels of health care.
Ans. Health care refers to the set of activities, services, and interventions aimed at promoting, restoring, or maintaining the health and wellbeing of individuals, families, communities, and populations.
Health care can be provided at different levels, depending on the nature and complexity of the health issue, as well as the resources available.
The levels of health care are typically divided into three broad categories: primary, secondary, and tertiary care.MFN 006 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Primary Health Care: Primary health care is the first level of contact between individuals and the health care system.
It is typically provided by primary care physicians, nurses, and other health professionals in community-based settings such as clinics, health centers, and local hospitals.
The goal of primary health care is to prevent disease, promote health, and provide early diagnosis and treatment of common illnesses and chronic conditions.
Examples of primary health care services include immunizations, health education, family planning, prenatal care, screening tests, and basic laboratory tests.
Secondary Health Care: Secondary health care refers to specialized medical services that are provided by specialists and hospitals.
These services are typically more complex and involve specialized diagnostic tests and treatments that require advanced medical technology and expertise.
Examples of secondary health care services include emergency medical care, surgical procedures, diagnostic imaging, and specialist consultations.
Secondary health care services are usually provided on referral from primary care providers.MFN 006 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Tertiary Health Care: Tertiary health care is the highest level of medical care and is provided by specialized hospitals and medical centers that have the most advanced technology and expertise.
Tertiary health care is focused on the diagnosis, treatment, and management of complex medical conditions and diseases that require highly specialized care.
Examples of tertiary health care services include organ transplantation, cancer treatment, and advanced cardiac care.
In summary, the concept of health care refers to a broad range of activities and services aimed at promoting and maintaining health.
The levels of health care refer to the different tiers of medical care, ranging from basic primary care services to specialized tertiary care.
Each level of health care is important and plays a critical role in ensuring that individuals receive the appropriate care for their specific health needs.
b) Briefly describe the health system of India at block level and village level.
Ans.India has a decentralized health care system, with health services being delivered at the national, state, district, block, and village levels.
The block level and village level are important components of India’s health system, as they provide the primary interface between the health system and the community.
At the block level, the health care system is administered by the Block Primary Health Center (PHC). MFN 006 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The Block PHC is responsible for providing primary health care services to the population in the block, which typically covers several villages.
The Block PHC is staffed by medical officers, nurses, and other health professionals who provide basic health care services such as immunization, maternal and child health care, family planning, and disease control programs.
At the village level, the health care system is administered by the Village Health and Sanitation Committee (VHSC).
The VHSC is a community-based organization that is responsible for promoting health awareness and providing basic health care services in the village.
The VHSC is composed of elected representatives from the village and is responsible for mobilizing the community for health-related activities such as immunization campaigns, health education programs, and disease control activities.
The VHSC is supported by a network of Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs), who are community health workers trained to provide basic health care services at the village level. MFN 006 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The ASHAs are responsible for identifying and referring cases of illness, conducting health education programs, and promoting health-seeking behaviors among the community members.
Overall, the health system of India at the block level and village level is aimed at providing basic health care services to the rural population.
The system is based on the principle of community participation, with the VHSC and ASHAs playing a critical role in promoting health awareness and providing basic health care services to the rural population.
However, the system is also facing several challenges such as inadequate infrastructure, shortage of health personnel, and low health literacy among the population, which need to be addressed to improve the overall health status of the rural population.MFN 006 Solved Free Assignment 2023
c) What are the determinants of food security?
Ans. Food security is defined as the state of having reliable access to sufficient quantities of safe and nutritious food to meet the dietary needs of an individual or household.
The determinants of food security can be broadly classified into five categories:
Availability: The availability of food is a key determinant of food security. This includes the physical availability of food in terms of production, distribution, and storage.
It also includes the availability of infrastructure such as transportation, storage facilities, and markets.MFN 006 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Accessibility: Accessibility refers to the ability of individuals or households to acquire food. This includes factors such as affordability, proximity, and the availability of transportation.
It also includes social and cultural factors such as food preferences and dietary practices.
Utilization: Utilization refers to the ability of individuals or households to use food effectively to meet their dietary needs.
This includes factors such as food safety, nutrition knowledge, and access to clean water and sanitation facilities.
Stability: Stability refers to the ability of individuals or households to maintain food security over time. MFN 006 Solved Free Assignment 2023
This includes factors such as the stability of food prices, the stability of food supply, and the ability to cope with shocks such as natural disasters or economic crises.
Resilience: Resilience refers to the ability of individuals or households to recover from shocks and maintain food security in the long term.
This includes factors such as the availability of social safety nets, access to credit, and the ability to diversify livelihoods.
In summary, the determinants of food security are complex and multifaceted, and are influenced by a range of economic, social, and environmental factors.
Addressing these determinants requires a comprehensive approach that includes policies and programs to improve agricultural productivity, increase access to markets, improve nutrition education and health services, and strengthen social safety nets and resilience mechanisms.
Q 2. a) Elaborate the factors which influence individual food behavior.
Ans. Individual food behavior is influenced by a wide range of factors, including:
Personal preferences: Personal preferences, such as taste and texture preferences, are important determinants of food behavior. People are more likely to consume foods that they enjoy and find appealing.MFN 006 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Cultural and social norms: Cultural and social norms play a significant role in shaping food behavior. People are influenced by the food habits and customs of their community, and often conform to the expectations of their social group.
Education and knowledge: Education and knowledge about nutrition and health can influence food behavior. People who are more knowledgeable about nutrition are more likely to make healthy food choices.
Availability and accessibility: The availability and accessibility of food can also influence food behavior. People who live in areas with limited access to healthy food options are more likely to consume unhealthy foods.
Economic status: Economic status is an important determinant of food behavior. People with higher incomes are more likely to consume a wider variety of healthy foods, while those with lower incomes may be limited to less nutritious options due to affordability.MFN 006 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Psychological factors: Psychological factors such as stress, boredom, and emotional state can also influence food behavior. People may turn to food as a source of comfort or to cope with negative emotions.
Marketing and advertising: Marketing and advertising can also influence food behavior. Food companies use persuasive advertising techniques to promote their products, which can influence people’s food choices.
In summary, individual food behavior is shaped by a complex interplay of personal, cultural, economic, and psychological factors.
Understanding these factors is essential for developing effective strategies to promote healthy eating habits and prevent diet-related diseases.
b) Briefly describe signs and symptoms of different forms of PEM.
Ans. Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is a condition that occurs when there is insufficient intake of protein and/or calories. There are two main forms of PEM: marasmus and kwashiorkor. MFN 006 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The signs and symptoms of each form of PEM are as follows:
Marasmus: This is a severe form of malnutrition that occurs when there is a prolonged deficiency of both protein and calories. The signs and symptoms of marasmus include:
➔ Severe wasting of muscle and fat tissue, resulting in a thin, emaciated appearance
➔ Sunken eyes
➔ Dry and flaky skin
➔ Brittle hair and nails
➔ Weak immune system, making the person susceptible to infections
➔ Growth retardation in children MFN 006 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Kwashiorkor: This is a form of malnutrition that occurs when there is a deficiency of protein in the diet, but with adequate calorie intake. The signs and symptoms of kwashiorkor include:
➔ Swelling of the hands, feet, and face due to fluid accumulation
➔ Skin changes, such as discoloration, peeling, or flaking
➔ Poor wound healing
➔ Loss of muscle mass
➔ Delayed growth and development in children
➔ Fatty liver, which can lead to liver failure if left untreated
In addition to these specific signs and symptoms, people with PEM may also experience general symptoms of malnutrition, such as fatigue, weakness, and susceptibility to infections.
It is important to note that the signs and symptoms of PEM can vary depending on the severity and duration of the malnutrition, as well as individual factors such as age and underlying health conditions. MFN 006 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Q 3. a) Discuss methods to prevent iron deficiency anaemia in the community.
Ans.a) Iron deficiency anaemia is a common form of anaemia that occurs when there is a lack of iron in the body. It can lead to fatigue, weakness, and impaired immune function, among other symptoms.
The following are some methods to prevent iron deficiency anaemia in the community:
Iron-rich diet: Consuming a diet that is rich in iron is the most effective way to prevent iron deficiency anaemia. Foods that are high in iron include red meat, poultry, fish, beans, lentils, tofu, and fortified cereals.
Iron supplementation: Iron supplements can be used to prevent iron deficiency anaemia in individuals who are at high risk, such as pregnant women, young children, and people with chronic diseases.
Supplementation should be done under the guidance of a healthcare professional.
Fortification: Fortification of food with iron is a cost-effective way to increase iron intake in the population. Examples of fortified foods include iron-fortified cereals and bread. MFN 006 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Health education: Educating the community about the importance of iron-rich diets and the consequences of iron deficiency anaemia can increase awareness and encourage healthy dietary practices.
Control of parasitic infections: Parasitic infections such as hookworm can cause iron deficiency anaemia. Controlling these infections through appropriate treatment and prevention measures can help prevent anaemia.
b) Discuss the economic consequences of malnutrition.
Ans. Malnutrition can have significant economic consequences, both at the individual and societal levels. Some of the economic consequences of malnutrition are as follows: MFN 006 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Reduced productivity: Malnourished individuals are more likely to experience fatigue, weakness, and impaired cognitive function, which can lead to reduced productivity at work or school.
Increased healthcare costs: Malnutrition can lead to a range of health problems, such as stunted growth, developmental delays, and chronic diseases.
These health problems can result in increased healthcare costs for individuals and the healthcare system as a whole.
Reduced economic growth: Malnutrition can have a negative impact on economic growth by reducing the productivity of the workforce and increasing healthcare costs. MFN 006 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Intergenerational effects: Malnutrition in mothers can lead to low birth weight and stunted growth in infants, which can have long-term economic consequences.
These effects can be passed down from generation to generation, perpetuating the cycle of poverty and malnutrition.
In summary, malnutrition can have significant economic consequences, both in terms of the direct costs of healthcare and the indirect costs of reduced productivity and economic growth.
Addressing malnutrition through effective prevention and treatment strategies is essential for promoting individual and societal well-being.
Q 4. a) What do you understand by demographic transition? Briefly explain the stages of demographic transition.
Ans. a) Demographic transition refers to the process of change in a population from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates, usually as a result of economic and social development. MFN 006 Solved Free Assignment 2023
This transition is typically associated with industrialization, urbanization, and improvements in healthcare, education, and living standards. The stages of demographic transition are as follows:
Stage 1: High birth and death rates. In this stage, both birth and death rates are high, resulting in a stable population size.
This is characteristic of pre-industrial societies, where limited access to healthcare and education results in high mortality rates, particularly among infants and children. MFN 006 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Stage 2: High birth rates and declining death rates. In this stage, improvements in healthcare and sanitation lead to a decline in mortality rates, particularly among infants and children.
However, birth rates remain high, resulting in a rapid increase in population size.
Stage 3: Declining birth rates and declining death rates. In this stage, improvements in healthcare, education, and economic development lead to a decline in birth rates, particularly as women gain greater access to education and employment opportunities. This results in a slower rate of population growth.
Stage 4: Low birth and death rates. In this stage, both birth and death rates are low, resulting in a stable or slowly growing population size.
This is characteristic of post-industrial societies, where access to healthcare, education, and birth control is widespread.
b) Briefly explain indirect assessment of nutritional status in community.
Ans. b) Indirect assessment of nutritional status in the community involves the use of various methods to estimate the prevalence of malnutrition without directly measuring individual nutritional status. MFN 006 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Some examples of indirect assessment methods include:
Anthropometric measurements: This involves measuring physical characteristics such as height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) to estimate nutritional status.
Anthropometric measurements can provide an indication of both acute and chronic malnutrition.
Dietary assessment: This involves assessing dietary intake using methods such as food frequency questionnaires or 24-hour recall. This can provide information on the adequacy of nutrient intake in the population.
Biochemical markers: This involves measuring biomarkers such as haemoglobin, serum ferritin, and serum albumin to assess nutritional status.
Biochemical markers can provide information on specific nutrient deficiencies, such as iron deficiency anaemia. MFN 006 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Clinical assessment: This involves assessing signs and symptoms of malnutrition, such as stunted growth, wasting, and micronutrient deficiencies, in a clinical setting.
Indirect assessment methods can be useful for estimating the prevalence of malnutrition in the population and identifying high-risk groups, but they have limitations and may not accurately reflect individual nutritional status.
Direct assessment methods, such as laboratory tests and clinical examinations, are necessary to confirm individual nutritional status.
b) Define the following:
(i) Birth and death rates
(ii) Infant mortality rate
Ans. (i) Birth and death rates refer to the number of live births and deaths, respectively, per 1,000 individuals in a population over a specified time period.
Birth rate is typically expressed as the number of live births per 1,000 individuals per year, while death rate is typically expressed as the number of deaths per 1,000 individuals per year. MFN 006 Solved Free Assignment 2023
(ii) Infant mortality rate (IMR) is the number of deaths of infants under one year of age per 1,000 live births in a population over a specified time period.
IMR is often used as an indicator of the overall health and well-being of a population, as it reflects both the quality of healthcare available to pregnant women and infants, as well as social and economic factors such as poverty, education, and access to clean water and sanitation. MFN 006 Solved Free Assignment 2023
A low IMR is generally considered an indicator of a healthy and well-functioning healthcare system, while a high IMR is a cause for concern and may indicate inadequate healthcare, poor nutrition, or other social and economic challenges.
Q 5. a) Explain the following methods for nutritional assessment:
i) Biochemical assessment
iv) Weighment method
Ans. a) The following are different methods for nutritional assessment:
i) Biochemical assessment: Biochemical assessment involves the measurement of specific biomarkers in blood, urine, or other bodily fluids to assess nutritional status.
Examples of commonly measured biomarkers include haemoglobin, serum ferritin, serum albumin, and vitamin D levels.
These biomarkers can indicate specific nutrient deficiencies or provide information about overall nutritional status. MFN 006 Solved Free Assignment 2023
ii) MUAC (Mid-Upper Arm Circumference): MUAC is a simple and non-invasive method for assessing nutritional status, particularly in children under the age of five.
It involves measuring the circumference of the mid-upper arm using a tape measure. MUAC is often used in emergency situations to quickly identify children at risk of malnutrition.
iii) Anthropometry: Anthropometry involves the measurement of physical characteristics such as height, weight, and body circumference to assess nutritional status.
Common anthropometric measures include weight-for-height, body mass index (BMI), and height-for-age. MFN 006 Solved Free Assignment 2023
These measures can provide information about both acute and chronic malnutrition.
iv) Weighment method: The weighment method involves weighing an individual to assess nutritional status.
This method can be used to estimate body weight, which can then be used to calculate other measures such as BMI or weight-for-height.
Weighment can also be used to track changes in weight over time, which can indicate changes in nutritional status. MFN 006 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Each of these methods has its strengths and limitations, and a combination of methods is often used to provide a more complete picture of nutritional status.
Biochemical assessment can provide specific information about nutrient deficiencies, while MUAC and anthropometry provide information about both acute and chronic malnutrition. Weighment is a useful tool for tracking changes in weight over time.
b) Write the unique features of NNMB.
Ans. NNMB, or the National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau, is a program that was established in India in 1972 to monitor the nutritional status of the population. Here are some unique features of NNMB:
Comprehensive coverage: NNMB covers a wide range of demographic groups, including children, pregnant women, lactating women, and adults of all ages.
Nationally representative sample: The program uses a multi-stage random sampling technique to select study participants, ensuring that the results are representative of the entire population of India. MFN 006 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Longitudinal monitoring: NNMB conducts regular surveys to monitor changes in the nutritional status of the population over time, providing important information on trends in malnutrition.
Use of both direct and indirect methods: NNMB uses a combination of direct methods, such as anthropometry and biochemical assessments, and indirect methods, such as food consumption surveys, to assess nutritional status.
This provides a more comprehensive picture of the nutritional status of the population.
Focus on micronutrient deficiencies: NNMB places particular emphasis on monitoring micronutrient deficiencies, which can have significant health implications even if they do not result in overt malnutrition.
Collaboration with other agencies: NNMB collaborates with a range of other agencies, including the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) and the World Health Organization (WHO), to ensure that its findings are widely disseminated and used to inform policies and programs aimed at improving nutrition in India.
Q 6. a) Explain the following:
i) Components of ICDS programme
ii) Programme strategy of NIPI
Ans. a) MFN 006 Solved Free Assignment 2023
i) Components of ICDS programme: ICDS, or the Integrated Child Development Services, is a flagship program of the Government of India that aims to improve the nutritional and health status of children under the age of six, as well as pregnant and lactating women. The components of ICDS program include:
Supplementary Nutrition: ICDS provides supplementary nutrition in the form of hot cooked meals and take-home rations to pregnant and lactating women, as well as children between the ages of six months and six years.
Immunization: ICDS promotes immunization by conducting regular immunization camps and ensuring that children receive all required vaccinations.
Health check-ups: ICDS provides regular health check-ups to children and pregnant and lactating women to identify health problems early on and provide appropriate treatment. MFN 006 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Referral services: ICDS provides referral services to ensure that children and women with health problems receive appropriate medical care.
Early Childhood Education: ICDS provides early childhood education to children between the ages of three and six to promote cognitive development and school readiness.
Nutrition and Health Education: ICDS conducts nutrition and health education programs for mothers and caregivers to promote optimal child development and health.
ii) Programme strategy of NIPI: NIPI, or the National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Programme, is a program of the Government of India that aims to prevent iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) through the universal salt iodization (USI) program.
The program strategy of NIPI includes the following:
Production and supply of adequately iodized salt: NIPI works to ensure that all salt produced and sold in India contains adequate levels of iodine.
Monitoring and evaluation of iodized salt production and consumption: NIPI monitors the production and consumption of iodized salt to ensure that the program is reaching its targets. MFN 006 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Awareness-raising and behavior change communication: NIPI conducts awareness-raising campaigns and behavior change communication activities to promote the use of iodized salt and raise awareness about the importance of iodine for health.
Surveillance and monitoring of IDD: NIPI conducts surveillance and monitoring of IDD to identify areas where iodine deficiency is a problem and ensure that appropriate interventions are implemented.
iii) Ariboflavinosis: Ariboflavinosis is a condition caused by a deficiency of riboflavin, also known as vitamin B2. MFN 006 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Riboflavin is an essential nutrient that is required for the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, as well as the production of energy in the body. Ariboflavinosis can cause a range of symptoms, including:
➔ Cracks and sores at the corners of the mouth
➔ Swollen and red tongue
➔ Sore throat
➔ Sensitivity to light
➔ Eye fatigue and burning
➔ Skin rash
Severe riboflavin deficiency can lead to more serious health problems, such as anemia, nervous system disorders, and cataracts.
Ariboflavinosis is most commonly seen in populations with poor diets, particularly those who consume a lot of refined grains and few fruits and vegetables.
b) Write about consequences and prevention of IDD.
Ans. IDD, or iodine deficiency disorders, are a group of health conditions that occur due to insufficient iodine intake. MFN 006 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Iodine is an essential nutrient that is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, which regulate metabolism and play a crucial role in growth and development. IDD can have significant consequences for health, including:
Goiter: Iodine deficiency can cause the thyroid gland to enlarge, leading to the formation of a goiter. A goiter can be unsightly and uncomfortable, causing difficulty swallowing or breathing.
Intellectual disability and impaired cognitive function: Severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy and early childhood can lead to irreversible damage to the developing brain, resulting in intellectual disability and impaired cognitive function.
Growth retardation: Iodine deficiency can impair growth and development, leading to stunted growth and delayed puberty. MFN 006 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Increased risk of stillbirth and infant mortality: Iodine deficiency during pregnancy can increase the risk of stillbirth, miscarriage, and infant mortality.
Prevention of IDD involves ensuring adequate intake of iodine through diet and supplementation.
The most effective strategy for preventing IDD is the universal salt iodization (USI) program, in which iodine is added to salt at the production stage.
This is a cost-effective and sustainable approach that can reach large populations. Other strategies for preventing IDD include:
Dietary diversification: Encouraging a varied and balanced diet that includes iodine-rich foods such as seafood, dairy products, and iodized salt can help prevent iodine deficiency. MFN 006 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Supplementation: Providing iodine supplements to vulnerable populations such as pregnant and lactating women and children can help prevent IDD.
Health education: Raising awareness about the importance of iodine for health and promoting the use of iodized salt can help prevent IDD.
In summary, IDD is a preventable and treatable condition that can have significant consequences for health.
Implementing effective prevention strategies, such as universal salt iodization, can ensure that populations have adequate iodine intake and avoid the negative health consequences of iodine deficiency. MFN 006 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Q 7. a) What is food fortification? Explain fortification of atta, maida and rice to combat micronutrient deficiencies.
Ans. a) Food fortification is the process of adding essential micronutrients to commonly consumed foods to improve their nutritional quality.
Fortification of atta (wheat flour), maida (refined wheat flour) and rice is an effective way to combat micronutrient deficiencies. The following are the common fortifications:
Iron and folic acid: Iron and folic acid are added to atta and maida to combat iron deficiency anemia. MFN 006 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Vitamin B12: Vitamin B12 is added to atta and maida to prevent vitamin B12 deficiency, which is common among vegetarians and vegans.
Vitamin D: Vitamin D is added to atta and rice to prevent vitamin D deficiency, which is prevalent in areas with limited sunlight exposure.
Zinc: Zinc is added to rice to combat zinc deficiency, which is prevalent in populations with low meat intake.
b) What is the importance of immunization? Briefly describe the common vaccine preventable diseases in human.
Ans b) Immunization is the process of administering vaccines to individuals to provide protection against infectious diseases.
The importance of immunization lies in its ability to prevent morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases, reduce the burden on healthcare systems, and promote overall public health. The following are some common vaccine-preventable diseases:
Measles: A highly contagious viral infection that can lead to severe complications such as pneumonia and encephalitis. MFN 006 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Polio: A viral infection that can cause paralysis and death.
Hepatitis B: A viral infection that can lead to liver cirrhosis and cancer.
Tetanus: A bacterial infection that can cause muscle stiffness and spasms, and potentially life-threatening complications.
Diphtheria: A bacterial infection that can cause severe respiratory and cardiac complications.
Pneumococcal disease: A bacterial infection that can cause pneumonia, meningitis, and sepsis.
Rotavirus: A viral infection that can cause severe diarrhea and dehydration in infants and young children.
Q 8. a) Describe the phases in planning Nutrition Education Programme.
Ans. a) Planning a Nutrition Education Programme involves several phases, including: MFN 006 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Needs assessment: This involves determining the nutritional needs of the target population, as well as identifying any barriers to achieving optimal nutrition.
Goal setting: The goals of the programme should be specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound (SMART). The goals should be based on the needs assessment.
Developing the programme: The programme should be developed based on the goals and needs of the target population.
The programme should include strategies for delivering the nutrition education, such as group sessions, individual counselling, or community events.
Implementation: The programme should be implemented according to the plan. This may involve recruiting participants, delivering the nutrition education, and monitoring progress.
Evaluation: The programme should be evaluated to determine its effectiveness in achieving the goals. Evaluation may involve measuring changes in knowledge, attitudes, behaviours, or health outcomes.
b) What are the components of communication process? Explain.
Ans b) The components of the communication process include:
Sender: The sender is the person or entity that initiates the communication. They encode the message and transmit it through a channel.
Message: The message is the information that is being communicated. It can be verbal, written, or nonverbal. MFN 006 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Channel: The channel is the medium through which the message is communicated. This can include face-to-face communication, telephone, email, social media, or other forms of media.
Receiver: The receiver is the person or entity that receives the message. They decode the message and interpret its meaning.
Feedback: Feedback is the response that the receiver provides to the sender. This can be verbal or nonverbal, and can indicate whether the message was understood or not.
Context: The context refers to the social, cultural, and environmental factors that may influence the communication process.
It can include factors such as language barriers, cultural norms, and physical barriers to communication.
Section B – OTQ (ObjectiveTypeQuestions)
Q 1. Explain the following in 2-3 sentences each:
i) Consequences of PEM
ii) Public Nutrition
iii) Targeted Public Distribution System
iv) Aim of National Nutrition Policy
Ans. i) The consequences of Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM) include stunted growth, poor cognitive development, weakened immune system, increased risk of infections, and in severe cases, death. MFN 006 Solved Free Assignment 2023
ii) Public Nutrition refers to the science and art of promoting healthy nutrition practices and preventing nutrition-related diseases at the population level through policy development, implementation, and evaluation.
iii) Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS) is a food security programme in India that provides subsidized food grains to eligible households through a network of fair price shops.
The system aims to improve the nutritional status of the poor and vulnerable sections of the society.
iv) The aim of the National Nutrition Policy is to ensure access to adequate and safe food, promote optimal infant and young child feeding practices, prevent and control malnutrition, and address the social, economic, and environmental determinants of nutrition. MFN 006 Solved Free Assignment 2023
v) Scurvy is a condition caused by the deficiency of vitamin C, which can lead to symptoms such as bleeding gums, bruising, fatigue, and joint pain.
was a common condition among sailors in the past due to the lack of fresh fruits and vegetables in their diet.
Q 2. Explain the following terms:
ii) Sex ratio
iii) Low weight-for-age
iv) 24-hour recall method
v) Community participation
Ans. i) SAM stands for Severe Acute Malnutrition, which is a life-threatening condition characterized by severe wasting, loss of muscle mass, and bilateral edema.
Children with SAM have a significantly increased risk of mortality and require urgent medical attention and therapeutic feeding.MFN 006 Solved Free Assignment 2023
ii) Sex ratio refers to the number of males per 100 females in a population. It is an important demographic indicator that provides insights into gender imbalances and social factors such as sex-selective abortion and infanticide.
iii) Low weight-for-age is a measure of chronic malnutrition or stunting, which indicates that a child is below the expected weight for their age.
It reflects long-term insufficient intake of nutrients and is associated with impaired physical and cognitive development.
iv) The 24-hour recall method is a dietary assessment tool that involves asking individuals to recall all the food and drinks they consumed in the past 24 hours.
It is a widely used method for estimating nutrient intake and identifying dietary patterns.MFN 006 Solved Free Assignment 2023
v) Community participation refers to the active involvement of community members in the planning, implementation, and evaluation of development programs.
In the context of nutrition, community participation can help to identify local nutrition-related problems, develop culturally appropriate interventions, and promote ownership and sustainability of nutrition programs.
Q 3. Match the following:
|I Oedema||A. 3Ds|
|II Pellagra||B. Kwashiorkor|
|III Weight-for-height||C. ASHAs|
|IV Height-for-age||D. Wasting|
|V NHM||E. Stunting|
Ans I. B Kwashiorkor
II. A 3Ds
III. D Wasting
IV. E Stunting
V. C ASHAs