Food Microbiology and Safety
MFN 003 Solved Free Assignment 2023
IGNOU MFN 003 Solved Free Assignment January 2023
Q 1. a) Describe the role of microorganisms in fermented foods.
Ans. a) Fermented foods are those that have undergone a transformation through the action of microorganisms.
Microorganisms, including bacteria, yeasts, and molds, play a critical role in the fermentation process, which helps to improve the nutritional value, flavor, and shelf life of food.
The microorganisms responsible for fermentation can be naturally present in the food, or they can be added deliberately in the form of starter cultures.
During the fermentation process, the microorganisms break down carbohydrates and other organic compounds in the food into simpler compounds such as lactic acid, alcohol, and acetic acid. This process can have a number of benefits, including:
Preservation of the food: The acidity and other compounds produced during fermentation can help to inhibit the growth of spoilage bacteria, making the food less likely to spoil. MFN 003 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Improved flavor and texture: The compounds produced during fermentation can give the food a unique, tangy flavor and can also contribute to a more pleasing texture.
Increased nutritional value: Fermentation can increase the bioavailability of nutrients in food, making them easier for the body to absorb.
Some examples of fermented foods include yogurt, cheese, sourdough bread, sauerkraut, kimchi, and kombucha.MFN 003 Solved Free Assignment 2023
b) What are the hazards associated with food safety. Explain by giving suitable example.
Ans. Food safety hazards refer to any biological, chemical, or physical agents present in food that can cause harm to human health.
These hazards can be introduced at any stage of the food production chain, from the farm to the table.
It is essential to understand and manage food safety hazards to ensure that the food we eat is safe and does not cause illness or disease.
Biological hazards are one of the most significant food safety hazards. These hazards include bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi that can contaminate food and cause foodborne illness. MFN 003 Solved Free Assignment 2023
One example of a foodborne illness caused by biological hazards is salmonella. This bacteria can be found in raw or undercooked chicken, eggs, and other poultry products.
If food is not handled properly or cooked thoroughly, salmonella can survive and cause illness, including diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cramps.
Chemical hazards refer to any substances that can contaminate food and cause harm to human health. MFN 003 Solved Free Assignment 2023
These hazards can include naturally occurring toxins in certain foods, such as poisonous mushrooms or seafood contaminated with harmful algae.
Chemical hazards can also be introduced into food through pesticides, cleaning agents, and other chemicals used in food production.
One example of a chemical hazard is lead contamination in food. Lead can enter the food supply through contaminated soil or water and can cause developmental delays and neurological damage in young children.
Physical hazards are any foreign objects that can contaminate food and cause harm to human health.
These hazards can include glass, metal, plastic, and other materials that can break off from food processing equipment or packaging.
One example of a physical hazard is a piece of glass in food. If a piece of glass is accidentally introduced into food during production, it can cause cuts or other injuries if ingested.MFN 003 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Q 2. a) Briefly discuss the characteristic features and reproductive process of different forms of fungi.
Ans. Fungi are a diverse group of organisms that play critical roles in ecosystems around the world.
They can take many different forms, from single-celled yeast to large, multicellular mushrooms. Despite their differences in appearance, all fungi share certain characteristic features and reproductive processes.
Characteristic Features of Fungi:
Cell Wall: Fungi have cell walls made of chitin, a strong, flexible material that provides structural support to the organism.MFN 003 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Absorptive Nutrition: Fungi are heterotrophs, meaning they obtain their nutrients from other organisms. They secrete enzymes that break down organic matter outside of their bodies and absorb the resulting nutrients.
Hyphae: Fungi grow as long, branching filaments called hyphae. These structures allow fungi to grow quickly and efficiently, exploring their environment for food.
Spores: Fungi reproduce through the production of spores. These structures are small, lightweight, and often have unique features that allow them to disperse over long distances.
Reproductive Process of Different Forms of Fungi:
Yeasts: Yeasts are single-celled fungi that reproduce asexually through a process called budding. MFN 003 Solved Free Assignment 2023
In budding, a small, new cell forms on the surface of the parent cell and eventually separates from it to become a new, independent organism.
Molds: Molds are multicellular fungi that reproduce both sexually and asexually. Asexual reproduction in molds involves the production of spores through the growth and fragmentation of hyphae.
Sexual reproduction involves the fusion of specialized cells called gametes, which eventually develop into spores.MFN 003 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Mushrooms: Mushrooms are the fruiting bodies of certain types of fungi. These organisms reproduce sexually by fusing hyphae from two different mating types.
The resulting structure is called a mushroom, which produces spores that can disperse and grow into new organisms.
b) Describe the control and destruction of microorganisms using high temperature processing.
Ans. High temperature processing is an effective method of controlling and destroying microorganisms in food and other products.
This method involves subjecting the material to high temperatures for a specified period to kill or inactivate microorganisms.
Here are some of the ways high-temperature processing can be used to control and destroy microorganisms:MFN 003 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Pasteurization: Pasteurization is a high-temperature processing method used to control microorganisms in liquids such as milk and juice.
This process involves heating the liquid to a specific temperature (usually around 71-74°C) for a set amount of time (typically 15-30 seconds) and then rapidly cooling it.
This method is effective in killing most pathogenic bacteria, yeast, and mold present in the liquid.
Sterilization: Sterilization is a high-temperature processing method used to destroy all microorganisms present in a product, including spores.
This process involves heating the material to a temperature of 121°C for a specified period (typically 15-20 minutes) to ensure complete destruction of all microorganisms. MFN 003 Solved Free Assignment 2023
This method is commonly used in the production of canned foods, pharmaceuticals, and medical equipment.
UHT (Ultra-high temperature) processing: UHT processing is a high-temperature processing method used to sterilize liquids such as milk, cream, and juice.
This process involves heating the liquid to a temperature between 135-150°C for a few seconds and then rapidly cooling it.
This method is effective in destroying all microorganisms present in the liquid, including spores, and extends the shelf life of the product.
Dry heat sterilization: Dry heat sterilization is a high-temperature processing method used to sterilize materials that are sensitive to moisture, such as powders and oils.
This process involves heating the material to a temperature between 160-180°C for a specified period to ensure complete destruction of all microorganisms.
This method is commonly used in the production of pharmaceuticals and medical equipment.MFN 003 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Q 3. a) Briefly discuss the spoilage of the following:
(i) Fruits and vegetables
(ii) Milk and milk products
Ans. (i) Spoilage of Fruits and Vegetables:
Fruits and vegetables are highly perishable and susceptible to spoilage due to their high moisture content and nutrient-rich composition.
The following are some of the factors that contribute to the spoilage of fruits and vegetables:MFN 003 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Microbial Growth: Microorganisms such as bacteria, yeasts, and molds can grow on the surface of fruits and vegetables, causing spoilage.
This can happen due to improper storage conditions, damaged skin or bruises, or contamination during harvesting or handling.
Enzymatic Browning: Enzymatic browning is a natural process that occurs when fruits and vegetables are cut or damaged.
This process is caused by the enzyme polyphenol oxidase, which reacts with oxygen to produce brown pigments and off-flavors, making the fruit or vegetable unappetizing and less nutritious.
Physiological Changes: Fruits and vegetables continue to respire after they are harvested, which can lead to the breakdown of nutrients and the accumulation of off-flavors and odors.
Ethylene gas, which is naturally produced by many fruits and vegetables, can also cause ripening and spoilage.MFN 003 Solved Free Assignment 2023
(ii) Spoilage of Milk and Milk Products:
Milk and milk products are highly perishable and can spoil quickly due to their high moisture content, nutrient-rich composition, and susceptibility to microbial growth.
The following are some of the factors that contribute to the spoilage of milk and milk products:
Microbial Growth: Microorganisms such as bacteria, yeasts, and molds can grow in milk and milk products, causing spoilage.
This can happen due to improper storage conditions, contamination during processing or handling, or the use of contaminated equipment.
Enzymatic Activity: Milk contains enzymes such as lipase and protease, which can cause spoilage if not properly controlled.
Lipase can cause rancidity in milk fat, while protease can cause the breakdown of milk proteins, resulting in off-flavors and textures.
Chemical Reactions: Milk and milk products can undergo chemical reactions that result in spoilage. For example, lactose can be converted to lactic acid by the action of bacteria, resulting in sour milk.MFN 003 Solved Free Assignment 2023
b)“Spoilage causes chemical changes in food” Justify the statement.
Ans. Spoilage of food occurs when it undergoes chemical changes due to various factors such as microbial activity, enzymatic reactions, and environmental factors.
These chemical changes alter the quality and safety of the food, making it unpalatable and sometimes harmful for consumption.
Microbial activity: Microorganisms such as bacteria, yeasts, and molds are responsible for the breakdown of carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids in food.
During this process, they release enzymes and organic acids that cause chemical changes in the food. MFN 003 Solved Free Assignment 2023
For example, bacteria can produce lactic acid during fermentation, leading to the souring of milk and other dairy products.
Enzymatic reactions: Enzymes present in food can also cause chemical changes during storage and processing.
For example, lipases present in milk can break down milk fat into free fatty acids, causing off-flavors and rancidity.
Environmental factors: Environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, and light exposure can also cause chemical changes in food.
For example, exposure to high temperatures can lead to the breakdown of vitamins and other nutrients in food. MFN 003 Solved Free Assignment 2023
All these factors contribute to the spoilage of food by causing chemical changes in its composition.
Spoilage can result in the production of off-flavors, odors, and textures, making the food unpalatable and unsafe for consumption.
c) List some common food borne intoxications in human.
Ans. Foodborne intoxication is a type of foodborne illness that occurs when a person consumes food contaminated with toxins produced by bacteria or other microorganisms.
The following are some common types of foodborne intoxications:
Botulism – caused by the toxin produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum, which can be found in improperly canned or preserved foods.
Staphylococcal food poisoning – caused by the toxin produced by Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, which can be found in foods that are handled improperly or left at room temperature for too long.MFN 003 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Bacillus cereus food poisoning – caused by the toxin produced by the bacteria Bacillus cereus, which can be found in rice, meat, and dairy products that are not stored or cooked properly.
Clostridium perfringens food poisoning – caused by the toxin produced by the bacteria Clostridium perfringens, which can be found in meat and poultry that are cooked and stored improperly.
Fish and shellfish poisoning – caused by toxins produced by certain types of marine algae, which can accumulate in fish and shellfish that feed on these algae.
Mushroom poisoning – caused by eating toxic mushrooms, which can contain various types of toxins that can cause illness or death.
Scombroid poisoning – caused by the buildup of histamine in fish that has been improperly stored or handled.MFN 003 Solved Free Assignment 2023
It is important to note that foodborne intoxications can be prevented by following proper food handling and storage practices, such as cooking food to the correct temperature, storing food at the proper temperature, and avoiding cross-contamination.
Q 4. a) Give the symptoms, food involved and preventive measures of the following
Ans. i) Aflatoxicosis:
Symptoms: Aflatoxicosis is a type of foodborne illness caused by eating food contaminated with aflatoxins, which are produced by certain molds.
The symptoms of aflatoxicosis include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, jaundice, and in severe cases, liver damage and even death.
Food involved: Aflatoxins can contaminate a variety of food products, including peanuts, corn, rice, soybeans, and spices.
The toxin can be produced when these foods are stored in warm, humid conditions or are not stored properly.MFN 003 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Preventive measures: The best way to prevent aflatoxicosis is to ensure that food is stored properly in cool, dry conditions.
This includes keeping food containers clean and dry, and avoiding storing food in areas that are humid or damp.
It is also important to buy food products from reputable sources and to check for signs of mold or spoilage before consuming.
Symptoms: Botulism is a rare but serious foodborne illness caused by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum, which produces a toxin that affects the nervous system.
Symptoms of botulism include blurred vision, difficulty swallowing, muscle weakness, and paralysis. In severe cases, botulism can be fatal.
Food involved: Botulism can be caused by eating improperly canned or preserved foods, as the bacteria can grow in low-acid environments such as canned vegetables, meat, and fish. Honey and infant formula have also been linked to cases of botulism.
Preventive measures: The best way to prevent botulism is to follow safe food preservation practices, such as canning foods properly to kill the bacteria.
This includes using a pressure canner to can low-acid foods, such as vegetables, meat, and fish. MFN 003 Solved Free Assignment 2023
It is also important to store canned goods in cool, dry conditions, and to discard any cans that are bulging or have a foul odor.
b) Explain briefly the naturally occurring toxicants in plants foods.
Ans. Naturally occurring toxicants are chemicals that are produced by plants as part of their defense mechanisms against predators and pests.
These chemicals can be present in various parts of the plant, including leaves, stems, roots, and fruits, and can cause illness or even death if consumed in large amounts.
The following are some examples of naturally occurring toxicants found in plant foods:MFN 003 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Cyanogenic glycosides: These are found in plants such as cassava, lima beans, and almonds. When consumed, cyanogenic glycosides can release hydrogen cyanide, which can cause respiratory failure and even death.
Lectins: Lectins are found in legumes such as beans, peas, and lentils. They can cause digestive issues and interfere with nutrient absorption if consumed in large amounts.
Oxalates: Oxalates are found in many leafy green vegetables, as well as rhubarb, beets, and cocoa. They can cause kidney stones and other health issues if consumed in large amounts.MFN 003 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Solanine and chaconine: These are found in potatoes and can cause digestive issues, headaches, and even death if consumed in large amounts.
Mycotoxins: These are produced by certain types of fungi that can grow on crops such as grains, nuts, and spices. They can cause liver damage, cancer, and other health issues if consumed in large amounts.
To reduce the risk of exposure to naturally occurring toxicants, it is important to consume a varied diet and avoid consuming large amounts of any one food.
Cooking and processing can also help to reduce the levels of some naturally occurring toxicants in plant foods. MFN 003 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Additionally, it is important to store and handle food properly to prevent contamination by fungi or other harmful substances.
c) Define food additives and food adulterant.
Ans. Food additives are substances that are added to food to improve its flavor, texture, appearance, or shelf life. Examples of food additives include preservatives, artificial sweeteners, coloring agents, and flavor enhancers.
Food additives undergo strict safety testing and regulation to ensure that they do not cause harm to human health when consumed in the amounts typically found in food.
On the other hand, food adulterants are substances that are added to food intentionally or unintentionally to increase the quantity, weight, or appearance of the food. MFN 003 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Adulterants can be harmful to human health and are often added to food for economic gain.
Examples of food adulterants include water, starch, chalk powder, and harmful chemicals such as lead, pesticides, and insecticides.
The addition of adulterants to food is illegal and can lead to serious health consequences.
Adulteration can also affect the nutritional quality of food, making it less nutritious and less safe to consume. MFN 003 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Food safety regulations aim to prevent food adulteration and protect consumers from harmful substances in their food.
Q 5. a) Differentiate between cleaning agents and disinfectants / sanitizers used to maintain hygiene in a food service establishment. Give appropriate examples.
Ans.Cleaning agents and disinfectants/sanitizers are both important tools for maintaining hygiene in food service establishments, but they serve different purposes.
Cleaning agents are used to remove visible dirt, grime, and debris from surfaces. They work by breaking down and loosening dirt, making it easier to wipe away.
Common examples of cleaning agents used in food service establishments include dish soap, all-purpose cleaners, and degreasers.
These agents are important for maintaining a clean and tidy environment and for preventing the buildup of bacteria and other harmful microorganisms.
Disinfectants and sanitizers, on the other hand, are used to kill harmful microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi.
They are important for preventing the spread of foodborne illnesses and for maintaining food safety. MFN 003 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Disinfectants are stronger and more potent than sanitizers, and are used to kill a wide range of microorganisms.
Sanitizers are less potent and are typically used on surfaces that come into direct contact with food.
Examples of disinfectants used in food service establishments include chlorine bleach, hydrogen peroxide, and quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs).
These agents are effective at killing a wide range of microorganisms and are used for deep cleaning and disinfection.
Examples of sanitizers used in food service establishments include quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs), chlorine, and iodine.
These agents are used to sanitize surfaces that come into direct contact with food, such as cutting boards and countertops.
It is important to use cleaning agents, disinfectants, and sanitizers correctly to ensure that they are effective in maintaining hygiene in food service establishments.
It is also important to follow food safety regulations and guidelines for the use of these agents to prevent contamination and protect public health.
b) Define the term packaging. Briefly discuss its importance in context to food quality.
Ans. Packaging refers to the materials and technology used to protect and contain products during storage, transportation, and sale.
In the context of food, packaging plays a crucial role in maintaining food quality and safety, as well as in extending the shelf life of food products.
Packaging protects food from physical, chemical, and biological contamination, as well as from exposure to light, heat, moisture, and oxygen.
It also prevents food from becoming stale or spoiling due to dehydration, oxidation, or microbial growth. MFN 003 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Additionally, packaging can enhance the appearance, flavor, and texture of food, making it more appealing and convenient to consume.
Proper packaging is essential for ensuring that food products are fresh, nutritious, and safe for consumption.
For example, the use of airtight packaging for fresh produce helps to maintain the quality of fruits and vegetables by reducing moisture loss and preventing exposure to bacteria and mold.
Similarly, packaging for meat and poultry helps to prevent the growth of harmful bacteria and extend the shelf life of these products.
Packaging also plays an important role in reducing food waste by extending the shelf life of food products and preventing spoilage.
This is particularly important in the context of global food security, where food waste is a major contributor to food shortages and hunger.
Overall, packaging is essential for maintaining food quality and safety, extending the shelf life of food products, and reducing food waste.
Advances in packaging technology and materials continue to improve the quality and safety of food products and help to address global food security challenges.
Q 6. a) Why is risk assessment important? Enumerate the four steps involved in risk assessment.
Ans. Risk assessment is an important process used to identify, evaluate, and manage potential risks associated with various hazards, including those related to food safety. MFN 003 Solved Free Assignment 2023
It is an essential tool for protecting public health, ensuring food safety, and making informed decisions about food production, processing, and distribution.
The four steps involved in risk assessment are:
Hazard Identification: This involves identifying and characterizing potential hazards that may be associated with food products, including chemical, biological, and physical hazards.
Exposure Assessment: This involves estimating the level of exposure that consumers may have to a particular hazard, based on factors such as consumption patterns, portion sizes, and the frequency of exposure.
Hazard Characterization: This involves evaluating the potential health effects of exposure to a particular hazard, based on factors such as the dose-response relationship, the mode of action of the hazard, and the susceptibility of the population.MFN 003 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Risk Characterization: This involves integrating the information obtained in the previous steps to estimate the overall risk associated with a particular hazard.
This information is used to inform risk management decisions, such as setting standards for acceptable levels of exposure or implementing control measures to reduce or eliminate the risk.
The four steps of risk assessment provide a systematic approach for identifying and evaluating potential hazards associated with food products, and for making informed decisions about how to manage these risks.
By following these steps, food safety professionals can ensure that food products are safe for consumption and that potential risks are identified and addressed in a timely and effective manner.MFN 003 Solved Free Assignment 2023
b) List and discuss some common adulterants found in food items.
Ans. Food adulteration refers to the addition of inferior, harmful, or cheaper substances to food items for the purpose of increasing its quantity or improving its appearance. Some common adulterants found in food items include:
Water: Water is a common adulterant in milk, fruit juices, and other beverages, as it is added to increase the volume of the product.
Starch: Starch is often added to food products such as spices, milk, and condiments to increase their weight and volume.
Vegetable oil: Vegetable oil is often added to edible oils such as olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil to increase their volume and profit margin.
Synthetic colors: Synthetic colors are often added to food products such as sweets, beverages, and processed foods to improve their appearance.
Melamine: Melamine is a toxic compound that is often added to milk and dairy products to increase their protein content and improve their texture.
Urea: Urea is a toxic substance that is often added to milk and dairy products to increase their protein content.MFN 003 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Lead: Lead is a toxic heavy metal that is often found in spices and food coloring agents.
Pesticides: Pesticides are often found in fruits and vegetables due to the excessive use of pesticides in agriculture.
These adulterants can have serious health consequences for consumers, including food poisoning, allergies, and long-term health problems.
To prevent food adulteration, it is important to follow good manufacturing practices, establish quality control measures, and enforce food safety regulations.
Consumers can also protect themselves by buying food products from trusted sources and being vigilant about any unusual odors, colors, or textures in the food they consume.MFN 003 Solved Free Assignment 2023
c) Give functions and examples of emulsifying and anti-caking agents as food additive.
Ans. Emulsifying agents are food additives that help to stabilize mixtures of immiscible liquids, such as oil and water.
They work by forming a protective layer around droplets of oil or fat, which prevents them from coalescing and separating from the rest of the mixture. Some common emulsifying agents used in food products include:
Lecithin: This is a naturally occurring emulsifier found in egg yolks, soybeans, and other plant and animal sources.MFN 003 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Mono- and Diglycerides: These are synthetic emulsifiers that are often used in baked goods, ice cream, and other processed foods.
Polysorbates: These are synthetic emulsifiers that are often used in salad dressings, sauces, and other liquid food products.
Anti-caking agents are food additives that help to prevent clumping or caking of powders or granular substances, such as salt, sugar, and spices.
They work by absorbing moisture and preventing particles from sticking together. Some common anti-caking agents used in food products include:
Silicon Dioxide: This is a naturally occurring anti-caking agent that is often added to salt, baking powder, and other dry food products.
Calcium Silicate: This is a synthetic anti-caking agent that is often added to powdered sugar, grated cheese, and other dry food products.
Magnesium Carbonate: This is a synthetic anti-caking agent that is often added to cocoa powder, spice blends, and other dry food products.
Emulsifying and anti-caking agents are important food additives that help to improve the quality and shelf life of many food products.
They are carefully regulated and must be used in accordance with strict safety guidelines to ensure that they do not pose any health risks to consumers.
Q 7. a) Explain briefly use of plastic and flexible films made from non-fibrous plastic polymers in food packaging.
Ans. Plastic and flexible films made from non-fibrous plastic polymers are commonly used in food packaging due to their versatility, durability, and cost-effectiveness.
These materials can be molded into a variety of shapes and sizes to accommodate different types of food products, and they provide a barrier against moisture, gases, and other environmental factors that can degrade food quality.
One of the main advantages of plastic and flexible films is their ability to prolong the shelf life of food products. MFN 003 Solved Free Assignment 2023
By creating a barrier against oxygen and other contaminants, they help to prevent spoilage and extend the freshness of perishable foods such as meat, dairy products, and produce.
They also help to prevent food waste by reducing the amount of food that needs to be discarded due to spoilage or contamination.
In addition to their functional benefits, plastic and flexible films are also lightweight and easy to transport, which helps to reduce shipping costs and minimize the carbon footprint of the food packaging industry.
They are also customizable and can be printed with logos, nutritional information, and other branding elements to enhance the visual appeal of food products and help consumers make informed purchasing decisions.
However, there are concerns about the environmental impact of plastic and flexible films, as they are not biodegradable and can accumulate in landfills and oceans, causing harm to wildlife and ecosystems.
To address these concerns, efforts are being made to develop more sustainable packaging alternatives, such as biodegradable plastics and compostable materials made from renewable resources.MFN 003 Solved Free Assignment 2023
b) What is food labeling? Write its requirements and bar coding in detail.
Ans. Food labeling is the practice of providing information about food products to consumers through the use of packaging, labels, and other forms of communication.
The purpose of food labeling is to provide consumers with clear and accurate information about the contents of the food product, its nutritional value, and any potential health risks associated with its consumption.
The requirements for food labeling vary depending on the country and region in which the food product is sold. However, in general, food labeling must include the following information:MFN 003 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Product name: The name of the food product should be clear and accurate, and should not be misleading in any way.
Ingredient list: The ingredients used to make the food product must be listed in descending order of weight, with the most predominant ingredient listed first.
Net weight: The net weight or volume of the food product must be clearly stated on the label.
Nutrition information: The nutrition information must be provided on the label, including the amount of calories, fat, carbohydrates, protein, vitamins, and minerals in the product.MFN 003 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Allergen information: Any potential allergens used in the food product must be clearly labeled on the packaging.
Country of origin: The country of origin of the food product must be clearly stated on the label.
In addition to these requirements, many food products are also labeled with a bar code. The bar code is a unique identifier that allows retailers to track inventory and sales data for each individual product.
The bar code is typically printed on the packaging using a machine-readable format, such as a series of black and white lines or a QR code.
Bar coding provides several benefits for food manufacturers and retailers, including increased efficiency and accuracy in inventory management, improved supply chain visibility, and enhanced customer service through faster and more accurate checkout processes. MFN 003 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Additionally, bar coding can be used to provide consumers with additional information about the food product, such as recipes, nutritional information, and promotional offers.
Q 8. a) What do you understand by the term HACCP? Discuss its significance.
Ans. HACCP stands for Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points. It is a systematic approach to food safety management that aims to identify, evaluate, and control potential hazards in the food production process.
The HACCP system is based on seven principles that provide a framework for food safety management:MFN 003 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Conduct a hazard analysis: Identify potential hazards in the food production process.
Determine the critical control points (CCPs): Identify the points in the process where hazards can be controlled or eliminated.
Establish critical limits: Set specific criteria for controlling each CCP.
Establish monitoring procedures: Develop procedures for monitoring CCPs to ensure that critical limits are met.
Establish corrective actions: Develop procedures for addressing deviations from critical limits.
Establish verification procedures: Develop procedures for verifying that the HACCP system is working effectively.MFN 003 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Establish record-keeping and documentation procedures: Keep records of the HACCP system and its implementation.
The significance of HACCP lies in its ability to ensure the safety and quality of food products.
By identifying potential hazards and implementing control measures at critical points in the production process, HACCP helps to prevent contamination, reduce the risk of foodborne illness, and improve the overall safety and quality of food products.
HACCP also helps to improve efficiency and reduce waste in the food production process, as well as enhance consumer confidence in food safety.
HACCP is widely used in the food industry and is required by law in many countries for certain types of food products, such as meat and dairy products.
b) Briefly discuss the role of the following in the area of food safety.
i) World Trade Organization
Ans. i) World Trade Organization (WTO): The WTO plays an important role in ensuring food safety by promoting international trade of safe and high-quality food products. MFN 003 Solved Free Assignment 2023
It does this by enforcing international agreements on food safety standards and by resolving disputes related to food safety between member countries.
ii) International Organization for Standardization (ISO): The ISO develops and publishes international standards for various aspects of food safety, such as food hygiene, food safety management systems, and food labeling.
These standards help to ensure that food products are safe and of high quality, and provide a framework for food safety management.
iii) Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO): The FAO and WHO work together to promote food safety and prevent foodborne illnesses. MFN 003 Solved Free Assignment 2023
They provide guidance to member countries on food safety issues, develop international food safety standards, and monitor global trends in food safety.
The FAO and WHO also collaborate on research and development of new technologies and methods to improve food safety.
Section B – OTQ (ObjectiveTypeQuestions)
Q 1. Explain the following briefly in 2-3 sentences each:
i) Genetically modified foods
ii) Water Activity
iv) Temperature danger zone
v) Modified Atmospheric Packaging
vi) Chemical changes in fish
ix) Coextruded films
x) Personal hygiene
Ans. i) Genetically modified foods refer to plants or animals that have had their DNA modified in a laboratory to enhance certain traits, such as resistance to pests or increased nutritional value.MFN 003 Solved Free Assignment 2023
ii) Water Activity (Aw) is the measure of the amount of moisture available for microbial growth in a food product. It is a key factor in determining the shelf life of a food product.
iii) Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that can be found everywhere in the environment. While many types of bacteria are harmless or even beneficial, some can cause foodborne illnesses.
iv) Temperature danger zone refers to the temperature range between 5°C and 60°C, which is ideal for the growth of bacteria that can cause foodborne illness. Food should not be kept at this temperature range for more than 4 hours.
MFN 003 Solved Free Assignment 2023
vi) Chemical changes in fish can occur as a result of spoilage or degradation of proteins and lipids. This can lead to off-flavors and odors, as well as potentially harmful substances such as histamines.
vii) Shigellosis is a type of foodborne illness caused by the bacteria Shigella, which can be found in contaminated food or water. Symptoms include diarrhea, fever, and abdominal pain.
viii) Lathyrism is a disease caused by consuming high levels of the toxin beta-ODAP found in certain types of legumes, such as the grass pea. Symptoms include paralysis and other neurological problems.
ix) Coextruded films are multi-layer films made by extruding two or more layers of different polymers together. These films are used in food packaging to provide a barrier against oxygen, moisture, and other contaminants.
x) Personal hygiene refers to the practices individuals use to maintain cleanliness and prevent the spread of harmful bacteria or other microorganisms.
This can include washing hands regularly, wearing clean clothing, and maintaining a clean work environment.MFN 003 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Q 2. Describe the relationship between the following sets of terms
i) Lathyrism and Food adulteration
ii) Nitrogen and Gas packaging
iii) Moisture and Food spoilage
iv) Heavymetals and food contamination
v) Infective hepatitis and Oral Faecal Route
Ans. i) Lathyrism is a disease caused by consuming high levels of the toxin beta-ODAP found in certain types of legumes, such as the grass pea.
Food adulteration, on the other hand, refers to the intentional addition of harmful or inferior substances to food.
While lathyrism can result from consuming contaminated legumes, it is not directly related to food adulteration.MFN 003 Solved Free Assignment 2023
ii) Nitrogen is a gas commonly used in gas packaging, a technique used in food packaging that involves modifying the atmosphere inside a package to extend the shelf life of the product.
Nitrogen gas is often used to replace oxygen in the package, which can help slow down the growth of bacteria that can cause spoilage.
iii) Moisture is a key factor in food spoilage, as it provides a favorable environment for the growth of microorganisms that can cause spoilage or foodborne illness. Foods with high moisture content are particularly susceptible to spoilage.
iv) Heavy metals such as lead, mercury, and cadmium can contaminate food through environmental pollution, agricultural practices, or food processing.
Consuming food contaminated with heavy metals can lead to serious health problems, including neurological damage, kidney damage, and cancer.
v) Infective hepatitis is a type of liver infection caused by a virus. It can be transmitted through various routes, including the oral-fecal route, which refers to the ingestion of fecal matter containing the virus.
This can occur through contaminated food or water, particularly in areas with poor sanitation.MFN 003 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Q 3. Match the following:
|A Sudan III
|II Non-permitted colour
|III Blast freezing
|C Liquid nitrogen (-196ºC)
|IV Paper packaging
|D Stream of cold air (-40ºC or lower)
|V Cryogenic freezing
Ans I. E Chicory
II. A Sudan III
III. D Stream of cold air (-40ºC or lower)
IV. B Glassine
V. C Liquid nitrogen (-196ºC)