MEG – 13
WRITINGS FROM THE MARGINS
MEG 13 Solved Free Assignment 2023
IGNOU MEG 13 Solved Free Assignment January 2023
Q 1. Write short notes on :
a) Tribal Worldview
Ans. The tribal worldview refers to the way of life, belief systems, and cultural practices of indigenous or native communities across the world.
This worldview is shaped by the unique experiences, histories, and environments of these communities and is often distinct from the dominant cultures of the societies in which they exist.
Here are some of the key features of the tribal worldview:
Connection to the land: One of the defining features of the tribal worldview is the strong connection that these communities have to the land and natural environment. MEG 13 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Many tribal cultures view the land as a living entity, with its own consciousness and spiritual power.
This connection is reflected in their cultural practices, such as hunting, fishing, agriculture, and gathering, which are often deeply intertwined with the natural cycles of the environment.
Community-based values: Tribal cultures tend to place a strong emphasis on community-based values, such as cooperation, mutual support, and sharing.
These values are reflected in their social structures, which often prioritize the collective well-being over individual gain.
Tribal communities tend to be highly interdependent, with each member of the community playing a unique role in maintaining the social and cultural fabric of the community.MEG 13 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Oral traditions: Many tribal cultures have a rich tradition of oral storytelling, which is used to pass down cultural knowledge, history, and traditions from one generation to the next.
These stories often incorporate elements of myth, legend, and spirituality, and are used to reinforce cultural values and practices.
Spirituality and animism: Many tribal cultures have a deep spirituality that is often rooted in animism, the belief that all living things, including animals, plants, and even inanimate objects, have a spiritual essence or soul.
This spiritual worldview is reflected in their cultural practices, such as rituals and ceremonies that honor the natural world and its spirits.
Respect for ancestors: Tribal cultures often place a great deal of importance on the role of ancestors in their cultural identity and worldview.
Ancestors are viewed as powerful spiritual forces that can influence the lives of the living, and are often honored through rituals and ceremonies that seek to connect with their wisdom and guidance.MEG 13 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Sustainability: Tribal cultures often have a deep respect for the natural environment and strive to live in harmony with it.
This means living sustainably, taking only what is needed from the environment and using resources in a responsible and respectful way.
While the tribal worldview is often associated with indigenous or native communities, it is important to note that it is not a monolithic or homogeneous concept.
Tribal cultures vary widely in their beliefs, practices, and worldviews, and each community has its own unique history, experiences, and cultural traditions.
Despite the diversity of tribal cultures, there are some common themes that are shared across many communities. MEG 13 Solved Free Assignment 2023
For example, many tribal cultures have a deep respect for the natural environment and a commitment to living sustainably.
This commitment is reflected in their cultural practices, such as hunting and gathering, which prioritize the responsible use of natural resources.
Another common theme is the importance of community-based values, such as cooperation, mutual support, and sharing.
These values are often reflected in the social structures of tribal communities, which prioritize the collective well-being over individual gain.
The tribal worldview has faced significant challenges in the modern era, as many indigenous and native communities have been forced to adapt to the dominant cultures and economic systems of the societies in which they exist.
This has often led to the loss of cultural traditions and practices, as well as the displacement and marginalization of tribal communities.
However, many indigenous and native communities continue to preserve and celebrate their cultural heritage, and are working to promote the values of the tribal worldview in modern society.MEG 13 Solved Free Assignment 2023
b) Dalit Autobiography
Ans. B) Dalit autobiographies refer to the life stories and experiences of individuals from the Dalit community, which is an umbrella term used to refer to the so-called “untouchable” castes in India.
These autobiographies are a powerful tool for understanding the lived experiences of Dalits in India and the systemic discrimination and oppression they face on a daily basis. Here are some of the key features of Dalit autobiography:
Lived experiences of oppression: Dalit autobiographies often center around the experiences of caste-based discrimination, violence, and oppression that Dalits face in Indian society. MEG 13 Solved Free Assignment 2023
These experiences include being subjected to social and economic exclusion, physical and sexual violence, and discrimination in education, employment, and access to basic services.
Resistance and resilience: Despite the systemic discrimination and oppression they face, many Dalit autobiographies also highlight the ways in which Dalits have resisted and overcome these challenges.
This resistance takes many forms, from individual acts of defiance to collective movements for social and political change.
Through their narratives, Dalit autobiographers often seek to challenge dominant narratives of victimhood and helplessness, and assert their agency and resilience in the face of adversity.MEG 13 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Intersectionality: Many Dalit autobiographies also explore the intersections between caste, gender, and other forms of oppression, such as class, religion, and ethnicity.
These intersections are often a source of multiple forms of discrimination and violence, and Dalit autobiographies provide a platform for exploring these complex experiences and identities.
Political and social commentary: Dalit autobiographies are not only personal stories, but also political and social commentaries on the state of Indian society and its systemic inequalities.
Through their narratives, Dalit autobiographers challenge dominant narratives of caste and class, and advocate for social and political change.
Writing as an act of resistance: Writing and publishing Dalit autobiographies is also an act of resistance in itself. MEG 13 Solved Free Assignment 2023
For many Dalits, writing their life stories is a way to challenge the dominant narrative of caste-based inequality, and assert their right to self-expression and representation.
By sharing their stories with a wider audience, Dalit autobiographers hope to raise awareness about the realities of caste-based oppression and inspire social and political change.
Empowerment: For many Dalit autobiographers, writing their life stories is also a means of empowerment. MEG 13 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Through their narratives, they reclaim their identity and agency, and challenge the stigmatization and marginalization that they have faced in Indian society.
Dalit autobiographies provide a space for Dalits to share their experiences, articulate their aspirations, and assert their humanity in a society that has long denied them these basic rights.
Some notable examples of Dalit autobiography include “Joothan” by Omprakash Valmiki, “Ants Among Elephants” by Sujatha Gidla, and “My Father Baliah” by Y.B. Satyanarayana.
These autobiographies offer powerful insights into the lived experiences of Dalits in India, and provide a platform for challenging dominant narratives of caste-based inequality and oppression.MEG 13 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Q 2. Analyse the plot of the play Budhan.
Ans. Budhan is a play written by Dr. Mahesh Elkunchwar, a prominent Indian playwright and theatre director.
The play is set in a small village in Maharashtra, India, and explores the themes of caste, social inequality, and the impact of modernization on traditional rural communities.
The play centers around the character of Budhan, a Dalit farmer who becomes the victim of a violent feud between the upper-caste and Dalit communities in his village. Here is a detailed analysis of the plot of the play Budhan:
Act I: MEG 13 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The play begins with a scene in which the village elders are gathered to discuss the issue of water scarcity in the village.
The discussion soon turns to the issue of caste, and the tensions between the upper-caste and Dalit communities in the village.
The upper-caste elders express their disdain for the Dalit community, while the Dalit elders argue for equal rights and access to resources.
Budhan, a Dalit farmer, listens to the conversation silently, but it is clear that he is deeply affected by the discrimination and inequality that he and his community face.
The next scene introduces the character of Jaisingh, an upper-caste landowner who is involved in a violent feud with the Dalit community.
Jaisingh’s son, Vikram, has been killed in a dispute with Budhan’s brother, and Jaisingh is seeking revenge. MEG 13 Solved Free Assignment 2023
He enlists the help of a local thug, Bhaiya, to kidnap Budhan and his wife, Jija, in order to extract information about Budhan’s brother’s whereabouts.
In Act II, Budhan and Jija are shown to be in captivity in a dark and dingy room, where they are subjected to physical and emotional abuse by Bhaiya and his accomplices.
Meanwhile, the rest of the village is unaware of their whereabouts, and the Dalit community is forced to pay a hefty ransom to secure their release.
Budhan is tortured and threatened with death if he does not reveal the whereabouts of his brother. MEG 13 Solved Free Assignment 2023
However, Budhan remains steadfast and refuses to betray his brother, despite the physical and emotional toll that the torture is taking on him.
The final act of the play takes place in a courtroom, where Budhan is on trial for the murder of Jaisingh’s son, Vikram.
Despite the lack of evidence against him, Budhan is found guilty by the biased judge and sentenced to death.
As he awaits his execution, Budhan is visited by a series of characters from his past, including his mother, his wife, and his fellow Dalits.
Through these encounters, Budhan reflects on the injustices and discrimination that he has faced throughout his life, and on the social and economic factors that have led to his current predicament. MEG 13 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The play concludes with Budhan being led to his execution, while the rest of the village looks on in silence.
As he faces his imminent death, Budhan reflects on the futility of violence and the need for social and economic justice for all communities, regardless of their caste or social status.
The play Budhan is a scathing critique of the caste system and the social injustices that arise from it.
The character of Budhan represents the struggles of the Dalit community in India, and the play serves as a commentary on the marginalization and exploitation that this community continues to face in contemporary India.
Throughout the play, Budhan is portrayed as a resilient and dignified character who refuses to bow down to the oppressors, despite the brutal torture that he is subjected to. MEG 13 Solved Free Assignment 2023
His unwavering commitment to his principles and his unwavering faith in the justice system are a testament to the strength of the human spirit in the face of adversity.
The play also exposes the corrupt and biased nature of the Indian justice system, which is shown to be heavily influenced by the caste system and the interests of the powerful landowning classes.
The judge who presides over Budhan’s trial is depicted as a prejudiced and narrow-minded individual who is more concerned with maintaining the status quo than with dispensing justice.MEG 13 Solved Free Assignment 2023
At its core, Budhan is a play that confronts the harsh realities of caste-based discrimination in India, and highlights the urgent need for social and economic justice for all communities, regardless of their caste or social status.
The play is a powerful reminder of the continued struggles of the Dalit community in India, and of the need for a more just and equitable society.
Q 3. Discuss some of the important issues taken up in the novel Mother Forest: The Unfinished Story of C. K. Janu.
Ans. Mother Forest: The Unfinished Story of C.K. Janu is a powerful and thought-provoking novel that explores a wide range of important issues related to the struggles of marginalized communities in India.
The novel is based on the life and experiences of C.K. Janu, a prominent tribal activist and leader in the state of Kerala, and provides a powerful insight into the challenges and struggles faced by the Adivasi community in India.
One of the most important issues taken up in the novel is the ongoing struggle of the Adivasi community for land rights and the protection of their traditional lands and forests. MEG 13 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The novel highlights the long history of dispossession and marginalization faced by the Adivasi communities in India, and the ways in which they have been systematically excluded from decision-making processes related to the use and management of natural resources.
Through the character of C.K. Janu, the novel provides a vivid and moving account of the struggles of the Adivasi community to protect their land and natural resources from exploitation by the state and powerful corporations.
Another important issue taken up in the novel is the impact of globalization and neoliberal economic policies on the lives and livelihoods of marginalized communities in India.
The novel highlights the ways in which globalization has led to the displacement of traditional communities and the loss of cultural and ecological diversity.
The novel also explores the challenges faced by marginalized communities in accessing education, healthcare, and other basic services, and the ways in which these services are often structured in ways that exclude or disadvantage these communities.MEG 13 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The novel also takes up the issue of gender inequality and violence against women, particularly within the Adivasi community.
The character of C.K. Janu is shown to be a fierce advocate for women’s rights, and the novel highlights the ways in which traditional patriarchal norms and practices continue to limit the opportunities and freedoms of women in the Adivasi community.
The novel also explores the impact of violence against women, including sexual violence, on women’s lives and the ways in which these issues are often ignored or downplayed by the larger society.MEG 13 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Another important issue taken up in the novel is the role of civil society and social movements in promoting social justice and change.
Through the character of C.K. Janu, the novel explores the ways in which grassroots movements and civil society organizations have played a crucial role in promoting the rights and welfare of marginalized communities in India.
The novel also highlights the challenges faced by activists and social movements in the face of state repression and violence, and the ways in which these challenges can be overcome through collective action and solidarity.
Finally, the novel also takes up the issue of the intersectionality of oppression, and the ways in which various forms of discrimination and marginalization intersect and reinforce each other. MEG 13 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Through the character of C.K. Janu, the novel explores the ways in which the struggles of the Adivasi community are interconnected with struggles for gender equality, environmental justice, and the rights of other marginalized communities, such as Dalits and Muslims.
The novel emphasizes the importance of recognizing and addressing the multiple and intersecting forms of oppression faced by marginalized communities, and the need for collective action and solidarity in achieving social justice and change.
Social and political issues affect everyone: While some may try to distance themselves from social and political issues, the truth is that these issues impact everyone in some way or another.
Whether it’s access to healthcare, education, or basic human rights, social and political issues have a direct impact on our daily lives.
They shape our society and culture: Social and political issues play a crucial role in shaping our society and culture. The way we approach issues such as diversity, equality, and justice can impact how we view ourselves and others.
By discussing and addressing these issues, we can work towards creating a more inclusive and equitable society.MEG 13 Solved Free Assignment 2023
They help identify areas of improvement: By discussing social and political issues, we can identify areas of improvement and work towards finding solutions.
This can include issues such as poverty, inequality, and discrimination, which can be addressed through policy changes, advocacy, and community action.
They can spark positive change: Social and political issues can be the catalyst for positive change. When people come together to address a common issue, they can create powerful movements that lead to real change.
History has shown us that social and political movements can have a lasting impact on society and can help bring about significant progress.
They encourage critical thinking: Discussing social and political issues encourages critical thinking and helps us develop a deeper understanding of complex issues.
By listening to different perspectives and considering various viewpoints, we can expand our knowledge and become more informed and engaged citizens.
They promote empathy and understanding: Discussing social and political issues can help promote empathy and understanding for those who are different from us.
By listening to different perspectives and learning about the experiences of others, we can develop a greater sense of empathy and understanding for those who have been marginalized or oppressed.MEG 13 Solved Free Assignment 2023
They help hold those in power accountable: Social and political issues play an important role in holding those in power accountable.
By speaking out against injustice and advocating for change, we can push for policies and practices that are more equitable and just. This helps ensure that those in power are held accountable for their actions and decisions.
Q 4. Critically analyse the poem ‘Naked Truths.’
Ans. ‘Naked Truths’ is a poem by Pakistani-American poet and activist Fatimah Asghar that explores themes of identity, truth, and power dynamics.
Through vivid imagery and powerful metaphors, Asghar challenges readers to confront uncomfortable truths and question the systems that uphold them.
The poem begins with the lines “If you want to know the naked truth / forget the church / forget the mosque / forget the temple / remember what happens / between the thighs.” MEG 13 Solved Free Assignment 2023
These lines immediately challenge the traditional power structures and institutions that often claim to hold the truth.
Asghar suggests that the “naked truth” lies not in religious institutions, but in the human body and experience.
Throughout the poem, Asghar uses vivid imagery and metaphors to explore the complexities of identity and truth.
For example, she writes “truth is a cave in the desert / it is a darkness so immense / you can swim inside it.”
This metaphor suggests that truth can be both elusive and all-encompassing, and that it can be difficult to fully understand or access.
Asghar also uses imagery related to the body to explore the theme of truth. In one stanza, she writes “the truth is a bad smelling swamp / it is a burp in the middle of a good kiss / it is a rattle in your mother’s chest / it is the sound of a father being beaten / it is the silence of a sister holding her breath.”
These images suggest that truth can be uncomfortable and even painful, and that it can be found in the visceral, embodied experiences of individuals.
The poem also explores the ways in which power dynamics shape truth and identity. Asghar writes, “the truth is a scar that whispers / it is a scream that tells you to keep quiet / it is the ache in your back from being bent / it is the way your mother cried when your uncle touched you.” MEG 13 Solved Free Assignment 2023
These lines suggest that truth can be silenced or distorted by those in power, particularly in cases of abuse and trauma.
Asghar further explores the relationship between power and truth in the lines “the truth is a palace built for one / it is a kingdom you’ve never lived in / it is the white of your mother’s lies / it is a country where everyone is a soldier.”
These lines suggest that truth can be used as a tool of oppression, particularly in contexts where power is consolidated in the hands of a few.
The final lines of the poem, “the truth is a hyena that laughs / it is the barricades between your heart and your mind / it is the chamber that holds your own gun / and it is firing,” suggest that truth can be a weapon, particularly for those who have been oppressed or marginalized. MEG 13 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Asghar implies that by acknowledging and confronting uncomfortable truths, individuals can reclaim power and take control of their own lives and narratives.
Overall, ‘Naked Truths’ is a powerful and provocative poem that explores the complexities of identity, truth, and power dynamics.
Through vivid imagery and metaphor, Asghar challenges readers to confront uncomfortable truths and question the systems that uphold them.
She suggests that truth can be elusive and painful, but that it can also be a tool for empowerment and resistance.
As such, the poem is a powerful call to action for individuals to reclaim their own narratives and take control of their own truths.
In addition to its exploration of truth and power dynamics, ‘Naked Truths’ also contains themes of trauma and healing.
Asghar writes “the truth is a rib that never healed right / it is the bruise on your father’s cheek / it is the scratch on your lover’s back / it is the ring of white around your mother’s eyes.” MEG 13 Solved Free Assignment 2023
These lines suggest that truth can be linked to pain and trauma, but they also imply the potential for healing through acknowledgment and confronting uncomfortable truths.
The poem also challenges conventional notions of beauty and gender norms. Asghar writes “the truth is the way we fall asleep / it is the way we fall apart / it is the way we fall for our own lies / it is the way we heal / it is the way we love.”
These lines suggest that beauty and truth can be found in vulnerability and imperfection, rather than in conformity to societal norms and expectations.
Asghar’s use of metaphor and imagery also contributes to the emotional impact of the poem.
For example, in one stanza she writes “the truth is a woman bending over a pot / it is a man’s body hanging from a tree / it is the feeling of being alone / it is a hug that never comes.” MEG 13 Solved Free Assignment 2023
These images convey a sense of despair and hopelessness, but they also suggest the possibility of connection and empathy as paths towards healing.
Another notable aspect of ‘Naked Truths’ is the way in which Asghar uses language and form to convey meaning.
The poem is structured in free verse, with irregular line lengths and breaks. This form allows for a sense of fluidity and freedom, which mirrors the themes of individuality and personal truth that are explored in the poem.
Additionally, Asghar’s use of repetition and parallelism contributes to the poem’s impact. For example, she repeats the phrase “the truth is” throughout the poem, which creates a sense of urgency and insistence.
Similarly, the parallel structure of the final lines, “it is the chamber that holds your own gun / and it is firing,” creates a sense of momentum and action.
Q 5. Discuss the novel Changia Rukh: Against the Night as a Bildungsroman.
Ans. Changia Rukh: Against the Night, written by Saadat Hasan Manto, is a novel that portrays the coming-of-age of its protagonist, Changia Rukh.
The novel follows the journey of Changia from his childhood to his adulthood, as he navigates the complex societal and political issues that are prevalent during his time.
The novel is set in the pre-partition era of India and Pakistan, during a time when the country was undergoing significant political and social changes.
Changia Rukh is born in a poor family in Amritsar, where he is raised by his mother and grandmother. From a young age, he is exposed to the harsh realities of poverty, which shapes his worldview and compels him to strive for a better life.
In this sense, Changia Rukh can be seen as an archetypical Bildungsroman protagonist, whose early struggles contribute to his development as a character.
As Changia grows up, he becomes increasingly aware of the social and political issues that are prevalent in his society. MEG 13 Solved Free Assignment 2023
He witnesses the oppression of the working class, the discrimination faced by the marginalized, and the corruption and greed of those in positions of power.
Changia’s growing awareness of these issues represents the first stage of the Bildungsroman, known as the “call to adventure,” where the protagonist is called to confront the challenges of the world.
Changia’s journey is further complicated by his own personal struggles, such as his unrequited love for his childhood friend, Rasheedan.
Changia’s inability to express his feelings to Rasheedan represents his emotional immaturity, which he must overcome in order to develop into a mature individual.
This aspect of the novel aligns with the Bildungsroman trope of the “romantic subplot,” where the protagonist’s emotional growth is intertwined with their personal relationships.MEG 13 Solved Free Assignment 2023
As the novel progresses, Changia’s political consciousness develops and he becomes increasingly involved in the nationalist movement, which seeks to unite India against colonial rule.
Changia’s participation in the movement reflects the Bildungsroman trope of the “hero’s journey,” where the protagonist undertakes a quest or adventure in pursuit of their goals.
Through his participation in the nationalist movement, Changia gains a sense of purpose and direction, which helps him overcome his personal struggles and grow as a character.
Changia’s development as a character is further reinforced by his encounters with other characters in the novel, such as his mentor, Mahatma Gandhi.
Changia’s interactions with Gandhi represent the “wise old mentor” trope of the Bildungsroman, where the protagonist receives guidance and advice from a more experienced individual. MEG 13 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Gandhi’s teachings inspire Changia to become a more compassionate and empathetic person, which contributes to his personal growth.
The novel also explores the theme of identity, as Changia struggles to reconcile his Punjabi and Muslim identities in a society that is becoming increasingly divided along religious lines.
Changia’s identity crisis represents the “existential crisis” trope of the Bildungsroman, where the protagonist must confront questions of meaning and purpose in their life.
Changia’s journey towards reconciling his identity reflects his emotional and moral growth as a character.
Furthermore, the novel highlights the importance of family, community, and cultural heritage in shaping one’s identity and values.
Despite facing discrimination and marginalization, Changia finds strength and pride in his ancestral traditions and beliefs. MEG 13 Solved Free Assignment 2023
His connection to his family and community gives him a sense of belonging and purpose, even as he struggles with the challenges of growing up and finding his place in the world.
The novel also portrays the impact of political and social upheaval on ordinary people’s lives.
Changia and his family are caught up in the violence and turmoil of partition and the aftermath, which uproots them from their homeland and forces them to start anew in a hostile environment.
The novel shows the harsh realities of displacement, poverty, and discrimination faced by many refugees, and the ways in which they resist and survive through collective action and solidarity.MEG 13 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Another important aspect of the novel is its depiction of the role of education in personal and social transformation.
Changia’s journey is not just about his individual growth but also about his engagement with broader issues of social justice and liberation.
He learns to question authority, challenge stereotypes, and fight against oppression and exploitation.
The novel shows how education can empower people to think critically, imagine new possibilities, and work towards a better future.
Overall, “Changia Rukh: Against the Night” is a powerful and inspiring Bildungsroman that captures the struggles and aspirations of a young man trying to find his place in a complex and challenging world.
It celebrates the richness and diversity of Indian culture and the resilience and creativity of ordinary people in the face of adversity.
The novel invites readers to reflect on their own journeys of self-discovery and social transformation and to join in the struggle for justice and equality.