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INDIAN ENGLISH LITERATURE

MEG 07 Solved Free Assignment 2023

IGNOU MEG 07 Solved Free Assignment January 2023

Q 1. Write short note on:

a) Forms of Prose

Ans. Prose is a form of written or spoken language that is not organized according to the formal patterns of verse or meter.

In literature, prose is the most common form of writing, and it can take many different forms. Here are some of the most common forms of prose in literature:

Fiction: Fiction is a form of prose that tells a story. It can be further divided into various subgenres, such as novel, novella, short story, and flash fiction.

Fictional prose typically features characters, settings, and a plot that unfolds over time.MEG 07 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Non-fiction: Non-fiction is prose that is based on real-life events, facts, and information. It can take many different forms, such as memoir, autobiography, biography, essay, and journalistic writing.

Non-fictional prose is typically focused on presenting information or arguing a point, rather than telling a story.

Poetry in prose: Poetry in prose is a form of writing that combines the features of poetry and prose. It is characterized by the use of poetic language and imagery, but it is structured like a paragraph or a short story.

Poetry in prose is often used to create a lyrical, rhythmic effect, or to express complex emotions and ideas.

Epistolary writing: Epistolary writing is a form of prose that is written in the form of letters. It can take the form of personal correspondence, business letters, or fictional letters between characters. MEG 07 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Epistolary writing is often used to create a sense of intimacy and to convey personal thoughts and feelings.

Drama: Drama is a form of prose that is intended to be performed on stage or screen.

It is characterized by its dialogue and its focus on action and conflict. Dramatic prose typically features characters, settings, and a plot that unfolds over time, but it is intended to be performed rather than read.

These are just a few of the many forms of prose that can be found in literature. Each form has its own unique features and characteristics, and writers often use different forms of prose to convey different ideas and messages.

b) Narrative technique in The Four Daughter

Ans (B) “The Four Daughters” is a short story by American writer Daniel Defoe, which was published in 1727. MEG 07 Solved Free Assignment 2023

The story revolves around a father who has four daughters and is struggling to find a way to provide for them after he loses his fortune.

Defoe employs several narrative techniques in the story to create a sense of realism and to draw the reader into the narrative.

First-person narration: Defoe uses a first-person narrator, the father, to tell the story. This technique allows the reader to see the events of the story through the father’s perspective and to understand his thoughts and emotions. It also gives the story a sense of immediacy and intimacy.

Dialogue: Defoe uses dialogue extensively throughout the story to reveal character and to advance the plot.

The dialogue between the father and his daughters is particularly important, as it shows their different personalities and their relationships with their father.

Flashback: Defoe uses flashback to provide the reader with background information about the father’s life before he lost his fortune.

This technique helps to create a sense of depth and complexity to the character and to show the reader how the father’s past experiences have shaped his current situation.MEG 07 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Irony: Defoe employs irony to create a sense of humor and to comment on the social norms of the time.

For example, when the father suggests that his daughters become nuns, he is using irony to comment on the limited options available to women in the 18th century.

Symbolism: Defoe uses symbolism to convey deeper meaning and to create a sense of unity in the story.

For example, the four daughters are represented by four different flowers, each with its own distinct qualities and characteristics.

Overall, Defoe’s use of narrative technique in “The Four Daughters” helps to create a sense of realism and to draw the reader into the story.

Through the use of first-person narration, dialogue, flashback, irony, and symbolism, Defoe creates a rich and complex narrative that explores themes of family, love, and survival in the face of adversity.MEG 07 Solved Free Assignment 2023

c) Vikarm Seth’s Prose Style

Ans (C) Vikram Seth is a celebrated Indian writer known for his works in both poetry and prose.

In his prose works, Seth has developed a distinctive style that is characterized by its clarity, precision, and elegance. Here are some of the key features of Seth’s prose style:

Rich vocabulary: Seth’s prose is distinguished by his extensive and varied use of vocabulary.

He often employs complex words and phrases to express precise meanings and to create a sense of richness and depth.MEG 07 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Detailed descriptions: Seth’s prose is notable for its detailed descriptions of people, places, and things.

He has a keen eye for detail and is able to evoke vivid images in the reader’s mind through his descriptive language.

Use of metaphor and simile: Seth often uses metaphor and simile to create vivid and imaginative comparisons that help to bring his writing to life. He is particularly skilled at using natural imagery to evoke mood and emotion.

Uncluttered syntax: Seth’s sentences are generally clear and uncluttered, with a precise structure that reflects his focus on clarity and precision.

Omniscient narration: Seth often employs an omniscient narrator in his works, allowing him to provide a broader perspective on the events and characters in his stories.MEG 07 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Dialogue: Seth’s dialogue is realistic and believable, with a natural rhythm and flow that reflects his keen ear for language and his deep understanding of human nature.

Use of humor: Seth’s prose is often infused with humor, ranging from subtle wit to outright satire. His humor serves to lighten the mood and to create a sense of levity, even in the face of serious subject matter.

Overall, Vikram Seth’s prose style is characterized by its clarity, precision, and elegance.

His writing is distinguished by his rich vocabulary, detailed descriptions, use of metaphor and simile, uncluttered syntax, omniscient narration, realistic dialogue, and sense of humor. MEG 07 Solved Free Assignment 2023

These elements combine to create a distinctive and highly readable style that has won him critical acclaim and a loyal readership.

d) Social and Cultural situations in India during Derozio’s time

Ans (D) Henry Louis Vivian Derozio was a prominent figure of the Indian Renaissance in the early 19th century.

He was a teacher, poet, and social reformer who played an instrumental role in shaping the intellectual and cultural landscape of his time.

The social and cultural situations in India during Derozio’s time were complex and varied. Here are some of the key factors that influenced Indian society during the early 19th century:MEG 07 Solved Free Assignment 2023

British colonialism: India was under British colonial rule during Derozio’s time, and this had a profound impact on Indian society.

The British imposed their language, culture, and values on India, which led to the erosion of traditional Indian customs and beliefs.

Caste system: The caste system was still prevalent in India during Derozio’s time, and it played a significant role in determining social status and mobility.

Derozio was a strong advocate for social equality and spoke out against the injustices of the caste system.

Religious reform: The early 19th century saw a wave of religious reform movements in India, as people sought to challenge the traditional practices and beliefs of Hinduism and Islam. MEG 07 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Derozio was a proponent of this movement and played a key role in shaping the intellectual discourse around religion and spirituality.

Western education: The British introduced Western education to India during this period, which had a profound impact on Indian society.

Derozio was a product of this system, and his education played a key role in shaping his views on social and cultural issues.

Intellectual and artistic flourishing: Despite the challenges faced by Indian society during this period, there was also a flourishing of intellectual and artistic activity.

Derozio was at the forefront of this movement, and his poetry and essays helped to shape the cultural landscape of his time.

Overall, the social and cultural situations in India during Derozio’s time were complex and varied. MEG 07 Solved Free Assignment 2023

British colonialism, the caste system, religious reform, Western education, and intellectual and artistic flourishing were all factors that influenced Indian society during this period.

Derozio’s role as a teacher, poet, and social reformer was instrumental in shaping the discourse around these issues, and his legacy continues to be felt in Indian society today.

MEG 07 Assignment Question Pdf

Q 2. Comment on the structure and techniques used by Anita Desai in Clear Light of the Day.

Ans. Clear Light of Day is a novel by Anita Desai that explores the themes of family, memory, and identity.

Desai’s use of structure and technique is key to the success of the novel, as it allows her to convey complex ideas in a clear and compelling manner.

Structure: MEG 07 Solved Free Assignment 2023

The structure of Clear Light of Day is non-linear, with the narrative moving back and forth in time between the present day and the childhood memories of the four siblings, Bimla, Tara, Raja, and Baba.

The novel is divided into three parts, with each part focusing on a different period in the siblings’ lives. The first part takes place in the present day, as Bimla, now a schoolteacher, returns to her childhood home in Old Delhi.

The second part focuses on the siblings’ childhood memories of growing up in the house, while the third part explores the aftermath of Partition and the impact it has on the siblings’ lives.

Desai’s use of a non-linear structure allows her to explore the theme of memory and the way in which our past experiences shape our present identity.

By moving back and forth in time, Desai is able to show how the siblings’ childhood experiences continue to influence their adult lives, and how memories can be both a source of comfort and a burden. MEG 07 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Techniques:

Imagery: Desai’s use of vivid imagery is a key technique in Clear Light of Day. She uses descriptive language to create a sense of place and to evoke the sensory experiences of the characters.

For example, when Bimla returns to her childhood home, Desai describes the “narrow streets, crowded with people, rickshaws, bicycles, cows, and dogs,” and the “heat and dust and smells of cooking and garbage.”

This creates a vivid sense of the bustling, chaotic environment in which the characters grew up.

Symbolism: Desai also uses symbolism to convey deeper meaning in the novel. One of the most prominent symbols in the novel is the house itself, which represents the siblings’ shared history and the bonds that tie them together.

The house is also a symbol of the changing times, as Old Delhi gives way to the modern city of New Delhi. MEG 07 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Another symbol in the novel is the kite, which represents the freedom and joy of childhood, but also the fragility of life and the inevitability of loss.

Stream of consciousness: Desai uses stream of consciousness narration to convey the inner thoughts and feelings of the characters.

This technique allows the reader to enter the characters’ minds and understand their motivations and fears.

For example, when Bimla visits her brother Raja in his office, Desai uses stream of consciousness to convey her sense of unease and discomfort, as she feels out of place in the modern, professional environment.

Multiple perspectives: Desai also employs multiple perspectives in the novel, with each sibling offering their own perspective on the events of their childhood.

This allows the reader to see how different experiences and memories can shape our understanding of the past. MEG 07 Solved Free Assignment 2023

For example, Tara remembers the house as a place of confinement and restriction, while Raja sees it as a place of intellectual and artistic freedom.

Foreshadowing: Desai also employs foreshadowing to build tension and anticipation in the novel.

For example, in the opening chapter, Bimla hears the sound of a kite and reflects on the childhood games she used to play with her siblings.

This foreshadows the significance of the kite as a symbol throughout the novel, and hints at the nostalgia and longing that will play a central role in the story.

Flashback: In addition to moving back and forth in time, Desai also uses flashbacks to provide more detailed insight into the characters’ past experiences.

For example, when Bimla visits the school where she used to teach, she has a vivid flashback to a time when she struggled to connect with her students.

This flashback provides important context for Bimla’s character and her relationship with teaching. MEG 07 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Irony: Desai employs irony to comment on the characters’ experiences and to highlight the contradictions of life in India.

For example, when Bimla returns to her childhood home, she is struck by the poverty and squalor of the surrounding area, even as her own family is relatively well-off.

This irony serves to underscore the social and economic disparities that exist in Indian society.

Allusion: Desai also makes use of allusion to add depth and complexity to the novel. For example, when Bimla visits her brother Baba’s grave, she reflects on the “old familiar words” of the burial service.

This alludes to the Christian traditions that were imposed on Indian society during British colonial rule, and hints at the complex relationship between tradition and modernity in India.

Epiphany: Finally, Desai employs the technique of epiphany to convey moments of profound insight and realization for the characters.

For example, when Bimla confronts her sister Tara about her decision to leave home, she has a moment of clarity and understands that she must let go of her past and embrace the present. MEG 07 Solved Free Assignment 2023

This epiphany marks a turning point in Bimla’s character development, and allows her to move forward with her life.

Q 3. In Kanthapura, Raja Rao conveys a purely Indian experience through the foreign medium of the English Language. Comment.

Ans. Kanthapura is a seminal work of Indian literature that highlights the nationalist movement and the Indian struggle for independence.

Written by Raja Rao, the novel employs English as a medium of expression while conveying a purely Indian experience.

Rao uses his unique style and language to bring to life the small South Indian village of Kanthapura and its people, and to show how they are affected by the larger political and social changes that are taking place in India during the early 20th century.MEG 07 Solved Free Assignment 2023

One of the ways in which Rao conveys a purely Indian experience through English is by using a hybrid style of language that blends English with Indian vernacular.

This style is characterized by the use of colloquialisms, idioms, and phrasings that are uniquely Indian, and which are often mixed with English in unexpected ways.

For example, the narrator of the novel frequently uses phrases like “many things were hatching” and “he went home and slept the sleep of a log,” which are distinctly Indian in their construction.

This hybrid style of language helps to convey the unique cultural experience of India in a way that is accessible to English-speaking readers.

Another way in which Rao conveys a purely Indian experience through English is through his use of imagery and symbolism.

Throughout the novel, he employs vivid descriptions of the natural world, including the mountains, rivers, and forests of India.

These descriptions are often rich in symbolism, as they represent the forces of nature that are both life-giving and destructive. MEG 07 Solved Free Assignment 2023

For example, the river that flows through Kanthapura is both a source of nourishment for the village and a symbol of the cyclical nature of life and death.

Similarly, the forest that surrounds the village is a place of mystery and danger, where the spirits of the dead are said to reside.

Through these images and symbols, Rao conveys a sense of the deep connection between the people of Kanthapura and the natural world, and helps to create a uniquely Indian experience for the reader.

In addition to his use of language and imagery, Rao conveys a purely Indian experience through his portrayal of the social and political conditions in Kanthapura.

The novel is set against the backdrop of the Indian nationalist movement, and the characters are deeply affected by the political and social changes that are taking place in India at the time. MEG 07 Solved Free Assignment 2023

For example, when Gandhi’s call for nonviolent resistance reaches Kanthapura, the villagers are inspired to join the movement and participate in acts of civil disobedience.

This experience of participating in the nationalist movement is unique to India, and through his portrayal of it, Rao conveys a distinctly Indian experience to the reader.

Furthermore, Rao also conveys a purely Indian experience through his use of narrative techniques such as stream of consciousness and multiple perspectives.

By using these techniques, he is able to delve into the minds of his characters and explore their thoughts, feelings, and experiences in a deeply intimate way.

This approach helps to convey the complexity and richness of the Indian experience, and allows the reader to empathize with the characters in a way that is unique to Indian culture.MEG 07 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Another technique used by Raja Rao to convey a purely Indian experience through English is the use of Indian words and phrases.

He does not translate these words and phrases but instead leaves them as they are, which gives the reader a sense of immersion in the Indian culture and experience.

For example, he uses words like “puja,” “bhajan,” “kirtan,” and “satsang” without providing any explanation for these terms.

This forces the reader to rely on context and the characters’ actions to understand the meanings of these words.MEG 07 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Raja Rao also uses Indian mythology and religion as a way to convey Indian experience. For example, he uses the story of Rama and Sita to parallel the story of Moorthy and Rangamma.

Moorthy is seen as a modern-day Rama, while Rangamma is his devoted wife who follows him wherever he goes.

This comparison not only highlights the importance of mythology and religion in Indian culture but also provides a framework for the reader to understand the characters and their motivations.

Furthermore, Raja Rao’s use of Indian cultural references helps to create a sense of authenticity and realism.

The use of Indian words and phrases, as well as mythology and religion, serves as a reminder that this story is set in India and that the characters’ experiences are deeply rooted in Indian culture.

This allows the reader to fully immerse themselves in the story and to gain a deeper understanding of Indian life and culture.

Finally, Raja Rao’s use of the English language itself is significant in conveying a purely Indian experience. MEG 07 Solved Free Assignment 2023

He uses a highly poetic and metaphorical style of writing, which is reminiscent of traditional Indian literature.

His writing is filled with vivid imagery and lyrical descriptions, which help to evoke the sensory experiences of Indian life.

This, combined with his use of Indian cultural references and mythology, creates a unique literary style that is both Indian and English at the same time.

Q 4. What makes India special for Aurobindo is “spirituality made the leading motive and the determining power of both the inner and the outer life.” Do you agree? Elaborate Aurbindo’s view on Indian Culture.

Ans. Aurobindo Ghose, also known as Sri Aurobindo, was a philosopher, poet, and spiritual teacher who played a significant role in the Indian independence movement.

He was also a champion of Indian culture, and believed that India’s spiritual heritage was its most important contribution to the world.

In his view, what made India special was the emphasis on spirituality as the leading motive and the determining power of both the inner and outer life.

Aurobindo believed that Indian culture was unique in its emphasis on spiritual growth and self-realization. MEG 07 Solved Free Assignment 2023

He saw this as a fundamental aspect of Indian life, and argued that it was what made India special.

According to Aurobindo, the spiritual path was not just something that was pursued by a select few, but was something that was open to everyone.

He believed that spiritual development was the ultimate goal of human life, and that this was what made life meaningful.

Aurobindo’s view of Indian culture was deeply rooted in his understanding of Hinduism.

He saw Hinduism as a dynamic and evolving tradition, one that was capable of adapting to new circumstances and evolving over time.

For Aurobindo, Hinduism was not a static set of beliefs and practices, but rather a living tradition that was constantly evolving in response to new challenges and opportunities.MEG 07 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Aurobindo also believed that India had a unique role to play in the world. He saw India as a spiritual powerhouse, one that had the potential to transform the world through its spiritual insights and practices.

He believed that India’s spiritual heritage was its most important contribution to the world, and that it was through the rediscovery of this heritage that India could once again become a beacon of light for the world.

One of the key aspects of Aurobindo’s view of Indian culture was his emphasis on the need for spiritual transformation.

He believed that the problems facing the world today were ultimately spiritual in nature, and that it was only through a deep and transformative spiritual practice that these problems could be solved.

He saw spirituality as the key to unlocking the potential of human beings, and argued that it was only through spiritual growth that we could truly understand our place in the universe.

Another important aspect of Aurobindo’s view of Indian culture was his emphasis on the need for unity. MEG 07 Solved Free Assignment 2023

He believed that India’s spiritual heritage provided a basis for a shared identity that could transcend the divisions of caste, class, and religion.

He saw the diversity of Indian culture as a strength, and believed that it was only through a deep appreciation of this diversity that we could truly come together as a people.

Aurobindo also believed that India had a unique contribution to make to the world in terms of art and culture.

He saw Indian art and culture as a reflection of India’s spiritual heritage, and believed that it was through the arts that India could most effectively express its spiritual insights and wisdom.

Furthermore, Aurobindo believed that Indian culture had a unique contribution to make to the world, and that it had a duty to share its spiritual insights with humanity.

He saw India as the “guru of the nations,” responsible for leading the world to a higher spiritual consciousness. MEG 07 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Aurobindo believed that this spiritual awakening would eventually lead to a new age of humanity, one characterized by a global spiritual unity and a deep respect for the natural world.

In Aurobindo’s view, India’s spiritual legacy was not limited to any one religion or tradition.

He believed that the wisdom of the ancient sages and mystics could be found in a wide range of sources, from the Vedas and the Upanishads to the teachings of the Buddha and the Sufi poets.

He saw Indian culture as a vibrant and dynamic fusion of diverse spiritual traditions, each contributing to the larger tapestry of the nation’s spiritual heritage.

Aurobindo also emphasized the importance of yoga as a means of achieving spiritual enlightenment.

He believed that yoga was not simply a set of physical exercises or meditation techniques, but a holistic approach to life that encompassed every aspect of human experience. MEG 07 Solved Free Assignment 2023

He saw yoga as a path to self-realization, and as a means of connecting with the divine within oneself and in the universe.

Finally, Aurobindo was deeply committed to the idea of Indian independence, and saw it as a crucial step in the evolution of India’s spiritual destiny.

He believed that India had a unique role to play in the world, and that this role could only be fulfilled if the nation was free from the colonial yoke of British imperialism.

Aurobindo’s vision of India was thus intimately linked to his vision of a new spiritual age for humanity, one in which all nations and peoples could find a common ground in their shared spiritual heritage.

Q 5. Mulk Raj Anand’s novel portrays Indian social problems realistically. Discuss with reference to the novel Untouchable.

Ans. Mulk Raj Anand’s Untouchable is a powerful indictment of the Indian caste system and the social problems it creates.

The novel explores the life of Bakha, a young man from the untouchable caste, who works as a sweeper in a small town in India.

Through Bakha’s experiences, Anand exposes the harsh realities of caste-based discrimination and the ways in which it perpetuates poverty, ignorance, and oppression.MEG 07 Solved Free Assignment 2023

One of the key themes of Untouchable is the dehumanization of the untouchables by the upper castes.

Bakha and his community are forced to live on the outskirts of society, and they are denied basic human rights such as access to education, clean water, and medical care.

They are viewed as dirty and impure, and their very presence is considered polluting.

Anand portrays the ways in which this dehumanization has profound psychological effects on Bakha and others like him, leading to a deep sense of shame and self-loathing.

Another important theme of the novel is the intersection of caste and gender. Anand highlights the ways in which women from the untouchable caste are particularly vulnerable to exploitation and abuse.

Bakha’s sister Sohini, for example, is forced to work as a prostitute in order to survive, and she is subject to violence and degradation from both upper-caste men and men from her own community. MEG 07 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Anand shows how the double burden of caste and gender discrimination creates a particularly oppressive situation for women in India.

Throughout the novel, Anand uses Bakha’s story to expose the ways in which the caste system perpetuates poverty and oppression.

Bakha is denied access to education and meaningful work, and he is forced to do menial labor that reinforces his lowly status.

He is trapped in a cycle of poverty and powerlessness that seems impossible to break.

Anand portrays the ways in which this system is not only morally reprehensible, but also economically unsustainable, as it deprives society of the talents and potential of millions of people.

Anand’s portrayal of the caste system is unflinching, and he does not shy away from the brutal realities of caste-based discrimination.

The novel includes several graphic scenes of violence and degradation, such as when Bakha is beaten by an upper-caste man for daring to touch him, or when Sohini is brutally attacked by a group of men. MEG 07 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Anand’s use of vivid, sensory language brings these scenes to life, forcing the reader to confront the horrors of caste-based oppression.

At the same time, however, Anand also offers a sense of hope and possibility. Bakha is not simply a victim; he is a complex and dynamic character with his own desires, fears, and aspirations.

Anand portrays the ways in which Bakha is able to find moments of joy and connection in his life, despite the harshness of his circumstances.

He also shows how Bakha is able to resist the dehumanization imposed on him by the caste system, and to assert his own dignity and humanity in small but meaningful ways.

Mulk Raj Anand’s novel, Untouchable, deals with the sensitive issue of caste discrimination in India.

He portrays the main character, Bakha, as a representative of the untouchable caste who is constantly subjected to humiliation and discrimination in every aspect of his life. MEG 07 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Anand vividly depicts the sufferings and struggles of the untouchable community through Bakha’s character.

The novel highlights the inhumanity of the caste system and the severe consequences it has on the lives of the so-called “lower castes.”

Anand exposes the hypocrisy of the upper caste people who claim to be followers of Hinduism, which preaches equality and compassion, yet they discriminate and oppress the untouchables.

Through Bakha’s experiences, Anand exposes the root cause of the caste system – the belief that one’s birth determines one’s social status and that the untouchables are impure and contaminated.

The novel also delves into the issue of untouchability in Hindu religious practices. Bakha’s encounter with a high caste priest who denies him entry into the temple and humiliates him in the name of religion reflects the rigid and discriminatory practices prevailing in the Indian society.

Anand exposes the regressive practices that have been embedded in Hinduism for centuries and how it is used to justify caste discrimination.

Anand also highlights the impact of colonialism on Indian society. Bakha’s admiration for the British, who he sees as more civilized and free from the caste system, reflects the influence of British colonialism on Indian society.

The British brought in new ideas of equality and democracy which challenged the existing social order and paved the way for social reforms.

However, the novel also shows how the British colonial rule was responsible for creating a hierarchical society based on race and skin color.

The novel ends with Bakha’s realization that the only way to bring about change in society is through education and awareness. MEG 07 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Anand emphasizes the importance of education and empowerment in breaking the cycle of caste discrimination and social inequality.

Bakha’s character represents the struggle of the untouchables to break free from the shackles of caste and become an equal member of society.

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