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MED 008 Solved Free Assignment 2023

IGNOU MED 008 Solved Free Assignment January 2023

Q 1. Explain the effects of global warming on global climate change.

Ans. Global warming refers to the long-term increase in Earth’s average surface temperature due to human activities, primarily the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) like carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) into the atmosphere.

This phenomenon has far-reaching effects on global climate change, altering weather patterns and disrupting natural systems. Here are some key effects of global warming on the global climate:

Rising temperatures: As global warming intensifies, average temperatures increase. This leads to heatwaves becoming more frequent and severe, causing health risks, droughts, and wildfires.

Warmer temperatures also contribute to the melting of glaciers and polar ice, leading to rising sea levels. MED 008 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Changing precipitation patterns: Global warming influences the hydrological cycle, resulting in altered precipitation patterns.

Some regions may experience more intense rainfall and flooding, while others may face prolonged droughts. This imbalance affects agriculture, water availability, and can lead to increased water stress.

Extreme weather events: Global warming fuels the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events such as hurricanes, cyclones, and typhoons.

These events can cause widespread destruction, loss of life, and property damage, impacting both coastal and inland regions.

Disrupted ecosystems: Climate change disrupts ecosystems and threatens biodiversity. Species that are unable to adapt quickly enough may face habitat loss, altered migration patterns, and increased risk of extinction.

Changes in temperature can also affect the timing of seasonal events, disrupting crucial ecological relationships. MED 008 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Oceanic impacts: Global warming has significant consequences for the world’s oceans. Warmer waters lead to coral bleaching, damaging delicate marine ecosystems.

Additionally, increased CO2 absorption by oceans leads to ocean acidification, which negatively impacts marine life, especially organisms with shells or skeletons.

Feedback loops: Global warming triggers feedback loops that amplify the effects. For example, as Arctic ice melts, the reflective surface is replaced by dark ocean waters, which absorb more heat.

This leads to further warming and more ice melting, exacerbating the cycle.

Addressing global warming is crucial to mitigate its impact on climate change.

International efforts to reduce GHG emissions, transition to renewable energy sources, and implement sustainable practices are essential to minimize the long-term consequences of global warming and preserve a stable climate for future generations. MED 008 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Q 2. Define flood. List at least four factors that cause flood.

Ans. A flood is an overflow of water onto normally dry land, usually caused by heavy rainfall, snowmelt, or the rapid accumulation of water in a river or other water bodies.

Floods can range in scale from localized flooding of streets and buildings to extensive inundation of large areas.

Several factors can contribute to the occurrence of floods:

Intense rainfall: Heavy or prolonged rainfall can overwhelm the capacity of natural or artificial drainage systems, causing rivers, streams, and other water bodies to overflow their banks. MED 008 Solved Free Assignment 2023

The amount and intensity of rainfall play a significant role in determining the severity of a flood.

Snowmelt: In regions with cold climates, rapid snowmelt during warmer seasons can lead to excessive runoff and cause flooding.

If the rate of melting exceeds the capacity of the land or water bodies to absorb or accommodate the water, flooding can occur.

Topography and drainage patterns: The physical features of an area, such as its slope, soil composition, and natural drainage patterns, can affect the occurrence and severity of floods. MED 008 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Regions with flat or low-lying terrain, especially those with poor drainage systems, are more prone to flooding.

Human activities: Certain human activities can contribute to or exacerbate flood events. Deforestation reduces the natural absorption of water by vegetation, leading to increased runoff and soil erosion.

Urbanization and the construction of impervious surfaces like roads and buildings can disrupt natural drainage patterns, causing water to accumulate and flood nearby areas. MED 008 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Other factors that can contribute to floods include dam failures, levee breaches, and coastal storm surges caused by tropical storms or hurricanes.

It’s important to note that different regions may have unique factors influencing flood occurrence, making it essential to consider local conditions and geographical characteristics when assessing flood risk.

Effective flood management involves a combination of infrastructure development, land-use planning, early warning systems, and community preparedness to minimize the impact of floods on vulnerable populations and reduce property damage.

Q 3. Distinguish between Sudden Disasters and Insidious disasters. Give an example foreach of them.

Ans. Sudden disasters and insidious disasters are two different categories of disasters based on their onset and progression. Here’s how they can be distinguished, along with an example for each:

Sudden Disasters: MED 008 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Sudden disasters are characterized by their rapid onset and immediate impact, often occurring within a short period.

They typically involve a sudden and significant disruption or destruction of infrastructure, loss of life, and immediate consequences.

Sudden disasters are usually associated with natural events or human-made incidents.

Example: Earthquakes are a classic example of sudden disasters. They occur abruptly and are caused by the release of energy in the Earth’s crust, resulting in shaking and ground movement.

Earthquakes can cause widespread destruction, collapse buildings, trigger landslides, and result in casualties within a matter of minutes.

Insidious Disasters: MED 008 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Insidious disasters, on the other hand, have a gradual onset and progress over an extended period.

They often involve slow, cumulative processes that lead to long-term consequences. Insidious disasters may not have an immediate, dramatic impact but can cause significant harm or damage over time.

Example: Climate change can be considered an insidious disaster. It is a gradual process caused by human activities, particularly the emission of greenhouse gases, leading to global warming and changes in weather patterns.

The effects of climate change, such as rising sea levels, altered precipitation patterns, and increasing temperatures, accumulate over years or decades.

While the impacts may not be immediately noticeable, they pose long-term threats to ecosystems, communities, and the overall stability of the planet.

It’s important to note that the distinction between sudden and insidious disasters is not always clear-cut, as some events may have both sudden and gradual elements.

For instance, a hurricane can have a sudden onset but cause long-lasting damage and ongoing consequences, blending characteristics of both types of disasters.

Q 4. Discuss the role of MNCs and TNCs in economic globalisation.

Ans. Multinational corporations (MNCs) and transnational corporations (TNCs) play a significant role in the process of economic globalization.

Economic globalization refers to the increasing interconnectedness and integration of economies worldwide. Here’s a discussion on the role of MNCs and TNCs in economic globalization: MED 008 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Global Market Expansion: MNCs and TNCs have been instrumental in expanding markets beyond national boundaries.

By establishing operations in multiple countries, they facilitate cross-border trade and investment, creating global supply chains and distribution networks.

This allows for the efficient flow of goods, services, and capital, contributing to the integration of national economies into a global marketplace.

Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): MNCs and TNCs are major drivers of foreign direct investment. They invest in production facilities, infrastructure, and technology in different countries, providing capital and creating job opportunities.

FDI inflows enhance economic growth, transfer knowledge and skills, and stimulate local economies. This promotes economic interdependence and integration on a global scale.MED 008 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Technology Transfer and Innovation: MNCs and TNCs often bring advanced technologies, research, and development capabilities to host countries.

This facilitates the transfer of knowledge, expertise, and technical know-how, promoting innovation and improving productivity in local industries.

By fostering technological advancements, MNCs and TNCs contribute to economic growth and competitiveness, both domestically and globally.

Employment and Labor Practices: MNCs and TNCs are major employers worldwide, offering job opportunities and income generation.

They often bring employment opportunities to countries with lower labor costs, attracting investment and stimulating economic activity.

However, concerns have been raised regarding labor practices, as some MNCs and TNCs have faced criticism for exploitative labor conditions, low wages, and inadequate worker rights protections.MED 008 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Cultural Exchange and Influence: MNCs and TNCs are influential in shaping consumer preferences, lifestyles, and cultural values through their products, advertising, and marketing strategies.

This can lead to cultural homogenization or a blending of cultures, as global brands and media exert their influence across different societies. However, it can also promote cultural diversity and intercultural exchange.

Environmental Impact: The operations of MNCs and TNCs can have significant environmental implications.

While some corporations have made efforts to adopt sustainable practices, others have been criticized for environmental degradation, resource exploitation, and pollution. MED 008 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Balancing economic growth with environmental sustainability remains a challenge in the context of economic globalization.

Q 5. What is Global Environment Facility? Mention its four areas of operation.

Ans. The Global Environment Facility (GEF) is an international financial organization that provides grants to support projects addressing global environmental issues.

It was established in 1991 as a partnership between various United Nations agencies, international financial institutions, and recipient countries.

The GEF aims to promote sustainable development and address environmental challenges on a global scale. Here are four areas of operation for the Global Environment Facility:MED 008 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Biodiversity Conservation: The GEF supports projects and initiatives aimed at conserving and protecting biodiversity.

This includes the preservation of endangered species, the establishment and management of protected areas, the promotion of sustainable use of biodiversity resources, and the integration of biodiversity considerations into national policies and strategies.

Climate Change Mitigation: The GEF plays a vital role in financing projects that contribute to reducing greenhouse gas emissions and mitigating the impacts of climate change.

It supports the development and implementation of renewable energy projects, energy efficiency initiatives, sustainable transport systems, and strategies to adapt to the adverse effects of climate change.

International Waters Management: The GEF focuses on improving the management of transboundary water systems, such as shared rivers, lakes, and marine areas.

It supports projects that aim to protect and restore water quality, reduce pollution, promote sustainable fisheries, and enhance the capacity of countries to collaborate and manage their shared water resources.

Chemicals and Waste Management: The GEF works towards addressing the environmental and health risks associated with the production, use, and disposal of chemicals and hazardous waste. MED 008 Solved Free Assignment 2023

It supports projects that promote the adoption of safer and sustainable chemical alternatives, the management of toxic chemicals, the reduction of pollutant releases, and the strengthening of national capacities for sound chemicals and waste management.

These four areas of operation align with the GEF’s overall mission to tackle pressing environmental challenges and promote sustainable development through international cooperation and financial assistance.

The GEF provides grants to developing countries and countries with economies in transition, aiming to support their efforts in achieving global environmental objectives and promoting the well-being of both present and future generations.

Q 6. Explain any four general principles of International Environmental Law.

Ans. International Environmental Law encompasses a set of principles and rules that govern the interaction between states, international organizations, and the environment. MED 008 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Here are four general principles that underpin International Environmental Law:

Principle of Sustainable Development: The principle of sustainable development recognizes the need to balance economic, social, and environmental considerations for the well-being of present and future generations.

It emphasizes the integration of environmental protection and conservation with economic development. MED 008 Solved Free Assignment 2023

States are encouraged to pursue development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.

Principle of Common but Differentiated Responsibility: The principle of common but differentiated responsibility acknowledges that all states share a common responsibility to protect the global environment.

However, it recognizes that developed countries, which have historically contributed more to environmental degradation, have a greater responsibility in addressing environmental challenges and providing support to developing countries.

This principle reflects the concept of equity and recognizes the different capacities and circumstances of states.MED 008 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Principle of Prevention: The principle of prevention emphasizes the importance of taking proactive measures to prevent environmental harm and minimize risks.

States are encouraged to adopt preventive measures, such as implementing environmental impact assessments, adopting pollution control measures, and implementing early warning systems.

This principle also promotes the precautionary approach, which calls for taking preventive action in the face of scientific uncertainty to avoid potential environmental harm.

Principle of Cooperation: The principle of cooperation emphasizes the need for international cooperation and collaboration to address global environmental challenges effectively. MED 008 Solved Free Assignment 2023

States are encouraged to work together, exchange information, share technologies, and provide financial and technical assistance to support environmental conservation and sustainable development.

This principle recognizes that environmental issues transcend national boundaries and require collective action.

These principles, among others, guide the development of international agreements, treaties, and protocols addressing various environmental issues, including climate change, biodiversity conservation, marine pollution, and hazardous waste management. MED 008 Solved Free Assignment 2023

They provide a framework for states to navigate the complex and interconnected nature of global environmental challenges and promote a sustainable and harmonious relationship between human activities and the environment.

Q 7. Explain how environment is an important agenda of World Bank.

Ans. The environment has become a significant agenda for the World Bank, an international financial institution that provides financial and technical assistance to support development projects in developing countries.

The World Bank recognizes the crucial role that the environment plays in sustainable development and has integrated environmental considerations into its policies, strategies, and project operations.

Here’s how the environment is an important agenda of the World Bank:

Environmental Sustainability: The World Bank acknowledges that environmental sustainability is essential for achieving lasting development outcomes.

It recognizes that environmental degradation can undermine poverty reduction efforts and hinder economic growth. MED 008 Solved Free Assignment 2023

As a result, the World Bank has committed to promoting sustainable development practices that balance economic, social, and environmental objectives.

Environmental Safeguards: The World Bank has established environmental safeguards to ensure that its projects do not cause harm to the environment and local communities.

These safeguards require the assessment and management of potential environmental and social risks associated with Bank-funded projects.

They help identify and mitigate adverse environmental impacts, protect natural habitats, preserve biodiversity, and promote sustainable resource management.

Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation: Recognizing the urgent need to address climate change, the World Bank has placed a significant focus on climate change mitigation and adaptation. MED 008 Solved Free Assignment 2023

It supports countries in developing low-carbon and climate-resilient pathways through financing renewable energy projects, promoting energy efficiency, assisting in the formulation of climate change policies, and supporting climate adaptation measures.

Natural Resource Management: The World Bank places importance on sustainable management of natural resources, including forests, fisheries, water, and land.

It promotes practices that help conserve natural resources, protect ecosystems, and support sustainable livelihoods for local communities.

The Bank provides technical assistance, financial resources, and knowledge sharing to support countries in developing and implementing effective natural resource management strategies.

Environmental Investments: The World Bank allocates a significant portion of its funding to environmental investments.

It finances projects and programs that address environmental challenges, such as air and water pollution control, waste management, and ecosystem restoration.

These investments aim to improve environmental quality, enhance resilience to environmental shocks, and promote sustainable development outcomes.

Q 8. List any five multilateral initiatives on bio-diversity.

Ans. Here are five multilateral initiatives focused on biodiversity conservation:

Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD): The CBD is an international treaty aimed at conserving biodiversity, promoting sustainable use of biological resources, and ensuring fair and equitable sharing of benefits derived from genetic resources.

It sets out principles, objectives, and commitments for biodiversity conservation and sustainable development. The CBD has been ratified by 196 countries, making it a key global initiative on biodiversity.MED 008 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Aichi Biodiversity Targets: The Aichi Biodiversity Targets are a set of 20 measurable targets adopted under the CBD in 2010.

These targets aim to address the underlying causes of biodiversity loss, reduce pressures on ecosystems, safeguard species and ecosystems, enhance ecosystem resilience, and promote the fair and equitable sharing of benefits.

They provide a framework for action on biodiversity conservation at the national and global levels.

Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES): The IPBES is an independent intergovernmental body established to provide policy-relevant assessments and expertise on biodiversity and ecosystem services.

It assesses the state of biodiversity, identifies the drivers of biodiversity loss, and provides policymakers with scientific information to support decision-making for biodiversity conservation and sustainable use.

Ramsar Convention on Wetlands: The Ramsar Convention is an international treaty dedicated to the conservation and sustainable use of wetlands.

It emphasizes the importance of wetlands for biodiversity, water resources, and human well-being. MED 008 Solved Free Assignment 2023

The Convention promotes the wise use and protection of wetlands, designates internationally significant wetlands as Ramsar sites, and encourages international cooperation for wetland conservation.

Global Environment Facility (GEF) Biodiversity Program: The GEF, mentioned earlier, has a dedicated program to support biodiversity conservation and sustainable use.

Through its biodiversity program, the GEF provides grants to countries for projects that enhance protected areas, promote sustainable land and forest management, address invasive species, conserve endangered species, and strengthen capacity for biodiversity conservation.

The GEF plays a crucial role in funding and supporting biodiversity initiatives globally.

Q 9. Discuss in general the environmental concerns of South Asia.

Ans. South Asia, a region comprising countries such as India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, and Maldives, faces a range of environmental concerns due to its large and growing population, rapid urbanization, industrialization, and agricultural practices. MED 008 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Here is a general discussion of the environmental concerns in South Asia:

Air Pollution: Air pollution is a significant environmental challenge in South Asia. Rapid industrial growth, increasing vehicular emissions, and the burning of solid fuels for cooking and heating contribute to high levels of air pollution.

Major cities in the region often experience severe air quality issues, leading to adverse health effects and environmental degradation.

Water Pollution: Water pollution is a significant concern in South Asia due to industrial discharge, untreated sewage, and agricultural runoff.

Rivers and water bodies in the region face pollution from industrial waste, untreated sewage, and excessive use of fertilizers and pesticides.

This pollution affects both surface water and groundwater, impacting human health, aquatic ecosystems, and agriculture.

Deforestation and Biodiversity Loss: South Asia is experiencing high rates of deforestation, primarily due to the expansion of agriculture, logging, and infrastructure development. MED 008 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Deforestation contributes to the loss of biodiversity, habitat destruction, and soil erosion. The region is home to several biodiversity hotspots, and the loss of forests poses a threat to unique species and ecosystems.

Climate Change Vulnerability: South Asia is highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change.

The region faces risks such as increased frequency and intensity of extreme weather events, rising sea levels, changes in precipitation patterns, and glacial melt.

These impacts have implications for agriculture, water availability, food security, coastal areas, and overall socio-economic development in the region.

Waste Management: Inadequate waste management systems pose environmental challenges in South Asia. MED 008 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Rapid urbanization and population growth lead to increased waste generation, while insufficient infrastructure and poor waste management practices contribute to pollution of land, water, and air.

Improved waste management practices and infrastructure are needed to address this concern.

Natural Disasters: South Asia is prone to natural disasters such as floods, cyclones, earthquakes, and landslides.

These events can have severe environmental and socio-economic consequences, causing loss of life, displacement, damage to infrastructure, and ecological disruptions.

Addressing these environmental concerns requires collaborative efforts from governments, civil society, and international organizations.

Initiatives to promote sustainable development, enhance environmental governance, promote renewable energy, improve waste management, conserve biodiversity, and mitigate climate change impacts are crucial to ensuring a sustainable and resilient future for South Asia.MED 008 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Q 10. Discuss the various initiatives taken in India to protect its wildlife.

Ans. India, known for its rich biodiversity and diverse ecosystems, has undertaken various initiatives to protect its wildlife. Here are some key initiatives taken in India for wildlife conservation:

Project Tiger: Launched in 1973, Project Tiger is one of India’s most successful wildlife conservation programs.

It aims to protect and conserve the endangered Bengal tiger and its habitat. Under this initiative, tiger reserves were established across the country, implementing measures to control poaching, mitigate human-wildlife conflict, and promote habitat conservation. MED 008 Solved Free Assignment 2023

The project has played a crucial role in the recovery of tiger populations in India.

Project Elephant: Initiated in 1992, Project Elephant focuses on the conservation and welfare of elephants in India. It addresses issues such as habitat fragmentation, human-elephant conflict, and illegal poaching.

The project emphasizes the protection and management of elephant habitats, the creation of corridors, and the promotion of eco-friendly practices to mitigate human-elephant conflict.

Wildlife Protection Act: India enacted the Wildlife Protection Act in 1972 to provide legal protection to wildlife and their habitats.

The act prohibits hunting, poaching, and trade of endangered species. It also establishes protected areas, regulates wildlife tourism, and promotes conservation and sustainable use of wildlife resources.

The act has played a vital role in curbing wildlife crimes and ensuring the preservation of India’s diverse flora and fauna.

National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries: India has established a network of national parks and wildlife sanctuaries across the country to protect and conserve its biodiversity. MED 008 Solved Free Assignment 2023

These protected areas serve as habitats for various wildlife species and help safeguard critical ecosystems.

They provide legal protection, management, and conservation measures to ensure the survival of endangered species and their habitats.

Eco-sensitive Zones: India has identified and notified eco-sensitive zones around protected areas to buffer them from anthropogenic pressures.

These zones regulate activities such as mining, construction, and industrial development to minimize adverse impacts on wildlife habitats and maintain ecological balance.

Eco-sensitive zone guidelines help conserve wildlife corridors and maintain the integrity of protected areas.MED 008 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Community-based Conservation: India has recognized the importance of involving local communities in wildlife conservation efforts.

Various community-based conservation initiatives have been implemented, where local communities are encouraged to participate in conservation activities, sustainable livelihood practices, and eco-tourism initiatives.

These efforts aim to create a sense of ownership and responsibility among communities towards protecting wildlife and their habitats.

Q 11. Discuss the instances when NGO’s have conflicted socio-political movements.

Ans. There have been instances where non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have conflicted with socio-political movements.

While NGOs are often driven by their mission to address social and environmental issues, their approaches and priorities may not always align with those of socio-political movements. Here are a few instances where conflicts have arisen:

Differing Ideologies: NGOs and socio-political movements may have different ideologies and goals. MED 008 Solved Free Assignment 2023

NGOs often focus on specific issues and adopt a more specialized approach, while socio-political movements tend to address broader societal or political changes.

These differing ideologies can lead to conflicts, as the strategies and priorities of NGOs may not align with the overall agenda of a socio-political movement.

Resource Allocation: NGOs and socio-political movements may compete for limited resources, including funding, personnel, and public attention.

This competition can lead to conflicts as both entities strive to advance their respective causes and secure resources to support their activities.

Disputes over resource allocation can strain relationships and create tensions between NGOs and socio-political movements.

Strategic Differences: NGOs and socio-political movements may have different strategies and approaches to address social issues.

NGOs often work within existing systems, collaborating with governments and institutions to implement change. MED 008 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Socio-political movements, on the other hand, may adopt more confrontational tactics such as protests and civil disobedience to challenge existing power structures.

These strategic differences can create conflicts and disagreements on how best to achieve desired outcomes.

Representation and Accountability: NGO leaders and activists may face criticism from socio-political movements regarding their representation and accountability.

Socio-political movements often emphasize grassroots participation and may question the legitimacy of NGOs to speak on behalf of marginalized communities.

They may demand greater transparency, inclusivity, and direct representation in decision-making processes, which can lead to tensions between NGOs and socio-political movements.MED 008 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Power Dynamics: Conflicts can arise due to power dynamics between NGOs and socio-political movements.

NGOs often have access to resources, networks, and expertise, which can create imbalances in influence and decision-making.

Socio-political movements may perceive NGOs as exerting undue influence or co-opting their agendas. These power imbalances can result in conflicts and strained relationships between the two entities.

Q 12. Discuss the main highlights of Chilka Bachao Andolan.

Ans. Chilka Bachao Andolan, also known as the Save Chilka Movement, was a grassroots environmental movement in the Indian state of Odisha that aimed to protect the Chilika Lake, which is the largest brackish water lagoon in Asia and a Ramsar wetland of international importance. Here are the main highlights of the Chilka Bachao Andolan:

Formation and Objectives: Chilka Bachao Andolan was initiated in the late 1970s by local communities and environmental activists who recognized the ecological significance of the Chilika Lake and the threats it faced.

The primary objective of the movement was to safeguard the lake ecosystem, protect its biodiversity, and ensure the sustainable livelihoods of the local fishing communities.MED 008 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Opposition to Commercial Shrimp Farming: One of the key challenges faced by Chilika Lake was the establishment of commercial shrimp farming in its vicinity.

The movement strongly opposed the large-scale conversion of traditional fishing areas into shrimp farms, which led to the destruction of mangrove forests, water pollution, and the displacement of local fishing communities.

The movement advocated for sustainable fishing practices and the protection of the lake’s fragile ecosystem.

Advocacy and Awareness: Chilka Bachao Andolan played a crucial role in creating awareness about the ecological significance of Chilika Lake among the public, policymakers, and the media.

The movement organized protests, public meetings, and awareness campaigns to highlight the environmental consequences of shrimp farming and the importance of conserving the lake. MED 008 Solved Free Assignment 2023

They also engaged in advocacy efforts to influence government policies and decision-making processes.

Legal Intervention: To protect Chilika Lake, the movement filed public interest litigations (PILs) in the court seeking the cancellation of shrimp farming leases and stricter regulations on industrial activities in the lake’s vicinity.

These legal interventions helped draw attention to the environmental concerns and put pressure on the authorities to take necessary actions for the conservation of the lake.

Recognition and Success: The efforts of Chilka Bachao Andolan received recognition at the national and international levels.

The movement’s advocacy and activism led to the declaration of Chilika Lake as a Ramsar site in 1981, acknowledging its importance as a wetland of international significance.

The movement’s activities also contributed to policy changes and the imposition of stricter regulations on shrimp farming practices in the region.

Q 13. Explain the controversy related to seed suicides by poor Indian farmers.

Ans. The controversy surrounding “seed suicides” refers to a phenomenon in India where some impoverished farmers faced extreme financial distress and resorted to taking their own lives due to a combination of factors, including the high cost of seeds, the dependence on genetically modified (GM) crops, and unsustainable farming practices. Here is an explanation of the controversy:

High Cost of Seeds: One aspect of the controversy relates to the rising cost of seeds, particularly those associated with genetically modified crops.

The introduction of patented GM seeds by multinational corporations led to increased seed prices, making it difficult for small-scale farmers, who often lack financial resources, to afford them. MED 008 Solved Free Assignment 2023

This financial burden placed additional pressure on farmers who were already grappling with other challenges such as debt and unpredictable weather conditions.

Dependence on Genetically Modified Crops: Many farmers in India turned to genetically modified crops, such as Bt cotton, hoping for increased yields and pest resistance.

However, these crops required specific inputs like expensive seeds, chemical fertilizers, and pesticides, which increased the cost of cultivation.

In some cases, farmers experienced disappointing results, with reduced yields and increased pest resistance over time. This reliance on a single crop variety made farmers vulnerable to market fluctuations and crop failures.

Debt and Financial Distress: Small-scale farmers often faced significant debt due to borrowing money for purchasing seeds, fertilizers, and other agricultural inputs.

When faced with crop failure or an inability to repay their loans, many farmers found themselves trapped in a cycle of debt. MED 008 Solved Free Assignment 2023

This financial distress, coupled with the pressure to provide for their families, contributed to feelings of hopelessness and despair, leading some farmers to take their own lives as a tragic outcome.

Unsustainable Farming Practices: Another factor contributing to the controversy was the adoption of unsustainable farming practices.

Some farmers, enticed by promises of increased yields, relied heavily on chemical fertilizers and pesticides without adequate knowledge or resources to implement proper agricultural practices.

This led to soil degradation, water contamination, and adverse impacts on human health. These environmental consequences further exacerbated the challenges faced by farmers, deepening their economic struggles.

Q 14. What is meant by ‘Carrying Capacity’ of ecosystems? Mention few facts related tothe threat on bio-diversity.

Ans. The term “carrying capacity” refers to the maximum number of individuals or species that an ecosystem can sustainably support over a given period without causing significant ecological degradation.

It is a concept used to understand the balance between the resources available in an ecosystem and the needs of the organisms living within it. Here are a few facts related to the threats on biodiversity:

Habitat Loss: One of the most significant threats to biodiversity is the loss and degradation of habitats. MED 008 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Human activities such as deforestation, urbanization, and conversion of natural areas for agriculture and infrastructure development have resulted in the destruction of ecosystems and the displacement of numerous species.

The loss of habitat disrupts ecological balance and negatively impacts biodiversity.

Climate Change: Climate change poses a major threat to biodiversity. Rising temperatures, changing precipitation patterns, and extreme weather events affect ecosystems and the distribution and behavior of species.

Many species are facing challenges in adapting to rapidly changing conditions, leading to shifts in their geographical ranges, altered phenology, and increased vulnerability to extinction.

Overexploitation: Overexploitation of natural resources, including overfishing, illegal wildlife trade, and unsustainable logging, poses a significant threat to biodiversity.

Unsustainable harvesting practices can deplete populations of valuable species, disrupt ecological interactions, and lead to the loss of biodiversity.

Pollution: Pollution, including air pollution, water pollution, and soil contamination, has detrimental effects on biodiversity.

Chemical pollutants from industrial activities, agriculture, and improper waste disposal can accumulate in ecosystems, impacting the health and survival of organisms. MED 008 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Pollution affects species diversity, ecosystem functioning, and the overall balance of ecosystems.

Invasive Species: Invasive species, which are non-native species introduced into new environments, can have significant negative impacts on native biodiversity.

Invasive species often outcompete native species for resources, disrupt ecological processes, and alter habitats, leading to the decline or extinction of native species.

Fragmentation and Connectivity Loss: The fragmentation of habitats due to human activities, such as the construction of roads, dams, and urban areas, results in the loss of connectivity between ecosystems.

Fragmentation can hinder the movement of species, disrupt genetic exchange, and lead to reduced biodiversity and ecological resilience.

MED 008 Assignment Question

Q 15. What are sustainable food security indicators?

Ans. Sustainable food security indicators are measures used to assess the long-term availability, accessibility, and utilization of food in a manner that promotes environmental sustainability, economic viability, and social equity.

These indicators help evaluate the progress towards achieving food security goals while considering the environmental and social impacts of food production, distribution, and consumption. MED 008 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Here are some commonly used sustainable food security indicators:

Food Availability:

Crop diversity: The variety of crops cultivated and consumed in a region, which ensures a diverse and nutritious food supply.

Agricultural productivity: Measures the yield and efficiency of food production systems, aiming for sustainable and resilient agricultural practices.

Water and land use efficiency: The efficient use of water and land resources in agricultural production, reducing waste and optimizing resource allocation.

Food Access: MED 008 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Affordability: The ability of individuals and households to access and afford an adequate and diverse range of nutritious food.

Income and poverty levels: Measures the income and poverty rates, as food access is closely linked to income levels and poverty reduction efforts.

Food distribution and infrastructure: The accessibility and availability of food markets, transportation networks, and storage facilities, ensuring equitable distribution of food across regions.

Food Utilization:

Nutritional quality: Evaluates the nutrient content and diversity of diets, promoting the consumption of balanced and diverse food sources.

Food safety and hygiene: Ensures that food is safe for consumption and meets quality standards, minimizing health risks associated with contaminated or unsafe food. MED 008 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Reduction of food waste: Measures efforts to reduce food loss and waste throughout the supply chain, promoting efficient utilization of resources.

Environmental Sustainability:

Climate resilience: Assessing the resilience of food systems to climate change impacts, including adaptation and mitigation strategies.

Sustainable land and water management: Evaluating the adoption of sustainable agricultural practices that minimize environmental degradation, soil erosion, and water pollution.

Biodiversity conservation: Measures efforts to protect and promote biodiversity in agricultural landscapes, as biodiversity is crucial for resilient and sustainable food systems. MED 008 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Social Equity:

Gender equality: Assessing gender disparities and promoting equal access and opportunities for women in food production, income generation, and decision-making processes.

Social safety nets: Evaluating the availability of social protection programs and mechanisms that ensure vulnerable populations have access to adequate food.

Empowerment and participation: Measures the inclusion and participation of marginalized communities in decision-making processes related to food security and agriculture.

Q 16. What are micronutrients? Describe any disease related to deficiency of amicronutrient.

Ans. Micronutrients are essential nutrients that are required by the body in small quantities but are vital for proper growth, development, and overall health.

They include vitamins and minerals that play key roles in various physiological functions. Here is an example of a disease related to the deficiency of a micronutrient: MED 008 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD):
Iodine is a micronutrient essential for the production of thyroid hormones, which regulate metabolism and play a crucial role in the development of the brain and nervous system.

Insufficient iodine intake can lead to iodine deficiency disorders (IDD), which encompass a range of health problems.

The most common and visible manifestation of IDD is goiter, characterized by the enlargement of the thyroid gland.

In areas where iodine deficiency is prevalent, such as certain regions in Africa, Asia, and South America, goiter can affect a significant portion of the population.

Goiter can lead to physical discomfort, difficulty swallowing, and impaired speech.

However, the most severe consequence of iodine deficiency is intellectual and developmental impairments, especially during fetal development and early childhood. MED 008 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Pregnant women with inadequate iodine intake can give birth to children with cognitive impairments, reduced IQ, and learning difficulties, a condition known as cretinism.

Children affected by IDD may experience stunted growth, impaired motor skills, and delayed mental development.

To combat IDD, public health interventions have focused on salt iodization programs, whereby iodine is added to table salt.

Universal salt iodization (USI) has been successful in many countries, significantly reducing the prevalence of iodine deficiency and associated disorders.

Efforts are also made to increase awareness about the importance of iodine-rich diets and promote the consumption of iodized salt or other iodine-rich foods.

It is worth noting that micronutrient deficiencies can have various other health implications. MED 008 Solved Free Assignment 2023

For instance, iron deficiency can lead to anemia, vitamin A deficiency can cause night blindness and weakened immune function, and zinc deficiency can impair growth and immune system function.

Ensuring adequate intake of micronutrients is crucial for overall health and well-being.

Q 17. List five characteristics of Environmentally Sound Technologies (EST).

Ans. Environmentally Sound Technologies (EST) refer to technologies and practices that contribute to sustainable development by minimizing environmental impacts and resource consumption. Here are five characteristics of EST:

Resource Efficiency: Environmentally Sound Technologies aim to optimize the use of resources, including energy, water, and raw materials. They focus on reducing waste generation, improving efficiency, and maximizing resource productivity.

By minimizing resource consumption, EST helps conserve natural resources and reduce environmental degradation.

Pollution Prevention: EST emphasizes the prevention and reduction of pollution at the source. MED 008 Solved Free Assignment 2023

These technologies adopt cleaner production methods and employ pollution control measures to minimize the release of harmful substances into the environment.

By addressing pollution at its origin, EST helps protect ecosystems, human health, and the overall environment.

Renewable Energy Integration: Environmentally Sound Technologies promote the use of renewable energy sources, such as solar, wind, hydro, and biomass, as alternatives to fossil fuels.

These technologies aim to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate climate change impacts. They contribute to the transition to a low-carbon economy and enhance energy security and sustainability.

Conservation and Restoration: EST includes practices that focus on the conservation and restoration of natural resources and ecosystems.

These technologies support sustainable land management, reforestation, watershed protection, and biodiversity conservation.

They promote the preservation of ecological balance and contribute to the long-term sustainability of ecosystems.MED 008 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Social and Economic Benefits: Environmentally Sound Technologies not only prioritize environmental considerations but also deliver social and economic benefits.

They create employment opportunities, foster innovation and technological advancements, and enhance the well-being of communities.

EST can contribute to poverty reduction, improved health outcomes, and the overall socio-economic development of societies.

Q 18. What is the concept behind ‘Green Business’?

Ans. The concept of “Green Business” revolves around the idea of conducting economic activities in a sustainable and environmentally responsible manner.

It entails incorporating principles of environmental protection, resource efficiency, and social responsibility into business operations and practices.

The main objective of green business is to minimize the negative impact of economic activities on the environment while promoting long-term sustainability and social well-being. Here are some key aspects of the concept:

Environmental Sustainability: Green businesses prioritize environmental sustainability by adopting practices that minimize resource consumption, waste generation, and pollution. MED 008 Solved Free Assignment 2023

They aim to reduce their carbon footprint, conserve energy and water, and promote the use of renewable resources.

Green businesses also strive to implement eco-friendly technologies, such as energy-efficient systems, green building practices, and waste management strategies that prioritize recycling and reuse.

Social Responsibility: Green businesses recognize their role in creating a positive social impact.

They consider the well-being of their employees, communities, and stakeholders by promoting fair labor practices, providing safe and healthy working conditions, and supporting local communities.

Green businesses often engage in corporate social responsibility initiatives, such as supporting environmental conservation projects, promoting education and awareness, and contributing to sustainable development goals.

Innovation and Eco-Design: Green businesses foster innovation and promote the development of eco-friendly products and services.

They aim to minimize the environmental impact of their offerings throughout their life cycle, from production to disposal.

This includes using sustainable materials, adopting efficient manufacturing processes, and designing products for durability, recyclability, and energy efficiency.

Green businesses encourage the adoption of sustainable practices across their supply chains and work towards creating a circular economy where resources are used efficiently and waste is minimized.

Stakeholder Engagement and Transparency: Green businesses actively engage with their stakeholders, including customers, employees, investors, and the wider community. MED 008 Solved Free Assignment 2023

They seek to build trust and transparency by providing accurate and reliable information about their environmental performance and sustainability efforts.

Green businesses often encourage feedback, participation, and collaboration from stakeholders to drive continuous improvement and ensure accountability.

The concept of green business acknowledges that economic growth and environmental stewardship are not mutually exclusive.

By integrating sustainability principles into their core operations, green businesses strive to achieve a balance between economic prosperity, environmental protection, and social well-being.

They contribute to a more sustainable and resilient economy, addressing pressing environmental challenges and creating a better future for generations to come.

Q 19. Refer to two instances during which Indian Judiciary has played a positive role inprotecting the environment.

Ans. The Indian judiciary has played a crucial role in protecting the environment through its landmark judgments and interventions.

Here are two instances where the Indian judiciary has positively influenced environmental protection:MED 008 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Vellore Citizens Welfare Forum v. Union of India (1996):
In this landmark case, the Supreme Court of India laid down the principle of “polluter pays” and established the liability of industries for environmental damage caused by their operations.

The court emphasized that the polluter must bear the cost of preventing and remedying pollution.

The judgment led to the formulation of the National Environmental Policy (NEP) and the creation of the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) to regulate pollution control measures across the country.

This decision marked a significant step in holding industries accountable for their environmental impact and promoting sustainable development.

M.C. Mehta v. Union of India (1987 – ongoing):
This ongoing case, commonly known as the “Ganga pollution case,” highlights the judicial intervention to protect the River Ganges (Ganga), one of India’s most sacred and polluted rivers. MED 008 Solved Free Assignment 2023

The Supreme Court has been monitoring and issuing directives to various government agencies to clean and restore the river.

The court’s interventions have led to the closure of polluting industries, the installation of sewage treatment plants, and the enforcement of strict pollution control measures.

The case has drawn significant attention to the importance of conserving water bodies and has spurred efforts to rejuvenate the Ganga and other polluted rivers in India.

These instances demonstrate the proactive role of the Indian judiciary in addressing environmental issues and ensuring the implementation of environmental laws and policies.

The judiciary’s interventions have not only helped protect the environment but also raised awareness about environmental conservation and the need for sustainable development in the country.MED 008 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Q 20. “Right to clean environment is an inalienable part of human right”. Explain the statement.

Ans. The statement “Right to a clean environment is an inalienable part of human rights” emphasizes the fundamental connection between a clean and healthy environment and the well-being and dignity of every individual.

It asserts that access to a clean and sustainable environment is not merely a luxury or a privilege but an inherent and essential right that should be guaranteed to all individuals.

There are several reasons why the right to a clean environment is considered an integral part of human rights:

Human Health and Well-being: A clean environment is essential for human health and well-being. MED 008 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Pollution, contaminated water, air, and soil can have severe adverse effects on human health, leading to diseases, respiratory issues, and other health problems.

Access to clean air, water, and a healthy environment is vital for the enjoyment of a good quality of life and the fulfillment of basic human needs.

Human Dignity: Human rights are grounded in the principle of human dignity. A clean environment contributes to a dignified life, free from pollution, degradation, and environmental hazards.

It ensures that individuals can live in safe and healthy surroundings, free from threats to their well-being and personal dignity.

Sustainable Development: Environmental sustainability is crucial for achieving long-term development goals.

A clean environment provides the necessary resources for economic growth, social progress, and the well-being of current and future generations.

Protecting the environment is thus essential for ensuring a sustainable future and fulfilling the rights of present and future populations.

Interdependence of Rights: Human rights are interdependent and interconnected. The right to a clean environment intersects with other rights such as the right to life, health, water, food, and culture. MED 008 Solved Free Assignment 2023

A polluted environment can infringe upon these rights, limiting individuals’ ability to enjoy and exercise their other fundamental rights.

Recognizing the right to a clean environment as an inalienable part of human rights implies that governments have an obligation to protect and preserve the environment, enact and enforce environmental laws and regulations, and ensure access to a clean and sustainable environment for all individuals.

It also emphasizes the need for individuals, communities, and institutions to promote sustainable practices, conservation efforts, and environmental justice to safeguard this essential right.

The recognition of the right to a clean environment as a human right underscores the inseparable relationship between human well-being and environmental protection. MED 008 Solved Free Assignment 2023

It highlights the responsibility of individuals, governments, and societies to work collectively towards a sustainable and equitable future, where everyone can live in harmony with nature and enjoy their basic rights.

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