BLI 224Solved Free Assignment 2023
BLI 224 Solved Free Assignment January 2023
Q 1. What is networking? Explain topologies used in wide area network with diagrams.
Ans. Networking refers to the process of connecting different computer systems, devices, or networks to enable communication and sharing of resources.
In today’s world, networking plays a critical role in many aspects of our lives, including communication, business, education, and entertainment.
It is a vast field that encompasses different types of networks, such as local area networks (LANs), wide area networks (WANs), and wireless networks, among others.
One of the crucial aspects of networking is topology, which refers to the physical or logical layout of a network.
Topology is concerned with how the different nodes, devices, and connections are arranged and how data flows between them.
A wide area network (WAN) is a type of network that spans a large geographical area, such as a city, state, or even a country.
WANs are typically used to connect multiple LANs, data centers, or remote offices to enable communication and data transfer.
WANs can be operated by private organizations, such as large corporations or government agencies, or by public service providers, such as Internet service providers (ISPs).BLI 224 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The topology of a WAN determines the physical or logical layout of the network and how data flows between the different nodes and devices. The following are the common topologies used in WANs:
The point-to-point topology is the simplest and most straightforward topology used in WANs. It involves the connection of two nodes or devices directly, with no intermediate devices or nodes in between.
This topology is commonly used in telephone networks, leased lines, and dedicated circuits.
In this topology, the data is transmitted from the source to the destination in a unidirectional manner, which means that the data flows in one direction only.
This makes it easy to manage and troubleshoot the network, as there are only two nodes or devices involved. However, this topology is not scalable and is not suitable for large networks.
Here is a diagram of a point-to-point topology:
Node A ———– Node B
The bus topology is another common topology used in WANs. In this topology, all the nodes or devices are connected to a single communication channel or bus. The data is transmitted on the bus, and all the nodes receive the data simultaneously.
This topology is commonly used in Ethernet networks, where all the nodes share the same communication medium.BLI 224 Solved Free Assignment 2023
One of the advantages of this topology is that it is simple and easy to set up, and it is suitable for small to medium-sized networks. However, it is not very scalable, and if the communication channel fails, the entire network will be affected.
Here is a diagram of a bus topology:
The star topology is another popular topology used in WANs. In this topology, all the nodes or devices are connected to a central device, such as a switch or a hub.
The data is transmitted from the source node to the central device, which then forwards the data to the destination node. This topology is commonly used in LANs and WANs, as it is scalable and flexible.
One of the advantages of this topology is that it is easy to manage and troubleshoot, as each node or device can be easily isolated and tested. Additionally, this topology is scalable and can support large networks.
However, the central device can become a single point of failure, and if it fails, the entire network will be affected.BLI 224 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Here is a diagram of a star topology:
Node A | |
The ring topology is another common topology used in WANs. In this topology, the nodes or devices are connected in a circular or ring-shaped network, where each node is connected to two adjacent nodes.
The data is transmitted in a unidirectional manner, where each node receives the data from the previous node and forwards it to the next node.
One of the advantages of this topology is that it is easy to manage and troubleshoot, as each node or device can be easily isolated and tested.
Additionally, this topology is scalable and can support large networks. However, the central device can become a single point of failure, and if it fails, the entire network will be affected.BLI 224 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Here is a diagram of a ring topology:
Node A — Node B
Node D — Node C
The mesh topology is a complex and flexible topology used in WANs. In this topology, each node or device is connected to all other nodes in the network, creating a fully connected network.
This topology is commonly used in mission-critical networks, such as military or government networks, where high availability and reliability are essential.
One of the advantages of this topology is that it is highly reliable and resilient, as there are multiple paths for data transmission, and if one path fails, the data can be rerouted through another path.
However, this topology is expensive and difficult to set up and manage, as there are a large number of connections to manage.
Here is a diagram of a mesh topology:
Node A — Node B — Node C
| | |
| | |
Node D — Node E — Node F
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Node G — Node H — Node I
The hybrid topology is a combination of two or more topologies, such as a star-bus topology or a star-ring topology. BLI 224 Solved Free Assignment 2023
This topology is commonly used in large and complex networks, where different topologies are used for different parts of the network.
One of the advantages of this topology is that it is flexible and can be customized to meet the specific needs of the network.
Additionally, this topology is scalable and can support large networks. However, this topology can be complex and difficult to set up and manage, as there are different topologies to manage.
Here is a diagram of a hybrid topology:
Node A | |
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| | |
Node B Node C Node D
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Node E Node F
Q 2. What is convergence? Explain the major communication technologies of modern telecommunications system.
Ans. Convergence refers to the integration of different technologies, services, and applications into a single platform, network, or device. It is the process of bringing together various communication technologies to provide seamless and integrated services to users. BLI 224 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Convergence has been a major trend in the telecommunications industry, as it enables service providers to offer a wide range of services to users and to create new revenue streams.
The major communication technologies of modern telecommunications systems include:
Voice communication is the most traditional and basic form of communication technology. It refers to the transmission of voice signals over a network, such as a telephone network.
In the past, voice communication was limited to the use of analog circuits, but with the advent of digital technology, voice communication has become more efficient and reliable.
Today, voice communication is commonly used in both wired and wireless networks, and can be integrated with other communication technologies, such as video and data.BLI 224 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Data communication refers to the transmission of digital signals over a network. It includes technologies such as email, instant messaging, and file sharing. With the growth of the internet, data communication has become an essential part of modern telecommunications systems.
Today, data communication is primarily carried out using packet-switching technologies, such as the Internet Protocol (IP), which enables the transmission of data packets over a network.
Video communication refers to the transmission of video signals over a network. It includes technologies such as video conferencing and streaming.
Video communication has become increasingly important in modern telecommunications systems, as it enables users to communicate and collaborate in real-time, regardless of their physical location.
Today, video communication is commonly used in both personal and professional settings, and can be integrated with other communication technologies, such as voice and data.BLI 224 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Wireless communication refers to the transmission of signals over a wireless network, such as a cellular network or a Wi-Fi network.
With the growth of mobile devices and the internet of things (IoT), wireless communication has become an essential part of modern telecommunications systems.
Today, wireless communication is commonly used for voice, data, and video communication, as well as for machine-to-machine (M2M) communication.
Cloud computing refers to the delivery of computing services over a network, such as the internet. It includes technologies such as software-as-a-service (SaaS), platform-as-a-service (PaaS), and infrastructure-as-a-service (IaaS).
Cloud computing has become a major trend in modern telecommunications systems, as it enables service providers to offer scalable and flexible services to users, without the need for expensive infrastructure.BLI 224 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Internet of Things (IoT)
The internet of things (IoT) refers to the network of physical devices, vehicles, and other objects that are embedded with sensors, software, and connectivity, enabling them to collect and exchange data.
IoT has become a major trend in modern telecommunications systems, as it enables service providers to offer new services and applications to users, such as smart homes, smart cities, and connected cars.
Artificial Intelligence (AI)
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is an emerging technology that is revolutionizing the telecommunications industry.
AI refers to the ability of machines to perform tasks that would typically require human intelligence, such as speech recognition, natural language processing, and decision making. BLI 224 Solved Free Assignment 2023
AI is being used in modern telecommunications systems to improve the user experience, automate processes, and provide intelligent services.
5G technology is the next generation of mobile communication technology that promises to provide faster speeds, higher capacity, and lower latency than previous generations.
5G technology uses advanced wireless technologies, such as millimeter-wave frequency bands and massive MIMO (multiple-input, multiple-output) antennas, to achieve these benefits.
5G technology is expected to enable new applications and services, such as virtual and augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, and smart cities.
Blockchain technology is a distributed ledger technology that enables secure and transparent transactions without the need for intermediaries.
Blockchain technology has the potential to transform the telecommunications industry by enabling secure and transparent transactions between service providers and users, as well as between different service providers.
Blockchain technology can also be used to enable new services, such as micro-payments and decentralized communication networks.
Edge Computing BLI 224 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Edge computing is a distributed computing paradigm that enables data processing and storage to be carried out at the edge of the network, closer to the source of the data.
Edge computing has become important in modern telecommunications systems, as it enables real-time processing and analysis of data, reduces latency, and enables new services and applications, such as augmented reality and autonomous vehicles.
Virtualization refers to the abstraction of computing resources, such as servers, storage, and network devices, from the underlying hardware.
Virtualization has become important in modern telecommunications systems, as it enables service providers to create virtual networks and services, reduce costs, and improve scalability and flexibility.BLI 224 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Cybersecurity refers to the protection of networks, devices, and data from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification, or destruction.
Cybersecurity has become a critical issue in modern telecommunications systems, as the number of cyber threats and attacks has increased in recent years.
Service providers need to implement robust cybersecurity measures to protect their networks and users from cyber threats and attacks.
Q 3. What do you understand by the protocols? Describe Remote Login in detail.
Ans. In the context of computer networking, a protocol is a set of rules and procedures that govern the transmission of data between devices. Protocols enable devices to communicate with each other and ensure that data is transmitted accurately and reliably. BLI 224 Solved Free Assignment 2023
There are many protocols used in computer networking, including the TCP/IP protocol suite, HTTP, FTP, and SMTP.
Remote Login, also known as Remote Shell (RSH) or Secure Shell (SSH), is a protocol used to connect to a remote computer over a network and access its command line interface.
Remote Login is commonly used by system administrators and developers to manage remote servers and workstations.
Remote Login works by establishing a secure connection between the local computer and the remote computer using encryption.
The connection can be initiated using a terminal program, such as PuTTY or OpenSSH, which allows the user to enter commands on the remote computer as if they were sitting in front of it.BLI 224 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The Remote Login protocol consists of two main components: the client and the server. The client is the program that is used to initiate the connection, while the server is the program that is running on the remote computer and accepts incoming connections.
The client and server communicate using a set of protocols and procedures that ensure the security and reliability of the connection.
When a user initiates a Remote Login session, the client program sends a request to the server program to establish a connection. The server program then responds with a message indicating that it is ready to accept incoming connections.
Once the connection is established, the client program sends commands to the server program, which executes them and sends the output back to the client program.
Remote Login uses encryption to ensure the security of the connection. This encryption can be based on a variety of protocols, including Secure Shell (SSH) and Transport Layer Security (TLS).
These protocols use encryption to protect the data that is transmitted between the client and server, making it difficult for unauthorized users to intercept and read the data.BLI 224 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Remote Login also provides a number of security features that help to prevent unauthorized access to the remote computer.
These features include authentication, which requires the user to provide a username and password to log in, and access control, which allows administrators to restrict access to specific users or groups.
Overall, Remote Login is a powerful tool that enables system administrators and developers to manage remote servers and workstations from a local computer.
By providing a secure and reliable way to access command line interfaces on remote computers, Remote Login makes it easier to manage and maintain complex computer systems.
In addition to its use in system administration and development, Remote Login has a number of other applications. For example, it can be used to remotely access and control digital signage displays, kiosks, and other digital media devices.
This allows operators to update content and manage the devices from a central location, without the need for physical access to each device.
Remote Login can also be used to enable remote work and collaboration. With Remote Login, employees can access their workstations and files from home or other remote locations, allowing them to work more flexibly and efficiently.
This is particularly useful in situations where physical access to the office or workspace is restricted, such as during a pandemic or other crisis.
However, Remote Login also has some potential drawbacks and security risks. For example, if the remote computer is not properly secured or if the user’s login credentials are compromised, unauthorized users may be able to access sensitive data or execute malicious code on the remote computer.
To mitigate these risks, it is important to follow best practices for securing remote connections, such as using strong passwords and multi-factor authentication, and regularly updating and patching software.
Overall, Remote Login is a powerful and versatile protocol that has become a critical tool in modern computer networking. BLI 224 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Whether used for system administration, digital signage, remote work, or other applications, Remote Login provides a secure and reliable way to access and manage remote computers and devices.
By understanding how Remote Login works and following best practices for its use, network administrators and other users can take advantage of its benefits while minimizing its risks.
II) Write short notes on the following
Q 1. Ubuntu operating system
Ans. Ubuntu is a popular Linux-based operating system that is widely used in personal computing, enterprise servers, and cloud computing environments.
Developed and maintained by Canonical, Ubuntu is free and open-source software that is based on the Debian distribution of Linux.
One of the key features of Ubuntu is its ease of use and accessibility. The operating system is designed to be user-friendly and intuitive, with a graphical interface that is similar to other popular operating systems such as Windows and macOS.
Ubuntu also includes a wide range of pre-installed software, including web browsers, office applications, media players, and development tools.
Another important feature of Ubuntu is its security and reliability. Because it is based on the Linux kernel, Ubuntu is inherently more secure than many other operating systems, with a smaller attack surface and better built-in security features.
Additionally, Ubuntu includes frequent security updates and patches, ensuring that the operating system is always up-to-date and protected against the latest threats.
Ubuntu also has a strong community of developers and users, with a large and active online forum where users can get help and support for any issues they encounter.
The community also contributes to the development of the operating system, providing bug reports, feature requests, and code contributions.
In addition to its use in personal computing, Ubuntu is also widely used in enterprise and cloud computing environments. BLI 224 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The operating system is particularly well-suited for servers, with support for a wide range of server applications, including web servers, database servers, and file servers.
Ubuntu is also available as a cloud image for use in cloud computing environments, with support for popular cloud platforms such as Amazon Web Services, Microsoft Azure, and Google Cloud Platform.
One of the key advantages of Ubuntu in cloud computing environments is its lightweight and efficient design.
Ubuntu is designed to be resource-efficient, with a small memory and disk footprint that makes it well-suited for use in virtualized and containerized environments.
Additionally, Ubuntu includes support for popular containerization technologies such as Docker and Kubernetes, making it easy to deploy and manage containerized applications in the cloud.
Overall, Ubuntu is a versatile and reliable operating system that is well-suited for a wide range of personal computing, enterprise, and cloud computing environments.
With its user-friendly interface, strong security and reliability, and active community of developers and users, Ubuntu is a popular choice for both beginners and experienced users alike.BLI 224 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Whether used for personal computing, server applications, or cloud computing, Ubuntu provides a powerful and flexible platform that can meet the needs of a wide range of users and organizations.
Q 2. Advantages of LibreOffice
Ans. LibreOffice is a popular open-source office productivity suite that provides a range of powerful tools for word processing, spreadsheets, presentations, and more.
Developed by The Document Foundation, LibreOffice is available for free and runs on multiple operating systems, including Windows, macOS, and Linux. Here are some of the key advantages of LibreOffice:
Free and open-source: LibreOffice is free to use and distribute, making it accessible to everyone regardless of their budget.
It is also open-source software, which means that the source code is available for anyone to view, modify, and distribute.
This makes it a popular choice for individuals, businesses, and educational institutions who want a powerful office suite without having to pay for expensive licenses.BLI 224 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Cross-platform compatibility: LibreOffice is compatible with multiple operating systems, including Windows, macOS, and Linux.
This makes it a versatile and flexible choice for users who need to work across different platforms or who want to switch between operating systems without losing access to their files.
Wide range of applications: LibreOffice includes a range of applications that provide powerful tools for word processing, spreadsheets, presentations, and more.
These applications are designed to be user-friendly and intuitive, with a familiar interface that is similar to other popular office suites.
Additionally, LibreOffice supports a range of file formats, including Microsoft Office formats, making it easy to collaborate with users who are using different software.
Customization options: LibreOffice is highly customizable, with a range of options for customizing the interface, keyboard shortcuts, and other settings.
This allows users to tailor the software to their individual preferences and work habits, improving productivity and efficiency.
Support for multiple languages: LibreOffice supports multiple languages, making it accessible to users around the world.
It includes a range of dictionaries, spell-checkers, and other language tools, as well as support for right-to-left languages such as Arabic and Hebrew.
Integrated graphics and charting tools: LibreOffice includes powerful graphics and charting tools that allow users to create professional-quality charts, diagrams, and other visual aids. BLI 224 Solved Free Assignment 2023
These tools are fully integrated into the software, making it easy to create and edit charts and other graphics without having to switch to another application.
Compatibility with third-party extensions: LibreOffice supports a range of third-party extensions, allowing users to add additional functionality to the software.
These extensions can provide everything from additional templates and clipart to advanced editing and formatting tools.
Privacy and security: LibreOffice is designed with privacy and security in mind, with a range of features that help to protect user data and ensure that documents are kept secure.
For example, LibreOffice includes support for encryption and digital signatures, making it easy to secure and authenticate documents.
Q 3. Relational database management system
Ans. A relational database management system (RDBMS) is a software application that allows users to create, modify, and manage relational databases.
RDBMS systems are based on the relational model of data, which organizes data into tables or “relations” that are related to each other by common fields or attributes.
Relational databases are widely used in business and organizations for a variety of applications, such as managing inventory, processing transactions, and storing customer data. BLI 224 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Here are some of the key features and advantages of relational database management systems:
Data organization: RDBMS systems allow users to organize data in a structured and consistent manner. Data is stored in tables with defined columns and rows, making it easy to search, sort, and filter data as needed.
This makes it easier to maintain data accuracy and consistency, as well as to analyze and retrieve data quickly and efficiently.
Data integrity: RDBMS systems are designed to ensure data integrity, meaning that data is accurate, consistent, and reliable.
RDBMS systems use a variety of mechanisms to enforce data integrity, such as data constraints, foreign keys, and triggers.
This helps to ensure that data is entered correctly and that data relationships are maintained correctly.BLI 224 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Data security: RDBMS systems provide a range of security features, such as user authentication and access controls, to ensure that only authorized users can access and modify data. Data can also be encrypted to prevent unauthorized access or theft.
Scalability: RDBMS systems are highly scalable, meaning that they can handle large amounts of data and users without experiencing performance issues.
RDBMS systems can also be scaled vertically by adding more resources to the server, or horizontally by adding more servers to the system.
Transaction management: RDBMS systems provide transaction management capabilities, allowing users to perform complex operations on data while ensuring that the database remains in a consistent state.
Transactions can be rolled back if an error occurs, ensuring that the database remains accurate and consistent.
Data backup and recovery: RDBMS systems provide data backup and recovery capabilities, allowing users to restore data in case of a disaster or system failure.
Backups can be performed on a regular basis to ensure that data is protected in case of a catastrophic event.BLI 224 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Query language: RDBMS systems use a structured query language (SQL) to allow users to retrieve data from the database.
SQL is a standardized language that is used by many different RDBMS systems, making it easy for users to switch between different systems or to share data between different systems.
Q 4. Major areas of multimedia use
Ans. Multimedia is the integration of different forms of media such as text, audio, video, images, and animation to create a more engaging and interactive experience for users.
The use of multimedia has become widespread in recent years and has applications in various fields. Here are some of the major areas of multimedia use:
Entertainment: The entertainment industry is one of the largest consumers of multimedia. Movies, television shows, music videos, and video games all rely heavily on multimedia to create engaging and immersive experiences for their audiences.
The use of multimedia in entertainment has transformed the way we consume media and has made it possible to create more realistic and engaging experiences.
Education: Multimedia has been widely used in education as a tool for enhancing the learning experience. BLI 224 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Educational videos, interactive animations, and online courses are some examples of multimedia used in education.
Multimedia can help to make complex concepts more accessible and engaging for students, making it easier for them to understand and retain information.
Marketing and Advertising: Multimedia is a powerful tool in marketing and advertising. Companies use multimedia to create engaging and interactive advertisements that capture the attention of their target audience.
Multimedia can be used to create product demos, explainer videos, and other types of content that help to promote products and services.
Medicine: Multimedia has become an essential tool in medicine for training, diagnosis, and treatment. Medical professionals use multimedia to train and educate students and other medical professionals.
Multimedia can be used to create virtual simulations of medical procedures, making it easier for medical professionals to learn and practice.
Art and Design: Multimedia has also had a significant impact on the art and design industry. Artists and designers use multimedia to create visually stunning and interactive works of art. BLI 224 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Multimedia has made it possible to create digital art, animations, and interactive installations that would have been impossible to create in the past.
Journalism and News: The use of multimedia has revolutionized the way news is reported and consumed. News organizations use multimedia to create engaging and interactive content that captures the attention of their audience.
Multimedia can be used to create video news reports, interactive maps, and other types of content that help to tell the story.
Q 5. Mesh topology
Ans. Mesh topology is a type of network topology in which every node in the network is connected to every other node.
This means that there is no single point of failure in the network, as data can be routed through multiple paths if one of the connections fails.
In a mesh topology, each node acts as a relay for other nodes, and the network can be designed to be highly resilient and fault-tolerant.
There are two types of mesh topology: full mesh topology and partial mesh topology. In a full mesh topology, every node is connected to every other node in the network, while in a partial mesh topology, some nodes are only connected to a subset of the other nodes in the network.
One of the primary advantages of a mesh topology is its high level of redundancy. Since every node is connected to every other node, there are multiple paths for data to travel in the event of a failure or outage.
This makes mesh topologies highly reliable and ensures that data can be transmitted even if some nodes fail.BLI 224 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Another advantage of mesh topologies is their scalability. As new nodes are added to the network, they can be easily integrated without disrupting the existing network.
This makes mesh topologies an ideal choice for large-scale networks that need to be expanded over time.
Mesh topologies also offer a high degree of flexibility. Since there is no central point of control, nodes can communicate with each other directly, allowing for more efficient data transmission.
This also makes it easier to troubleshoot network issues, as the source of the problem can be identified more quickly.
However, mesh topologies also have some disadvantages. One of the main drawbacks is the cost of implementation.
Since every node is connected to every other node, the number of connections required can quickly become unwieldy as the network grows. This can lead to higher hardware and installation costs.
Another potential disadvantage of mesh topologies is their complexity. With so many connections between nodes, it can be difficult to manage the network and troubleshoot issues.
In addition, the routing algorithms used in mesh networks can be complex and require significant processing power, which can be a challenge for smaller networks or devices with limited processing capabilities.
Q 6. Interactive television (ITV)
Ans. Interactive Television (ITV) is a television service that allows viewers to interact with television programs in real-time.
This is achieved through the integration of two-way communication technology, such as the internet, telephone lines, or a set-top box.
The technology allows users to access additional information, participate in games or polls, purchase products, and even control the content they are watching.
One of the primary advantages of ITV is the ability to provide a more engaging and personalized experience for the viewer. Interactive features allow viewers to tailor their viewing experience, making it more relevant and interesting.
For example, a viewer can participate in a poll during a news program or access additional information about a product they see advertised.
ITV also provides a platform for advertising that is more targeted and relevant. Advertisers can use interactive features to engage viewers in a more meaningful way, such as allowing them to access more information about a product or participate in a game or contest. BLI 224 Solved Free Assignment 2023
This increases the chances that the viewer will remember the advertisement and potentially make a purchase.
Another advantage of ITV is the potential for new revenue streams. Interactive features such as product purchasing or voting can generate revenue for both broadcasters and content creators.
ITV also offers the opportunity for content providers to create new and innovative programming, such as interactive game shows or reality TV programs.
However, there are some challenges associated with implementing ITV. One of the biggest challenges is the need for a high-speed internet connection or advanced set-top box technology.
This can limit access to ITV for some viewers, particularly those in rural or low-income areas.
In addition, the implementation of ITV requires significant investment in technology and infrastructure.
This can be a significant barrier for smaller broadcasters or content creators, limiting their ability to offer interactive features.
Another challenge is the need for content creators to develop programming that is specifically designed for interactive features.
This requires a shift in the traditional approach to television production and can be a significant investment for content creators.
Despite these challenges, ITV continues to grow in popularity, with many broadcasters and content creators investing in the technology.
As the technology continues to evolve, it is likely that ITV will become an even more integral part of the television viewing experience.
Q 7. Malicious software
Ans. Malicious software, or malware, refers to any software designed to harm, disrupt or infiltrate computer systems, without the consent or knowledge of the user.
Malware can take many different forms, including viruses, worms, Trojans, adware, spyware, ransomware, and rootkits.
One of the most common types of malware is viruses. These are programs that attach themselves to legitimate files and spread from computer to computer, often causing damage along the way. BLI 224 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Once the virus is activated, it can cause a variety of problems, including deleting or corrupting files, stealing personal information, or even using the infected computer to launch attacks on other systems.
Worms are another type of malware that can spread rapidly through a network or the internet. Unlike viruses, worms do not need to attach themselves to a file, but rather spread through vulnerabilities in the operating system or other software.
Once a worm has infected a computer, it can cause significant damage by using up system resources, stealing information or creating backdoors for remote access.
Trojan horses are programs that are disguised as legitimate software, but which contain hidden malicious code. They are often downloaded by unsuspecting users who think they are installing a harmless program.
Once installed, the Trojan can carry out a variety of tasks, including stealing personal information or giving remote control of the infected computer to an attacker.
Adware and spyware are two other types of malware that are designed to gather information about users’ browsing habits and display targeted ads or collect personal information for marketing purposes.
While they may not cause significant damage to a system, they can be highly intrusive and compromise users’ privacy.
Ransomware is a type of malware that has become increasingly common in recent years. It is designed to encrypt a user’s files and demand payment in exchange for the decryption key.BLI 224 Solved Free Assignment 2023
This can be a highly effective way for attackers to extort money from users, and the consequences of refusing to pay can be severe, with the loss of important files and data.
Rootkits are a particularly insidious form of malware that are designed to hide their presence on a system, making it difficult to detect and remove them.
They can give attackers full control of a computer, allowing them to carry out a variety of malicious activities, including stealing sensitive data and using the infected computer to launch attacks on other systems.
Q 8. Messaging
Ans. Messaging is a term used to describe the exchange of electronic messages between two or more users.
It is an important component of modern communication, and has become increasingly popular in recent years due to the rise of mobile devices and instant messaging applications.
Messaging can take many different forms, including email, instant messaging, text messaging, and social media messaging. Each of these forms has its own strengths and weaknesses, and is suited to different types of communication.
Email is one of the oldest and most widely used forms of electronic messaging. It is typically used for longer, more formal messages, and is well-suited to business communication. BLI 224 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Email allows users to attach files and documents, and to send messages to multiple recipients at once.
Instant messaging is a newer form of messaging that has become increasingly popular in recent years.
It allows users to send real-time messages to each other, and is typically used for shorter, more informal communication.
Instant messaging applications are available on a wide range of devices, including smartphones, tablets, and desktop computers.
Text messaging is a form of messaging that is specifically designed for mobile devices. It allows users to send short, text-based messages to each other, and is often used for quick communication on the go.
Text messaging is particularly popular among younger users, who prefer it to email and other forms of electronic communication.
Social media messaging is another form of messaging that has become increasingly popular in recent years.BLI 224 Solved Free Assignment 2023
It allows users to send messages to each other within a social media platform, and is often used for informal communication between friends and family members.
Messaging has a number of advantages over traditional forms of communication. It is typically faster, more convenient, and more cost-effective than other forms of communication, and allows users to stay in touch with each other regardless of their location or time zone.
However, messaging also has some disadvantages. It can be more difficult to convey tone and emotion through electronic messages, and messages can be easily misunderstood or misinterpreted.
In addition, messaging can be a distraction, and can lead to reduced productivity and increased stress.
To make the most of messaging, it is important to use it in a way that is appropriate for the situation.
This means choosing the right form of messaging for the message you want to convey, and being mindful of the potential limitations of electronic communication.
It is also important to be clear and concise in your messages, and to avoid sending messages that are unnecessary or repetitive.
Overall, messaging is an important component of modern communication, and has revolutionized the way we stay in touch with each other.
While it has its limitations, when used appropriately, messaging can be a powerful tool for staying connected and productive in a fast-paced, digital world.
Q 9. Features of search tools
Ans. Search tools are software applications that allow users to search for information on the internet. They are essential tools for anyone who needs to conduct research, find specific information, or simply browse the web.
There are a wide variety of search tools available, each with its own features and capabilities. BLI 224 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Keyword Search: Keyword search is the most basic feature of search tools. It allows users to search for specific keywords or phrases on the internet. The search engine will then return a list of results that match the user’s query.
Advanced Search: Many search tools offer advanced search features that allow users to refine their search criteria. This might include specifying date ranges, searching for exact phrases, or excluding certain words from the search results.
Boolean Operators: Boolean operators are used to create complex search queries that include multiple keywords or phrases. The most commonly used Boolean operators are “AND,” “OR,” and “NOT.”
By using these operators, users can create highly specific search queries that return exactly the information they are looking for.
Filters: Many search tools allow users to filter their search results based on specific criteria. BLI 224 Solved Free Assignment 2023
This might include filtering by date, file type, or website domain. Filters can help users to quickly narrow down their search results and find the information they need.
Related Searches: Many search tools offer related search suggestions based on the user’s search query. These suggestions can be useful for discovering new information or exploring related topics.
Suggestions: Some search tools offer suggestions for search queries based on the user’s search history or previous searches.
This can help users to quickly find the information they need without having to spend time crafting a complex search query.
Personalization: Some search tools offer personalized search results based on the user’s search history, location, or other factors. This can help to provide more relevant search results and improve the overall search experience.
Visual Search: Some search tools allow users to search for information using visual images rather than keywords. This might include using an image search engine to find similar images or using a visual search tool to identify objects in an image.
Voice Search: With the rise of voice assistants like Siri, Google Assistant, and Alexa, voice search has become an increasingly popular feature of search tools.
Users can simply speak their search query aloud and receive a list of results without having to type anything.BLI 224 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Real-Time Search: Real-time search allows users to find information that is updated in real-time. This might include social media posts, news articles, or other types of information that are constantly being updated.
Q 10. Packet switching
Ans. Packet switching is a method of transmitting data across a network in which data is broken down into small packets and transmitted individually across the network. BLI 224 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Each packet contains a portion of the data, along with information about the source and destination of the packet, and the order in which the packets should be reassembled at the receiving end.
This method of transmission is used by many different types of networks, including the internet, and is known for its efficiency and flexibility.
The main advantage of packet switching is that it allows multiple devices to share a single network connection.
By breaking down data into small packets, multiple devices can send and receive data simultaneously without interfering with each other.
This is in contrast to other methods of data transmission, such as circuit switching, where a dedicated circuit must be established for each device that wishes to communicate.
Another advantage of packet switching is that it is highly adaptable to changes in the network. BLI 224 Solved Free Assignment 2023
As packets are transmitted across the network, they can be routed around areas of congestion or network failures, ensuring that the data reaches its destination as quickly and reliably as possible.
This flexibility also allows for the efficient use of network resources, as packets can be transmitted over whatever path is currently available, rather than being tied to a dedicated circuit.
Packet switching is also known for its robustness and reliability. Because each packet contains information about its source and destination, the network can automatically detect and correct errors that may occur during transmission.
This ensures that data is transmitted accurately and reliably, even in the face of network disruptions or hardware failures.
However, there are also some potential disadvantages to packet switching. One of the main concerns is that packet switching can result in delays or latency, as packets are transmitted across the network and then reassembled at the receiving end.
This can be particularly problematic for applications that require real-time or near real-time data transmission, such as video streaming or online gaming.
Another potential disadvantage of packet switching is the possibility of packet loss. Because packets are transmitted individually and over multiple paths, there is always the possibility that some packets may be lost or delayed in transmission.
This can result in slower overall data transmission speeds or even the loss of data altogether.BLI 224 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Despite these potential drawbacks, packet switching remains one of the most widely used methods of data transmission across networks.
Its efficiency, flexibility, and reliability make it an ideal choice for many different types of applications, from web browsing and email to video conferencing and online gaming.
With the continued growth of the internet and other networks, packet switching is likely to remain an essential component of modern communication for years to come.