SOCIOLOGY OF INDIA
BSOC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
BSOC 132 Solved Free Assignment January 2023
Q 1. Discuss the bonds of unity in India with suitable examples.
Ans. India is a land of diversity, with people from different religions, cultures, languages, and ethnicities coexisting together. However, despite these differences, India is known for its unity and harmony.
This unity is largely attributed to the various bonds that exist in the country.
The first bond of unity in India is language. India is a land of many languages, with 22 officially recognized languages and over 1,600 dialects. Despite the diversity of languages, the country has been able to maintain its unity.
People are encouraged to learn multiple languages to communicate with people from different parts of the country.
This is particularly evident in the southern states of India, where people speak different languages, but also communicate with each other in a common language, such as English or Hindi. BSOC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
For example, Tamil Nadu is predominantly a Tamil-speaking state, but people are also fluent in English and Hindi, which facilitates communication with people from other parts of the country.
The second bond of unity in India is religion. India is a land of many religions, with Hinduism being the most prominent, followed by Islam, Christianity, Sikhism, Buddhism, and Jainism, among others.
Despite the religious differences, people have been able to coexist peacefully. Religious tolerance is ingrained in the Indian ethos, and people are encouraged to celebrate each other’s festivals and participate in each other’s religious customs.
For example, Diwali, the festival of lights, is celebrated by people of all religions in India. Similarly, Christmas and Eid are celebrated by people of all religions.
The third bond of unity in India is cultural heritage. India has a rich cultural heritage, with ancient traditions and customs that have been passed down from generation to generation. BSOC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
These traditions and customs have played a significant role in fostering a sense of unity and belonging among the people.
For example, traditional dances, such as Bharatanatyam, Kathak, and Bhangra, are performed across the country, bringing people together to celebrate their cultural heritage.
The fourth bond of unity in India is food. India is a land of diverse culinary traditions, with different regions having their own unique cuisines. Despite these differences, food has been able to bring people together.
People of different religions and cultures enjoy each other’s food, and it is not uncommon to see people from different backgrounds sharing a meal together.
For example, biryani, a popular rice dish, is enjoyed across the country, with each region having its own unique variation of the dish.
The fifth bond of unity in India is sports. India is a sports-loving nation, with cricket being the most popular sport. However, other sports such as football, hockey, and badminton are also popular. BSOC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Sports have the ability to bring people together and foster a sense of unity and national pride.
For example, during major cricket tournaments, such as the Indian Premier League or the World Cup, people from all parts of the country come together to support the Indian cricket team.
Furthermore, the Indian Constitution guarantees the freedom of religion to all its citizens, which has contributed to religious harmony and unity in the country.
People are free to practice their religion and participate in religious activities without fear of persecution or discrimination. BSOC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
India is home to various religious communities, including Hindus, Muslims, Christians, Sikhs, Buddhists, Jains, and others, who coexist peacefully and celebrate each other’s festivals and traditions.
For instance, during Diwali, the festival of lights celebrated by Hindus, people from other communities also participate in the celebrations and exchange sweets and gifts.
Another significant factor contributing to unity in India is the national symbols and icons that represent the country’s identity and pride.
The Indian flag, the national anthem, and the national emblem are symbols that evoke a sense of patriotism and belongingness among Indians.
People from different states and backgrounds identify themselves as Indians and take pride in the country’s achievements, such as the space program, the armed forces, and the cultural heritage. BSOC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Finally, India’s diversity itself is a bond of unity, as it brings people from different regions, languages, cultures, and traditions together under the umbrella of Indianness.
Despite the differences, there is a shared sense of belongingness and unity among Indians, which is reflected in their cultural practices, such as the cuisine, music, dance, and attire.
For instance, the saree, a traditional Indian garment worn by women, is a symbol of India’s diversity, as it comes in different styles, fabrics, and colors, representing the various regions and cultures of the country.
In conclusion, India is a country with a rich history, diverse culture, and a strong sense of unity among its people.
The bonds of unity in India are reinforced by the values of democracy, secularism, freedom, and diversity, which have enabled people from different backgrounds to coexist peacefully and work towards the country’s progress and development.
The examples discussed above demonstrate the strength and resilience of India’s unity, which is a source of inspiration and pride for all Indians.
Q 2. Define the concept of ethnic and discuss one of the tribal ethnic movements in India.
Ans. Ethnicity refers to the cultural and social identity that a group of people share based on their common ancestry, language, religion, customs, and traditions.
It is a powerful social construct that creates a sense of belonging among people and often shapes their beliefs, values, and behaviors.
In India, ethnicity is closely linked with the country’s diverse tribal communities who have unique cultural practices and customs.
One of the prominent tribal ethnic movements in India is the Adivasi movement. Adivasi refers to the indigenous communities of India who have been marginalized and exploited for centuries. BSOC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The Adivasi movement emerged as a response to the discrimination and injustices faced by these communities and aimed to assert their political, economic, and social rights.
The Adivasi movement has its roots in the colonial era when the Britishers introduced several policies that had adverse effects on the tribal communities.
For instance, the Forest Acts of 1865 and 1878 empowered the British government to seize and control the forests, which were the primary source of livelihood for the tribal communities.
This led to the displacement of many Adivasi communities and forced them to migrate to urban areas in search of work.
The Adivasi movement gained momentum after India’s independence when the tribal communities realized that their voices were not being heard in the mainstream political discourse. BSOC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The movement had several objectives, including the restoration of their lands and forests, protection of their cultural heritage, and recognition of their political rights.
The Adivasi movement is characterized by its emphasis on community mobilization, grassroots activism, and the use of non-violent protests to achieve its objectives.
One of the most significant achievements of the Adivasi movement is the recognition of their political rights.
The Indian Constitution recognizes the tribal communities as Scheduled Tribes and provides them with special provisions for their development and protection.
The Fifth and Sixth Schedules of the Constitution provide for the creation of Tribal Advisory Councils, which are responsible for advising the state government on matters related to the welfare of the tribal communities.
The Adivasi movement has also been successful in raising awareness about the issues faced by the tribal communities and bringing them to the forefront of the national discourse. BSOC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The movement has highlighted the need for land reforms, protection of the forests, and recognition of the traditional knowledge and practices of the tribal communities.
However, the Adivasi movement has also faced several challenges. One of the significant challenges is the lack of representation of the tribal communities in the mainstream political institutions.
The tribal communities continue to be underrepresented in the parliament and state assemblies, which makes it challenging for them to voice their concerns effectively.
Another challenge is the conflict between the tribal communities and the government over land and forest resources.
The tribal communities often face displacement and loss of their livelihoods due to the government’s development projects, such as dams and mines.
The Santhal rebellion began on June 30, 1855, in Bhagnadihi village in present-day Jharkhand. BSOC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
It was led by the Santhal tribe, who were facing exploitation and oppression by the British colonial administration and the local zamindars (landlords).
The Santhal tribe was one of the largest tribal communities in India at that time, with a population of around 6,00,000. They had their distinct culture, language, and traditions.
The Santhal rebellion was a response to the economic, political, and social oppression faced by the tribe.
The Santhals were mainly engaged in shifting agriculture, which was disrupted by the British colonial administration’s policies.
The British introduced the Permanent Settlement Act in 1793, which required the payment of a fixed land revenue by the zamindars to the British government.
The zamindars, in turn, forced the Santhals to work as bonded labourers in their fields. BSOC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The Santhal rebellion was a spontaneous movement that spread rapidly among the Santhal villages. The Santhal leaders, Sidhu and Kanhu, mobilized the Santhal people and organized them into an army.
They attacked the British and zamindar establishments, and their rebellion soon spread to the neighbouring areas.
The Santhal rebellion was one of the most significant tribal uprisings in India’s colonial history, and it had far-reaching consequences.
It was the first major revolt against the British colonial rule in India, and it inspired other tribal movements in India.
The Santhal rebellion led to the establishment of the Santhal Parganas district in present-day Jharkhand, which was governed by the Santhal people under the supervision of the British administration.
Q 3. How does Grierson, the famous linguist describe different languages in India?
Ans. George Abraham Grierson was a British civil servant, scholar, and linguist who is known for his extensive work on Indian languages.
He was appointed as the Superintendent of the Linguistic Survey of India in 1898, and his monumental work, the Linguistic Survey of India, was published in eleven volumes between 1903 and 1928. BSOC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
In this work, Grierson describes the different languages of India and their characteristics.
According to Grierson, India is a land of incredible linguistic diversity. He classified the languages spoken in India into three broad categories – Aryan, Dravidian, and Tibeto-Burman.
The Aryan languages are spoken in the northern and central regions of India and are derived from Sanskrit.
The Dravidian languages are spoken in the southern parts of India, and the Tibeto-Burman languages are spoken in the northeastern parts of India.
Grierson notes that the Aryan languages are further divided into two sub-groups – the Indo-Aryan and the Dardic.
The Indo-Aryan languages are the most widely spoken languages in India and include Hindi, Bengali, Punjabi, Gujarati, Marathi, and many others.
The Dardic languages are spoken in the northwestern parts of India, particularly in the state of Jammu and Kashmir.BSOC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The Dravidian languages are spoken primarily in four states of South India – Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh. Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, and Malayalam are the major Dravidian languages spoken in India.
The Tibeto-Burman languages are spoken in the northeastern parts of India, particularly in the states of Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, and Tripura.
These languages are also spoken in neighboring countries like Nepal, Bhutan, and Myanmar.
Grierson also notes that there are several other languages spoken in India that do not fit neatly into any of these categories.
These include the languages of the Andaman Islands, which are considered to be of uncertain origin, and the languages of the Nicobar Islands, which are classified as Austro-Asiatic.
Grierson’s work is a testament to the incredible linguistic diversity of India. India is home to more than 1,600 languages, and Grierson’s classification system is still used today as a basis for linguistic research in India.
Q 4. Discuss the new types of protest movements amongst some tribes in India. Give a suitable example.
Ans. Protest movements amongst some tribes in India have taken on new forms in recent years, reflecting changing social and political conditions. One such form of protest is the use of symbolic and cultural resistance.
This involves the use of traditional cultural symbols and practices to resist dominant cultural and political forces. BSOC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The protest movement of the Dongria Kondh tribe in Odisha against the mining activities of Vedanta Resources is a good example of this type of protest.
The Dongria Kondh are a tribal community that has lived in the Niyamgiri Hills in Odisha for centuries.
The hills are considered sacred by the Dongria Kondh and are home to the deity Niyam Raja, who is worshipped by the community.
In 2004, Vedanta Resources, a British mining company, obtained a lease to mine bauxite in the Niyamgiri Hills.
The Dongria Kondh protested against the mining, arguing that it would destroy their environment, threaten their way of life, and violate their cultural and religious beliefs.
The Dongria Kondh used cultural and symbolic resistance as a form of protest against the mining. They organized a series of rallies, processions, and meetings to raise awareness about the issue and mobilize support.
They also used traditional cultural symbols and practices to express their opposition to the mining. BSOC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
For example, they performed a ritual called the Niyamgiri Parikrama, in which they circled the Niyamgiri Hills and prayed to the deity Niyam Raja for protection.
The ritual was a powerful symbol of their connection to the hills and their determination to protect them.
The Dongria Kondh also used legal means to protest against the mining. They filed a petition in the Supreme Court of India challenging the mining lease granted to Vedanta Resources.
The Supreme Court eventually ruled in favor of the Dongria Kondh, stating that the tribe had the right to decide whether or not to allow mining in the Niyamgiri Hills.
The ruling was a significant victory for the Dongria Kondh and for indigenous rights in India.
Another type of protest movement amongst tribes in India is the use of social media and other digital platforms.
This form of protest is particularly popular among younger members of tribal communities who have grown up in a digital age.
The protest movement of the Jharkhandi youth against the Pathalgadi movement is a good example of this type of protest.
The Pathalgadi movement is a tribal movement that originated in Jharkhand in 2017. It involves the installation of stone plaques, or Pathals, at the entry points to tribal villages. BSOC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The plaques bear inscriptions of tribal rights and laws and serve as a reminder to outsiders that the village is governed by its own laws and customs.
The movement gained popularity among some tribal communities in Jharkhand, who saw it as a way to assert their rights and autonomy.
Q 5. Why did the colonial rule change the agrarian class formation in India?
Ans. The agrarian class formation in India underwent significant changes during the colonial period.
Prior to the arrival of the British, the Indian agrarian system was predominantly characterized by peasant communities practicing subsistence farming with land being the primary source of wealth and power.
However, the colonial rule changed the dynamics of the agrarian system, leading to the emergence of new classes and the exploitation of the rural population.
One of the primary reasons for the changes in the agrarian system was the introduction of the land revenue system by the British.
The British introduced a revenue system that relied on the collection of land taxes from the cultivators, which was later transferred to the zamindars or landlords.
This led to the emergence of a new class of landlords who had control over large tracts of land and wielded significant power over the rural population.
These landlords were also responsible for collecting taxes from the peasants, leading to their exploitation and indebtedness.
Another significant factor that contributed to the changes in the agrarian class formation was the introduction of the railways by the British.
The railways connected the remote areas of India to the urban centers, leading to the emergence of cash crops and a market-oriented agriculture system.
This led to the emergence of new classes of farmers, including the rich and middle peasants who had access to credit and technology and were able to cultivate cash crops on a large scale. BSOC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The colonial rule also introduced the concept of private property, leading to the concentration of land in the hands of a few landlords and the displacement of peasant communities.
The British also introduced new technology and machinery, which increased productivity and reduced the need for manual labor.
This led to the displacement of a large number of peasants, who were forced to migrate to the urban centers in search of work.
The colonial rule also led to the introduction of new systems of production, such as the plantation system.
The British introduced the plantation system to cultivate cash crops, such as tea, coffee, and indigo, on a large scale.
This led to the concentration of land in the hands of a few plantation owners, who exploited the local population by providing low wages and poor working conditions.
In addition, the British also introduced the concept of absentee landlordism, whereby the landlords owned large tracts of land but resided in the urban centers.
This led to the exploitation of the rural population by the local intermediaries, who acted as agents for the absentee landlords and collected taxes and rents from the peasants. BSOC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Q 6. Explain one of the changes found in India after Independence
Ans. One of the significant changes found in India after Independence was the adoption of a democratic form of government.
India had been a colony under British rule for nearly 200 years, and the colonial government was autocratic and centralized, with no scope for public participation.
After India gained independence in 1947, a democratic form of government was established, and the country became a republic.
The democratic form of government brought several changes to India. Firstly, it gave the people of India a voice in the governance of the country.
Citizens could elect their representatives through free and fair elections and participate in the decision-making process.
This helped to ensure that the government was more representative and accountable to the people. BSOC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Secondly, democracy brought about decentralization of power, with the establishment of local governments at the village, town, and city levels.
This helped to address the needs of the people more effectively, as the local governments were better equipped to understand and respond to the specific needs of their communities.
Thirdly, democracy also led to the establishment of several institutions that help to safeguard the rights of citizens, such as the judiciary, the press, and civil society organizations.
These institutions act as checks and balances on the government and help to ensure that the rights of citizens are protected.
Fourthly, democracy has also led to the establishment of a more diverse and pluralistic society in India.
With the freedom to express themselves, people from different regions, religions, and social groups have been able to come together and participate in the democratic process. This has helped to promote social cohesion and harmony.
Q 7. Distinguish between the terms change progress and social development.
Ans. The terms change, progress, and social development are often used interchangeably in conversations about society, but they actually have distinct meanings. BSOC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Change refers to any alteration in the social, economic, or political systems of a society. Change can be positive or negative, intentional or unintentional, and can occur at any level of society.
Progress, on the other hand, is a term that implies positive change. It suggests movement toward a better future and is often used to describe advancements in science, technology, or social policy.
Progress can be measured in terms of increased prosperity, improved health outcomes, reduced crime rates, and greater political stability.
Social development refers specifically to the process of improving the quality of life and well-being of individuals within a society.
This can include measures such as increasing access to education and healthcare, reducing poverty and inequality, and promoting democratic participation.
Social development focuses on the overall improvement of the society as a whole, rather than just technological or economic advancements.
While change is a broad term that encompasses both progress and social development, these two concepts are not synonymous.
Progress is a specific type of change that implies movement toward a better future, while social development is a process focused on improving the well-being of individuals within a society. BSOC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Understanding the nuances of these terms is important for analyzing the state of a society and identifying areas for improvement.
Q 8. Define the concept of Caste and Class.
Ans. Caste and class are two important concepts in sociology that refer to social stratification, or the ways in which society is divided into different groups based on various factors.
Caste is a social system that is unique to India and is based on birth, with individuals being born into a specific social group or caste that determines their social status and occupation.
The caste system is hierarchical and traditionally includes four main castes: Brahmins (priests and scholars), Kshatriyas (warriors and rulers), Vaishyas (merchants and traders), and Shudras (laborers and servants).
Additionally, there are various sub-castes, known as jatis, within each main caste. Caste is determined by one’s birth and is believed to be determined by karma, or one’s actions in past lives. BSOC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Individuals are expected to marry within their own caste, follow specific cultural practices and rituals, and are often restricted from certain occupations.
Class, on the other hand, refers to a more fluid and flexible system of social stratification that is based on economic factors such as wealth, income, and occupation.
Unlike caste, class is not determined by one’s birth, but by their ability to acquire and maintain economic resources.
In capitalist societies, class is often divided into three main categories: upper class (wealthy and powerful), middle class (educated and professional), and working class (laborers and manual workers).
Class also has an impact on access to education, healthcare, and political power.
In summary, caste is a social system that is unique to India and is based on birth and traditional occupations, while class is a more flexible system of social stratification that is based on economic factors such as wealth, income, and occupation.
Q 9. Distinguish between nuclear and joint family in India.
Ans.In India, two common types of families exist: nuclear families and joint families. A nuclear family comprises parents and their children, while a joint family includes parents, their children, and their extended family members, such as grandparents, aunts, uncles, and cousins, all living together in a single household.
Nuclear families are becoming increasingly common in urban areas of India due to the growth of the middle class, urbanization, and individualistic values.
Members of a nuclear family often enjoy greater privacy and autonomy, which allows them to make independent decisions and lead relatively independent lives. The smaller family size also makes it easier to manage resources and finances.
In contrast, joint families are more common in rural areas and in traditional communities. BSOC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
In a joint family, family members share resources and responsibilities, and all members contribute to the welfare of the family as a whole.
The patriarch or matriarch of the family typically has the final say in decision-making, and there is a strong emphasis on respecting elders and maintaining family traditions.
Joint families can provide a strong sense of community, social support, and security for its members, especially in times of crisis.
They also help to maintain family ties and traditions, and foster a sense of unity and belonging. However, the close proximity of family members can also lead to conflicts, tension, and stress.
In recent years, due to changing social and economic circumstances, joint families have become less common, and nuclear families have become more prevalent.
However, both types of families have their own advantages and disadvantages and continue to coexist in India. BSOC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Q 10. What are the basic concepts of kinship?
Ans. Kinship is a fundamental concept that refers to social relations that are based on blood, marriage, or adoption.
It is an important part of human social organization and plays a significant role in shaping social interaction and relationships. The basic concepts of kinship include:
Consanguinity: It refers to the relationship that exists between people who are related by blood. For instance, siblings, parents, grandparents, uncles, and aunts share a consanguineous relationship.
Affinity: It refers to the relationship that exists between people who are related by marriage. For example, a wife has an affinity relationship with her husband’s family.
Descent: It refers to the tracing of a person’s lineage or ancestry from a particular ancestor. BSOC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
In patrilineal descent, the lineage is traced through the father’s side, while in matrilineal descent, the lineage is traced through the mother’s side.
Filiation: It refers to the recognition of a person’s status as a child or parent. It can be based on biological, social, or legal grounds.
Clan: It refers to a group of people who share a common ancestor, but their exact relationship may not be known. Clans often have a symbolic significance and play a crucial role in many societies.
Kinship terminology: It refers to the words used to refer to different types of relatives in a particular culture.
For instance, in many Western societies, the terms ‘brother’ and ‘sister’ are used to refer to siblings, while in some African societies, different words are used to refer to siblings of the same gender and those of different genders.
Overall, kinship is a complex and multifaceted concept that plays a crucial role in shaping human social organization and relationships.
It helps to define the nature of relationships between individuals and groups, and it provides a framework for understanding social structures and processes.