SOCIOLOGY OF INDIA- I
BSOC 102 Solved Free Assignment 2023
BSOC 102 Solved Free Assignment January 2023
Q 1. Who are the Indologists? Discuss their contribution to the understanding of Indian society.
Ans. Indology refers to the study of the Indian subcontinent, including its history, culture, religion, philosophy, languages, and literature. Indologists are scholars who specialize in the study of the Indian subcontinent and its related subjects.
Their contribution to the understanding of Indian society is significant and multifaceted.
Indology emerged in the 18th century, during the British colonial period in India. The British, who came to India as traders and later as colonial rulers, were fascinated by the Indian civilization, and they started studying it in depth.
Many of these early scholars were missionaries, who wanted to understand the Indian religion and culture to convert the Indians to Christianity.
They learned Sanskrit, the language of ancient India, and started translating ancient texts, such as the Vedas, the Upanishads, and the Puranas, into European languages.
The first Indologist of note was Sir William Jones, a British judge and scholar who founded the Asiatic Society of Bengal in Calcutta in 1784.
Jones was fluent in several languages, including Sanskrit, Persian, and Arabic, and he made important contributions to the study of Indian languages, literature, and law.
He is best known for his discovery of the relationship between Sanskrit, Greek, and Latin, which led to the development of the field of comparative linguistics.
The Indologists who followed Jones continued to study Indian culture and history, and they made significant contributions to the field.
They translated and published numerous ancient texts, such as the Mahabharata, the Ramayana, and the Bhagavad Gita, which helped to disseminate Indian culture and religion to the West. BSOC 102 Solved Free Assignment 2023
They also studied Indian philosophy and religion, including Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism, and they contributed to the understanding of these religions in the West.
One of the most significant contributions of the Indologists was the study of Indian society and its social structures.
They studied the caste system, which was a defining feature of Indian society, and they documented its various aspects, such as the different castes and sub-castes, their occupations, and their social roles.
They also studied the position of women in Indian society and documented the various restrictions and freedoms that were available to them.
They also studied the various religious and cultural practices of Indian society, such as the worship of gods and goddesses, the performance of rituals and ceremonies, and the celebration of festivals and fairs.
The Indologists also contributed to the understanding of Indian history, both ancient and modern. BSOC 102 Solved Free Assignment 2023
They studied the ancient Indian empires, such as the Mauryas, the Guptas, and the Mughals, and documented their achievements in various fields, such as art, literature, and science.
They also studied the impact of the British colonial rule on India and its people, and documented the various social, economic, and political changes that took place during this period.
They also studied the Indian independence movement, which led to the formation of the modern Indian state, and documented the various struggles and achievements of the Indian people in their fight for independence.
The Indologists also contributed to the development of the field of anthropology, which is the study of human societies and cultures.
They studied the various aspects of Indian culture and society, such as its beliefs, values, customs, and traditions, and documented their similarities and differences with other cultures and societies. BSOC 102 Solved Free Assignment 2023
They also studied the various social and cultural changes that were taking place in Indian society, such as the impact of modernization, urbanization, and globalization, and documented their effects on the Indian people.
Q 2. Describe the different types of industries in India with examples
Ans. India has a diverse and complex economy, with a wide range of industries that contribute to its GDP. The country’s industries can be broadly classified into four categories: primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary.
The primary industries in India are those that involve the extraction and production of raw materials. These industries are the backbone of the Indian economy, as they provide the basic inputs for the secondary industries.
The primary industries in India include agriculture, forestry, fishing, and mining.
Agriculture is the largest sector of the Indian economy, employing over 50% of the workforce. The country is known for its diverse range of agricultural products, such as rice, wheat, pulses, vegetables, fruits, and spices.
India is also the world’s largest producer of milk and the second-largest producer of fruits and vegetables. Some of the leading agricultural states in India are Punjab, Maharashtra, and Uttar Pradesh. BSOC 102 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Forestry is another important primary industry in India, with over 21% of the country’s land covered by forests.
The forestry industry produces a range of products, such as timber, paper, and other forest products. The major forested states in India are Madhya Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, and Chhattisgarh.
Fishing is an important industry in India, with a coastline of over 7500 km and extensive inland water bodies. The country is the second-largest producer of fish in the world, with a diverse range of marine and freshwater species.
The major fishing states in India are Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and Andhra Pradesh.
Mining is the fourth primary industry in India, contributing to the country’s GDP through the extraction of various minerals and metals.
India is the world’s largest producer of mica and the third-largest producer of coal. The major mining states in India are Jharkhand, Odisha, and Chhattisgarh.
Secondary industries are those that involve the manufacturing and processing of raw materials into finished products. BSOC 102 Solved Free Assignment 2023
These industries add value to the raw materials produced by the primary industries. The secondary industries in India include textiles, automobiles, electronics, and pharmaceuticals.
The textile industry is one of the oldest and largest industries in India, with a rich history of producing a range of fabrics, such as cotton, silk, and wool.
India is the world’s second-largest producer of textiles and garments, after China. The major textile producing states in India are Gujarat, Maharashtra, and Tamil Nadu.
The automobile industry is another important secondary industry in India, with a range of manufacturers producing cars, trucks, and two-wheelers.
India is the fourth-largest automobile producer in the world, with leading manufacturers such as Maruti Suzuki, Tata Motors, and Hero MotoCorp.
The major automobile manufacturing states in India are Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, and Gujarat.BSOC 102 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The electronics industry is also a significant secondary industry in India, with a range of manufacturers producing a variety of electronic products, such as smartphones, laptops, and televisions.
India is the second-largest smartphone market in the world, after China. The major electronics manufacturing states in India are Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, and Uttar Pradesh.
Pharmaceuticals is another important secondary industry in India, with a range of companies producing a wide range of medicines and drugs.
India is the world’s largest producer of generic medicines, accounting for over 20% of the global supply. The major pharmaceutical manufacturing states in India are Maharashtra, Gujarat, and Andhra Pradesh.
Tertiary industries are those that involve the provision of services to the public, such as education, healthcare, hospitality, and finance.
These industries are crucial for the overall development of the Indian economy. The tertiary industries in India include IT services, banking and finance, tourism, and healthcare. BSOC 102 Solved Free Assignment 2023
IT services is one of the fastest-growing tertiary industries in India, with a range of companies providing software development, IT outsourcing, and other related services.
India is the world’s largest exporter of IT services, with leading companies such as TCS, Infosys, and Wipro. The major IT hubs in India are Bangalore, Hyderabad, and Chennai.
Banking and finance is another important tertiary industry in India, with a range of banks, financial institutions, and insurance companies providing various financial services.
India has a large and well-developed banking sector, with leading banks such as State Bank of India, HDFC Bank, and ICICI Bank. The major financial centers in India are Mumbai, Delhi, and Bangalore.
Tourism is another significant tertiary industry in India, with the country attracting millions of tourists every year.
India has a diverse range of tourist attractions, such as historical monuments, beaches, mountains, and wildlife. The major tourist destinations in India are Rajasthan, Goa, and Kerala. BSOC 102 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Healthcare is also a crucial tertiary industry in India, with a range of hospitals, clinics, and other healthcare providers providing various medical services.
India has a large and growing healthcare sector, with leading hospitals such as Apollo Hospitals, Fortis Healthcare, and Max Healthcare. The major healthcare centers in India are Delhi, Mumbai, and Bangalore.
Quaternary industries are those that involve the creation and dissemination of knowledge and information. These industries include research and development, education, and media.
Research and development is a critical quaternary industry in India, with a range of institutions conducting research in various fields such as science, technology, and medicine. BSOC 102 Solved Free Assignment 2023
India has several leading research institutions such as the Indian Institute of Science, the Indian Institute of Technology, and the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research.
Education is another important quaternary industry in India, with a range of universities and colleges providing higher education in various fields such as engineering, medicine, and management.
India has several leading universities such as the Indian Institutes of Technology, the Indian Institutes of Management, and the Indian Institutes of Science Education and Research.
Media is also a crucial quaternary industry in India, with a range of media outlets providing news, entertainment, and information to the public.
India has a large and diverse media industry, with leading newspapers such as The Times of India, The Hindu, and The Indian Express.
The major broadcasting companies in India are Doordarshan, Zee Entertainment, and Star India. BSOC 102 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Q 3. Compare the Missionary perspective with that of the Orientalist and the Indologists.
Ans. The perspectives of Missionaries, Orientalists, and Indologists on India and its society were shaped by their unique backgrounds, experiences, and motivations.
While each of these perspectives played a significant role in shaping the understanding of India, they also had some fundamental differences in their approach and outlook.
The Missionary perspective on India was primarily focused on religious conversion and spreading Christianity in the country.
Missionaries saw India as a land of heathenism, with its diverse religious practices and beliefs as impediments to salvation.
Missionaries believed that the only way to redeem the Indian people was to convert them to Christianity, which they saw as the only true religion.
They believed that Christianity could bring about a radical transformation in the Indian society, making it more civilized and modern.
Missionaries were critical of the Hindu caste system, which they saw as oppressive and discriminatory. They believed that Christianity could break down the barriers of caste and bring about social equality. BSOC 102 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Missionaries also played a significant role in the education system in India, establishing schools and colleges, which focused on imparting Christian values and beliefs.
They saw education as a means of transforming the Indian society and bringing it closer to the Western model.
The Orientalist perspective on India emerged during the colonial period, with the British ruling India. Orientalists were primarily interested in studying the Indian culture, literature, and language.
They believed that India had a rich and ancient culture, which was worthy of study and preservation.
Orientalists saw India as a source of knowledge and inspiration, which could contribute to the development of Western thought.
Orientalists were critical of the Christian missionary approach, which they saw as a form of cultural imperialism. They believed that the Indian culture had much to offer, and that Western values should not be imposed on it.
Orientalists were interested in the study of Indian literature, philosophy, and religion, which they saw as a means of understanding the Indian society.
They believed that the Indian culture had much to teach the West, and that the two cultures could learn from each other. BSOC 102 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The Indologist perspective on India emerged during the nineteenth century, with the development of academic disciplines such as anthropology, history, and sociology.
Indologists were interested in the scientific study of India and its society. They believed that India was a complex society, which required a scientific approach to understand it.
Indologists focused on the study of Indian history, religion, language, and culture, using a variety of scientific methods.
Indologists were critical of both the missionary and Orientalist approaches, which they saw as biased and lacking in scientific rigor.
They believed that the Indian society should be studied objectively, without any preconceived notions or biases. Indologists saw India as a unique society, with its own distinctive features and characteristics.
They believed that the Indian society was not inferior or superior to the Western society, but that it was different.
Comparison: BSOC 102 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The Missionary perspective on India was primarily focused on religious conversion and spreading Christianity. It was motivated by a desire to redeem the Indian people, which they saw as heathens.
The Orientalist perspective was primarily focused on the study of Indian culture, literature, and language. It was motivated by a desire to understand and appreciate the Indian culture.
The Indologist perspective was primarily focused on the scientific study of India and its society. It was motivated by a desire to study India objectively, without any biases or preconceived notions.
While the Missionary perspective was critical of the Hindu caste system, the Orientalist and Indologist perspectives saw it as an important feature of the Indian society.
The Orientalist perspective saw it as a means of social organization, while the Indologist perspective saw it as a complex system, which required scientific analysis.
Q 4. Who are the subalterns and when did the subaltern studies emerge in India?
Ans. The term “subaltern” refers to the groups of people who are marginalized or excluded from the dominant social, cultural, and political structures of society.
These groups include peasants, workers, women, Dalits, and other oppressed and marginalized communities. BSOC 102 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The Subaltern Studies Group emerged in India in the 1980s as a response to the limitations of the dominant nationalist and Marxist historiographies.
The group consisted of a collective of scholars who were interested in examining the history and experiences of the subaltern groups in India.
The Subaltern Studies Group challenged the dominant nationalist and Marxist narratives, which they saw as neglecting the voices and experiences of the subaltern groups.
They argued that the dominant narrativees were centered on the elites and the mainstream, and that they ignored the agency and resistance of the subaltern groups.
The Subaltern Studies Group developed a new approach to historiography, which emphasized the importance of subaltern agency, resistance, and voice.
They argued that subaltern groups had their own distinct cultures, traditions, and histories, which were different from those of the elites.
They emphasized the importance of oral history, folklore, and other forms of popular culture in understanding the experiences of the subaltern groups.
The Subaltern Studies Group also challenged the dominant Marxist narratives, which they saw as reducing the complex experiences of the subaltern groups to a simplistic class struggle. BSOC 102 Solved Free Assignment 2023
They argued that the subaltern groups had multiple identities and allegiances, which were shaped by their location, culture, and history.
The Subaltern Studies Group drew on the insights of postcolonial theory, which emphasized the importance of colonialism and imperialism in shaping the experiences of the subaltern groups.
They argued that colonialism had disrupted the existing social and cultural structures of the subaltern groups, and that it had imposed new forms of domination and exploitation.
The Subaltern Studies Group made significant contributions to the understanding of Indian society and history. They developed a new approach to historiography, which focused on the experiences and agency of the subaltern groups.
They challenged the dominant nationalist and Marxist narratives, which had neglected the voices and experiences of the subaltern groups.
They also emphasized the importance of popular culture and oral history in understanding the experiences of the subaltern groups.
The Subaltern Studies Group had a significant impact on the discipline of history in India and around the world. BSOC 102 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Their approach to historiography has influenced the development of other subaltern studies groups in other parts of the world, and it has contributed to the emergence of a new field of subaltern studies.
The Subaltern Studies Group has also inspired other disciplines, such as anthropology, sociology, and cultural studies, to engage with the experiences and agency of the subaltern groups.
In conclusion, the term subaltern refers to the marginalized and excluded groups in society, and the Subaltern Studies Group emerged in India in the 1980s as a response to the limitations of the dominant nationalist and Marxist historiographies.
The Subaltern Studies Group developed a new approach to historiography, which emphasized the importance of subaltern agency, resistance, and voice, and they challenged the dominant narratives, which had neglected the voices and experiences of the subaltern groups.
Their approach has had a significant impact on the discipline of history and has influenced the development of other subaltern studies groups in other parts of the world. BSOC 102 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Q 5. How does the informal economy differ from the formal economy? Explain
Ans. The formal economy and the informal economy are two distinct sectors of an economy.
The formal economy includes all the businesses and economic activities that are regulated by the government, pay taxes, and are recorded in official statistics.
The informal economy, on the other hand, includes economic activities that are not regulated by the government, do not pay taxes, and are not recorded in official statistics.
The informal economy is often characterized by a lack of legal protections, including social security benefits, labor laws, and minimum wage laws.
Workers in the informal economy may work in small-scale businesses, street vending, or home-based production. BSOC 102 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The informal economy can also include illegal activities such as drug trafficking, smuggling, and prostitution.
One key difference between the formal and informal economies is their size. In many developing countries, the informal economy accounts for a significant portion of the overall economy.
According to the International Labor Organization, the informal economy accounts for around 60% of the total workforce in developing countries.
Another key difference is in the types of jobs and occupations found in each sector. The formal economy is often characterized by higher-paying jobs that require formal education or specialized skills.
These jobs are typically found in large corporations, government agencies, and other formal institutions. BSOC 102 Solved Free Assignment 2023
In contrast, the informal economy is often characterized by lower-paying jobs that require little formal education or specialized skills.
These jobs are often found in the service sector, including street vending, domestic work, and small-scale manufacturing.
The informal economy is also often characterized by a lack of regulation and oversight.
Businesses and workers in the informal economy may be subject to exploitation, including low wages, long working hours, and poor working conditions. They may also lack access to healthcare, education, and other social services.
In contrast, the formal economy is subject to a range of regulations and oversight, including labor laws, tax laws, and health and safety regulations.
Businesses and workers in the formal economy are typically required to register with the government and comply with these regulations.
There are several reasons why people might choose to work in the informal economy. BSOC 102 Solved Free Assignment 2023
In many cases, workers in the informal economy may lack formal education or specialized skills, and may not have access to formal employment opportunities.
In other cases, the informal economy may offer more flexibility and autonomy than formal employment, which can be attractive to some workers.
At last, the informal economy and the formal economy are two distinct sectors of an economy, characterized by different types of jobs, levels of regulation, and legal protections.
While the formal economy is subject to a range of regulations and oversight, the informal economy is often characterized by a lack of regulation and legal protections.
The informal economy is an important source of employment for many people in developing countries, but it can also be a site of exploitation and economic vulnerability.
Understanding the differences between the formal and informal economy is important for policymakers, economists, and anyone interested in understanding the dynamics of modern economies. BSOC 102 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Q 6. What is jajmani system?
Ans. The jajmani system, also known as the caste-based occupational system, is a traditional social and economic system that was prevalent in many parts of rural India before the modern era.
The jajmani system is based on the idea of caste, with each caste group specializing in a particular occupation, and providing goods or services to other castes in exchange for social and economic support.
Under the jajmani system, each caste had a specific role to play in the local economy. For example, the Brahmins were responsible for providing religious and intellectual services, the Kshatriyas were responsible for defense and protection, the Vaishyas were responsible for trade and commerce, and the Shudras were responsible for manual labor.
Each caste group would provide goods or services to other castes in exchange for support and patronage. BSOC 102 Solved Free Assignment 2023
For example, a Brahmin priest might perform religious ceremonies for a Kshatriya landlord in exchange for land or other forms of support.
The jajmani system was often supported by social norms and customs that reinforced caste-based divisions of labor and hierarchy.
Caste groups were expected to adhere to their traditional roles and maintain their status within the system.
The system was also supported by a complex network of social and economic relationships that connected different castes and provided a form of social and economic security for individuals and families.
The jajmani system began to decline in the 20th century as a result of a range of social, economic, and political changes.
The introduction of modern technologies and industries, the expansion of education and urbanization, and the growth of the national economy all contributed to the decline of the jajmani system. BSOC 102 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Today, many of the traditional occupations associated with the jajmani system have been replaced by modern industries and services, and caste-based hierarchies are no longer as rigid or fixed as they once were.
Q 7. Define the concept of tribe.
Ans. A tribe can be defined as a social group or community of people who share common ancestry, culture, language, history, and territory.
Members of a tribe have a strong sense of identity and belonging to their group, and their social relationships are often based on kinship ties, mutual obligation, and shared experiences.
The concept of tribe has been used to describe various forms of human societies throughout history and across different regions of the world.
Some of the most well-known examples of tribal societies include Native American tribes, African tribes, and tribes in Papua New Guinea, among others.
Tribal societies are characterized by a strong emphasis on social cohesion, communal decision-making, and the sharing of resources and responsibilities.
In many tribal societies, decision-making is often made by consensus or by a council of elders or leaders, rather than by an individual or a centralized authority.
The distribution of resources within a tribe is often based on the principles of reciprocity and redistribution, where goods and services are exchanged between members of the tribe and the surplus is redistributed to those in need.
Another important feature of tribal societies is the role of kinship ties in social relationships. BSOC 102 Solved Free Assignment 2023
In many tribal societies, kinship ties are used to determine marriage partners, inheritance, and other social obligations.
This means that the family unit is often central to the organization of tribal societies, and extended family networks may play an important role in decision-making and social support.
Q 8. Discuss briefly the impact of globalisation on tribes in India.
Ans. Globalization has had a significant impact on tribes in India. On the one hand, it has brought new economic opportunities and technological advancements to some tribes, but on the other hand, it has also led to the erosion of traditional cultural practices, displacement, and loss of land rights for many tribes.
One of the most significant impacts of globalization on tribes in India has been the expansion of markets and the integration of these communities into the larger national and global economy.
This has led to increased access to goods, services, and technologies, and some tribes have been able to take advantage of these opportunities to improve their standard of living.BSOC 102 Solved Free Assignment 2023
However, this process has also led to the exploitation of natural resources in tribal areas, resulting in environmental degradation and loss of biodiversity.
The push for economic development has often come at the expense of tribal communities, as their lands are taken over by mining and other resource extraction industries.
This has led to displacement, loss of livelihoods, and disruption of traditional cultural practices.
Globalization has also led to the erosion of traditional cultural practices and the loss of cultural identity for many tribal communities.
The spread of Western values, lifestyles, and consumer culture has led to a decline in traditional practices such as subsistence agriculture, hunting, and fishing.
This has led to a loss of knowledge and skills that have been passed down for generations, and a weakening of the social fabric of tribal communities.
In addition, globalization has led to an increase in tourism in many tribal areas, which can have both positive and negative impacts.
While tourism can provide economic benefits to these communities, it can also lead to the commodification of cultural practices and the objectification of tribal people.
Overall, the impact of globalization on tribes in India has been complex and varied.
While it has brought some benefits, it has also led to significant challenges and risks for these communities, including the erosion of traditional cultures, displacement, and loss of land rights.BSOC 102 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Q 9. How does Emile Durkheim describe the relation between religion and society?
Ans. Emile Durkheim, a French sociologist, is widely regarded as one of the founding fathers of modern sociology. One of his major contributions to the field was his analysis of the relationship between religion and society.
According to Durkheim, religion is a fundamental social institution that plays a central role in shaping the beliefs, values, and norms of a society.
He argued that religion is not just a matter of personal belief, but is rather a social fact that is deeply ingrained in the collective consciousness of a society.
Durkheim believed that religion serves several important functions in society. Firstly, it provides a sense of shared identity and solidarity among members of a community. BSOC 102 Solved Free Assignment 2023
By participating in religious rituals and practices, individuals are able to connect with one another and reinforce their sense of belonging to a particular group.
Secondly, Durkheim argued that religion provides a moral framework for society. Religious beliefs and practices help to establish moral norms and values, which are essential for maintaining social order and cohesion.
Finally, Durkheim saw religion as a source of meaning and purpose in life. By providing a framework for understanding the world and our place in it, religion gives individuals a sense of purpose and direction, which helps to guide their behavior and decision-making.
However, Durkheim also recognized that religion can be a source of conflict and division in society. When different religious groups hold competing beliefs and values, this can lead to tension and conflict between them.
Overall, Durkheim saw religion as an essential aspect of social life that plays a vital role in shaping the beliefs, values, and norms of a society.
He argued that religion serves several important functions in society, including promoting social solidarity, providing a moral framework, and giving individuals a sense of meaning and purpose in life.
Q 10. List the four types of economy based on the way scarce resources are distributed in society
Ans. There are four types of economy based on the way scarce resources are distributed in society. These are:
Traditional economy: In a traditional economy, resources are allocated based on customs, traditions, and habits that have been passed down from generation to generation. BSOC 102 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The production of goods and services is often geared towards meeting the basic needs of the community, and there is little specialization or innovation.
Command economy: In a command economy, resources are allocated by a central authority, such as a government or a planning board.
The means of production are owned by the state, and decisions about what to produce and how to distribute goods and services are made by central planners.
Market economy: In a market economy, resources are allocated through the interaction of buyers and sellers in a competitive market.
Prices are determined by supply and demand, and individuals and businesses make decisions about what to produce and consume based on their own self-interest.
Mixed economy: In a mixed economy, resources are allocated through a combination of market forces and government intervention.
While there is still a significant role for markets in determining prices and allocating resources, the government also plays a role in regulating markets and providing certain goods and services, such as education, healthcare, and infrastructure.