STATE POLITICS IN INDIA
BPSE 143 Solved Free Assignment 2023
BPSE 143 Solved Free Assignment January 2023
Assignment – I
Q 1. Discuss the evolution of local Self-government in India.
Ans. The evolution of local self-government in India can be traced back to the ancient times of the Indus Valley civilization, where decentralized governance and community participation were common practices.
However, the modern system of local self-government can be traced to the British era, where the local bodies were established in the form of municipalities, district boards, and taluk boards.
After India gained independence, the Constitution of India recognized the importance of local self-government as an important aspect of democracy and included provisions for the same.
The first major step towards the establishment of local self-government in India was taken in 1957 when the Balwantrai Mehta Committee was constituted to study the system of local self-government in India and suggest reforms.
The Balwantrai Mehta Committee recommended the establishment of a three-tier system of local self-government comprising of Gram Panchayats at the village level, Panchayat Samitis at the block level, and Zila Parishads at the district level.
This system of local self-government was implemented through the passage of the Panchayati Raj Act in 1959. BPSE 143 Solved Free Assignment 2023
However, the implementation of the Panchayati Raj system faced several challenges, including the lack of financial resources, political interference, and bureaucratic hurdles.
The system was also criticized for its inability to address the issues of social justice and equitable distribution of resources.
To address these challenges, the government of India introduced several reforms in the 1990s, including the 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendments, which gave constitutional status to the Panchayati Raj system and the urban local bodies, respectively.
The amendments also provided for the reservation of seats for women, Scheduled Castes, and Scheduled Tribes in the local bodies, thus ensuring greater participation of marginalized sections of the society.
Today, the local self-government system in India comprises of over 250,000 Gram Panchayats, 6,000 Panchayat Samitis, and 600 Zila Parishads, along with the urban local bodies. BPSE 143 Solved Free Assignment 2023
These bodies are responsible for the implementation of several development programs and schemes, including the provision of basic amenities such as water supply, sanitation, health, and education.
The system has also provided a platform for citizens to participate in the decision-making process and hold their representatives accountable.
During the colonial period, the British government introduced the concept of local self-government in India through the establishment of Municipal Committees, District Boards, and Local Boards. BPSE 143 Solved Free Assignment 2023
However, these institutions were primarily designed to serve the colonial interests and lacked effective representation of the Indian people.
After Independence, the Constitution of India was framed, which recognized the need for local self-government to promote participatory democracy at the grassroots level.
The 73rd and 74th Amendments to the Constitution of India in 1992 were landmark reforms that brought about a significant transformation in local self-government.
The 73rd Amendment dealt with rural self-government and established a three-tier system of Panchayati Raj, comprising Gram Panchayats at the village level, Panchayat Samitis at the block level, and Zila Parishads at the district level.
Similarly, the 74th Amendment dealt with urban self-government and mandated the creation of three-tier Urban Local Bodies, consisting of Municipal Corporations, Municipal Councils, and Nagar Panchayats.
The Panchayati Raj and Urban Local Bodies have been granted constitutional status, and it is the responsibility of the State Governments to ensure their effective functioning. BPSE 143 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The main functions of these institutions include local planning, development works, maintenance of public facilities, social welfare programs, and regulation of local markets. They also have the power to levy taxes and fees for the services provided by them.
The successful implementation of local self-government has brought about positive changes in the lives of people at the grassroots level.
It has enabled the people to actively participate in the decision-making process and has led to the development of a sense of ownership and responsibility towards their local communities.
It has also helped in reducing corruption and promoting transparency in the administration of public services.
However, there are still several challenges that need to be addressed to ensure effective and meaningful participation of people in the local governance process.
Some of the significant challenges include the lack of adequate financial resources, weak capacity building of local representatives, inadequate participation of women and marginalized sections of society, and political interference in the functioning of these institutions.BPSE 143 Solved Free Assignment 2023
In conclusion, local self-government is an essential aspect of participatory democracy and is crucial for the development of a vibrant and inclusive society.
The evolution of local self-government in India has been marked by several milestones, and the journey towards empowering people at the grassroots level is ongoing.
The effective implementation of local self-government can lead to a more equitable and prosperous society, where the voices of people are heard and their aspirations are realized.
Q 2. Examine the relationship between the federal government and sub-regional autonomy movements in India.
Ans. The relationship between the federal government and sub-regional autonomy movements in India has been a complex one. India is a diverse country with several regional, cultural, and linguistic identities.
Over the years, there have been several movements by groups seeking greater autonomy and recognition for their regional identity.
The federal government’s response to these movements has varied depending on the nature of the movement and its demands.
One of the most prominent autonomy movements in India has been the demand for a separate state of Telangana in southern India.
The movement was marked by protests, strikes, and violence, and it gained momentum in the early 2000s. BPSE 143 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The federal government initially rejected the demand, but it eventually relented and created the state of Telangana in 2014.
Another prominent example is the insurgency in the northeastern states of India. The region has seen several separatist movements, with demands ranging from greater autonomy to complete independence.
The federal government’s response to these movements has been to use a combination of military force, negotiations, and economic incentives to quell the unrest.
In recent years, there have also been demands for greater autonomy from states like Jammu and Kashmir and Punjab. These demands have been met with varying degrees of resistance from the federal government.
In the case of Jammu and Kashmir, the federal government has taken a hardline stance and revoked the region’s special status in 2019.
The relationship between the federal government and sub-regional autonomy movements in India has been a complex and dynamic one.
On the one hand, the central government has always tried to maintain the unity and integrity of the country by resisting secessionist demands from various groups.
On the other hand, it has also recognized the need to devolve power and resources to the states and local governments to ensure effective governance.
The Constitution of India provides for a federal system of government with a clear division of powers between the central and state governments.
The states have their own elected governments and legislatures, and are responsible for a wide range of policy areas including agriculture, health, education, and law and order. BPSE 143 Solved Free Assignment 2023
However, the central government retains control over key areas such as defense, foreign affairs, and finance.
The relationship between the federal government and sub-regional autonomy movements in India has been one of mutual dependence and suspicion.
While the federal government needs the support of regional parties to form a government, the regional parties often use their leverage to demand greater autonomy for their states.
This has resulted in a complex web of power-sharing arrangements and compromises, which has sometimes led to political instability.
One of the main challenges facing the federal government is how to balance the demands of sub-regional autonomy movements with the need to maintain national unity and integrity. BPSE 143 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The government has often been accused of being insensitive to the aspirations of sub-regional groups, which has led to tensions and even violence.
On the other hand, some sub-regional autonomy movements have been accused of being overly aggressive and uncompromising, which has also led to confrontations with the federal government.
The relationship between the federal government and sub-regional autonomy movements has also been shaped by historical factors.
Many of these movements are rooted in the colonial legacy of India, where the British used the policy of divide and rule to maintain control over the country.
This has created deep-seated mistrust between different communities and regions, which has persisted even after independence.
The Indian Constitution provides for a federal system of government, which recognizes the autonomy of states while also maintaining the unity and integrity of the country. BPSE 143 Solved Free Assignment 2023
However, the exact balance between federalism and centralism has been a subject of debate and controversy.
While some argue that the Constitution gives too much power to the federal government, others argue that it does not provide enough safeguards for sub-regional autonomy.
Over the years, there have been several attempts to address the demands of sub-regional autonomy movements through constitutional amendments and other legal mechanisms.
For example, the 73rd and 74th Amendments to the Constitution provided for the establishment of panchayats and municipalities at the local level, which gave greater autonomy to rural and urban areas.
Similarly, the creation of new states such as Telangana and Uttarakhand in recent years has also been seen as a way of addressing the demands of sub-regional groups.BPSE 143 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Assignment – II
Q 1. Examine the relationship between migration and globalization.
Ans. Migration and globalization are two interconnected and complex phenomena that have been shaping the world for decades.
Globalization refers to the increasing interconnectedness of economies, societies, and cultures across national borders, facilitated by advancements in technology, transportation, and communication.
Migration, on the other hand, refers to the movement of people from one place to another, whether it be within a country or across international borders.
Globalization has had a profound impact on the patterns and volume of migration. As the global economy has become more integrated, there has been an increase in the movement of people across borders in search of employment, education, and better living conditions. BPSE 143 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Globalization has also created a demand for migrant labor in many sectors, such as construction, agriculture, and hospitality, as well as in high-skilled professions such as IT and engineering.
However, globalization has also led to the displacement of people from their homes due to factors such as economic restructuring, environmental degradation, and conflict.
These displaced people often become refugees or asylum seekers, seeking safety and security in other countries.
The globalization of media and communication has also contributed to a heightened awareness of opportunities and disparities across the world, motivating people to migrate in search of better opportunities.
Migration, in turn, has an impact on globalization. Migrants often bring with them skills, knowledge, and cultural traditions that can enrich the societies they join.
Migrant labor can also be a key factor in the growth of certain industries and sectors, contributing to economic development.
However, migration can also create tensions, particularly when migrants are seen as competition for jobs or resources, or when they are viewed as a threat to national security or cultural identity.BPSE 143 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The relationship between migration and globalization is complex and multidirectional.
While globalization has contributed to the increasing movement of people across borders, migration, in turn, has impacted the pace and nature of globalization.
Both phenomena have the potential to create opportunities and challenges for individuals, societies, and states, highlighting the need for effective policies and strategies to manage their effects.
Migration and globalization are closely related phenomena, and they both have a significant impact on various aspects of society, including the economy, culture, and politics.
Globalization has increased the movement of people across borders, resulting in greater migration flows. Similarly, migration has facilitated globalization by enabling the movement of people, ideas, and resources across borders.
The relationship between migration and globalization is complex and multifaceted. On the one hand, globalization has created new opportunities for migration, such as increased demand for labor in developed countries, and the rise of transnational communities that facilitate migration. BPSE 143 Solved Free Assignment 2023
On the other hand, migration has also contributed to globalization by providing a source of cheap labor for multinational corporations and enabling the transfer of skills and knowledge across borders.
However, the relationship between migration and globalization is not always positive. While globalization has created new opportunities for migrants, it has also led to the displacement of people from their homes and communities, particularly in developing countries.
Q 2. Explain the various approaches to the study of state politics in India.
Ans. The study of state politics in India has been approached in various ways, depending on the focus and perspective of the researchers. Some of the major approaches to the study of state politics in India are:
Institutional approach: This approach focuses on the formal institutions of the state, such as the legislature, executive, judiciary, and electoral system.
The study of state politics through this approach aims to understand the working of these institutions, their powers and limitations, and their inter-relationship.
Elite approach: This approach focuses on the political elites, such as political leaders, bureaucrats, and businessmen, who wield power and influence in the state.
The study of state politics through this approach aims to understand the interests, motivations, and strategies of these elites.
Marxist approach: This approach focuses on the role of class struggle and economic interests in shaping state politics. BPSE 143 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The study of state politics through this approach aims to understand the dynamics of power relations between different classes and the ways in which state institutions are influenced by economic interests.
Cultural approach: This approach focuses on the cultural and social factors that shape state politics, such as identity, religion, caste, and gender.
The study of state politics through this approach aims to understand the ways in which cultural and social factors influence political behavior and decision-making.
Comparative approach: This approach compares the political systems and institutions of different states and regions to understand the similarities and differences between them. BPSE 143 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The study of state politics through this approach aims to understand the factors that influence the development and functioning of political institutions in different contexts.
Another approach to the study of state politics in India is the Marxist approach, which focuses on the role of class struggle and economic factors in shaping state politics.
Marxist scholars argue that the state is an instrument of the ruling class and serves to maintain the interests of the capitalist class.
According to this approach, the state is not a neutral entity but is shaped by the interests of the dominant class. BPSE 143 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Marxist scholars also critique liberal democratic ideals, arguing that they are mere rhetoric used by the ruling class to maintain their dominance.
The feminist approach to the study of state politics in India focuses on the role of gender in shaping state politics. Feminist scholars argue that the state is a patriarchal institution that perpetuates gender inequality.
According to this approach, the state is not gender-neutral but is shaped by patriarchal norms and values.
Feminist scholars also critique liberal democratic ideals, arguing that they have failed to address gender-based discrimination and violence against women.
Finally, the postcolonial approach to the study of state politics in India examines how the legacies of colonialism continue to shape state politics.
Postcolonial scholars argue that the colonial period left lasting legacies on the Indian state, including the consolidation of hierarchies of power and the privileging of certain social groups over others. BPSE 143 Solved Free Assignment 2023
According to this approach, the Indian state remains entangled in the legacy of colonialism, perpetuating social inequalities and injustice. Postcolonial scholars also critique liberal democratic ideals,
Q 3. Discuss the political ideology of Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) Party.
Ans. Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) Party is a political party that was formed in 1949 by C.N. Annadurai, a staunch follower of the Dravidian ideology.
The party is based in the southern state of Tamil Nadu and has a significant presence in the neighboring states of Kerala and Puducherry.
DMK is known for its strong regional identity and a progressive political agenda that focuses on social justice, rationalism, and secularism.
The DMK Party’s political ideology is based on the principles of Dravidianism, which seeks to promote the interests of the Dravidian people in South India.
The party believes in the linguistic, cultural, and historical identity of the Tamil people and seeks to protect their interests. BPSE 143 Solved Free Assignment 2023
DMK is a staunch advocate of social justice and has been at the forefront of the fight for the rights of the marginalized sections of the society, including the Dalits and the backward castes.
The DMK Party has a secular outlook and believes in the separation of religion and politics. The party has been critical of communalism and has always stood for the unity and integrity of India.
The DMK also advocates for a federal system of governance, where the states have greater autonomy and decision-making powers.
The party has always been a vocal opponent of the centralization of power and the imposition of Hindi as a national language.
DMK, a regional political party in Tamil Nadu, has been known for its political ideology of Dravidianism, which stresses on the rights of the Dravidian people, especially the Tamil community. BPSE 143 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The party was founded in 1949 by C.N. Annadurai and E.V. Ramasamy, popularly known as Periyar, with the aim of fighting against the Brahmin dominance in Tamil Nadu.
The party’s ideology also includes social justice, rationalism, self-respect, and Tamil nationalism.
DMK has always been a secular party that promotes social justice and equality for all. It was the first party to introduce the concept of reservation for backward classes in the country.
The party has also been at the forefront of fighting against the caste system, gender discrimination, and communalism. DMK has been advocating for the rights of the marginalized communities, including Dalits and women.
The party has been instrumental in bringing about significant social and political changes in Tamil Nadu. BPSE 143 Solved Free Assignment 2023
It has introduced various welfare schemes for the upliftment of the poor and the marginalized, including the mid-day meal scheme, free education for girls, and free distribution of essential commodities.
DMK has also played a crucial role in Tamil Nadu’s development and growth, with its focus on industrialization, modernization, and infrastructure development.
DMK’s political ideology has also reflected in its foreign policy. The party has been critical of India’s foreign policy towards Sri Lanka and has been advocating for the rights of Tamils in Sri Lanka.
DMK has also been supportive of the Palestinian cause and has been critical of India’s relationship with Israel.BPSE 143 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Assignment – III
Q 1. Write a brief note on Chipko Movement.
Ans. The Chipko Movement was a socio-environmental movement that began in the 1970s in the Himalayan region of Uttarakhand, India.
The word ‘Chipko’ means ‘to hug’ or ‘to cling’ in Hindi, which was an apt name for the movement as it involved hugging trees to prevent them from being cut down.
The movement was led by a group of local women who were concerned about the rampant deforestation in the region, which was causing soil erosion, landslides and other environmental problems.BPSE 143 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The Chipko Movement was a non-violent movement that aimed to bring attention to the issue of deforestation and encourage the preservation of forests.
The movement gained widespread attention and support from environmental activists, scholars, and the media both nationally and internationally.
It was successful in its goal of preventing the felling of trees in the region and led to the formation of the Uttarakhand Forest Development Corporation, which gave local communities the right to manage and protect their forests.
The Chipko Movement is considered a landmark event in the history of India’s environmental activism and is often cited as an inspiration for other environmental movements around the world.
The movement helped to raise awareness about the importance of environmental conservation and the need for local communities to have a say in the management of natural resources. BPSE 143 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The Chipko Movement has since become a symbol of people’s power and their ability to bring about change through peaceful means.
Q 2. Explain the Residuary powers of legislation.
Ans. In India, the distribution of legislative powers between the Union and the States is governed by the Constitution.
The Seventh Schedule of the Constitution divides legislative powers into three lists – Union List, State List, and Concurrent List.
However, there may arise a situation where a particular matter is not covered under any of the three lists. In such cases, the power to make laws on that matter falls under the residuary powers of legislation.
The residuary powers of legislation in India are vested in the Union government. Article 248 of the Constitution empowers the Parliament to make laws on any matter not covered in the State or Concurrent List.
The Union government can make laws on any matter, which is not mentioned in the State List or Concurrent List, regardless of whether it is a matter of national or local importance.BPSE 143 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The residuary powers of legislation are considered to be a key aspect of the federal structure of the Indian Constitution.
It ensures that any matter that is not covered under the State or Concurrent List is taken care of by the Union government.
The residuary powers of legislation are significant as they provide flexibility and dynamism to the federal structure of the Indian Constitution.
Q 3. Briefly discuss the Punjab Model of Development.
Ans. The Punjab Model of Development is a term used to describe the rapid agricultural and industrial development that took place in the state of Punjab in India during the 1960s and 1970s.
The model was characterized by the Green Revolution, which involved the introduction of high-yielding crop varieties, modern irrigation systems, and the use of fertilizers and pesticides. BPSE 143 Solved Free Assignment 2023
This led to a significant increase in agricultural productivity and transformed Punjab from a food-deficit state to a food-surplus state.
The Punjab Model also focused on industrialization, with the development of large-scale industries such as textiles, machine tools, and fertilizers.
This was supported by the establishment of industrial estates, tax incentives, and the provision of infrastructure such as roads and power supply.
The model also placed a strong emphasis on education and human resource development, with the establishment of technical and professional institutions.
However, the Punjab Model has been criticized for its environmental impact, with the excessive use of fertilizers and pesticides leading to soil degradation and water pollution. BPSE 143 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The model also had limited success in reducing poverty and inequality, with benefits mainly accruing to large landowners and industrialists.
Nevertheless, the Punjab Model has been influential in shaping development strategies in other parts of India and has served as a model for agricultural and industrial development in other developing countries.
Q 4. Discuss the Kerala Model of Development.
Ans. The Kerala Model of Development refers to the unique approach to economic and social development adopted by the Indian state of Kerala.
It is characterized by a focus on human development indicators, such as high literacy rates, low infant mortality rates, and high life expectancy, rather than just economic growth.
The model was developed in the 1970s and 1980s through various policies and initiatives undertaken by the state government.
One of the key features of the Kerala Model of Development is the emphasis on social welfare programs, such as free healthcare, subsidized education, and pension schemes for the elderly. BPSE 143 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The state also implemented land reforms, which led to a more equitable distribution of land among farmers, and introduced minimum wage laws, which helped to reduce poverty.
Another important aspect of the Kerala Model of Development is the focus on empowering women.
The state implemented various policies aimed at improving the status of women, including the establishment of women’s development corporations and programs to encourage female education and entrepreneurship.
The Kerala Model of Development has been successful in achieving significant improvements in human development indicators. For example, the state’s literacy rate is over 96%, compared to the national average of 74%.
The state has also achieved a low infant mortality rate of 6 deaths per 1000 live births and a high life expectancy of over 74 years.
However, critics of the model argue that it has not been successful in achieving economic growth and industrial development.
The state has a relatively low per capita income compared to other states in India and a low rate of industrialization. BPSE 143 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Additionally, there are concerns that the social welfare programs implemented by the state are not financially sustainable in the long term.
Q 5. Write a brief note on the Marxian framework.
Ans. The Marxian framework, also known as Marxism, is a social, economic, and political theory developed by German philosopher and economist Karl Marx.
It is based on the idea that society is divided into classes, with the ruling class (capitalists) exploiting the working class (proletariat) for their labor and creating a system of inequality.
Marxism posits that the ultimate goal of society is communism, where all people have equal access to resources and there are no social classes.
To achieve this, Marx argued for a revolution of the working class against the ruling class.BPSE 143 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Marxism also emphasizes the importance of economic factors in shaping society and politics, with the means of production being a key determinant of power.
Marx believed that capitalism was inherently flawed and would inevitably lead to its own downfall, with the proletariat eventually overthrowing the ruling class.
Critics of Marxism argue that it is overly deterministic and neglects the role of individual agency and free will.
However, Marxism has had a significant impact on political thought and has inspired social movements and revolutions around the world.