INDIA’S FOREIGN POLICY IN A GLOBALISING WOLRD
BPSE 142 Solved Free Assignment 2023
BPSE 142 Solved Free Assignment January 2023
Assignment – I
Q 1. Does Indian foreign policy reflect its desire to be an important regional/global power? Examine it.
Ans. India’s foreign policy reflects its desire to be an important regional and global power.
India has consistently pursued an independent foreign policy that seeks to balance its strategic interests with its commitment to promote peace and stability in the region and the world.
India’s foreign policy has undergone significant changes since independence, from the non-alignment policy of the Nehru era to the Look East policy and the Act East policy of the Modi era.
The country’s foreign policy has evolved from a narrow focus on security concerns to a broader agenda that includes economic and strategic interests.
India’s rise as a major regional power and its growing economic and military capabilities have led to a shift in its foreign policy priorities.
India has sought to expand its influence in the region by engaging in multilateral diplomacy and forging strategic partnerships with countries such as the United States, Japan, and Australia. BPSE 142 Solved Free Assignment 2023
India has also been actively involved in regional and global forums such as the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, and the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa) grouping.
India has also been an active member of the G-20 and has played a leading role in the fight against climate change.
India’s foreign policy towards its neighbors has been shaped by a desire to maintain peace and stability in the region.
India has pursued a policy of engagement with its neighbors and has sought to resolve outstanding issues through dialogue and negotiation.
India has also played a leading role in regional initiatives such as the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and the Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC).
However, India’s desire to be an important regional and global power has also led to some challenges. India’s relations with China have been marked by strategic competition and territorial disputes.
India’s relationship with Pakistan has been strained by cross-border terrorism and territorial disputes in Kashmir. India has also faced criticism from some quarters for its human rights record and its treatment of minorities.
One of the key drivers of India’s foreign policy is its economic interests. India has sought to expand its economic engagement with the world by promoting trade, investment, and technology cooperation.
India has signed free trade agreements with several countries and has been actively involved in regional economic initiatives such as the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP).BPSE 142 Solved Free Assignment 2023
India’s foreign policy has also been shaped by its strategic interests. India has sought to establish strategic partnerships with countries that share its concerns on issues such as terrorism, maritime security, and regional stability.
India has also developed strategic partnerships with countries in the Middle East and Africa to promote its energy security interests.
India’s foreign policy has also been influenced by its diaspora. The Indian diaspora is one of the largest in the world and plays an important role in promoting India’s interests abroad.
India has established several initiatives to engage with its diaspora, including the Pravasi Bharatiya Divas and the Overseas Citizen of India scheme.
India’s foreign policy towards multilateral institutions has been shaped by its desire to play a larger role in the global governance architecture.
India has been advocating for reforms in the United Nations Security Council to reflect the changing global realities.
India has also been an active participant in the Group of 20 (G20) and has played a leading role in the global fight against climate change.
India’s foreign policy has also been influenced by its cultural diplomacy. India has a rich cultural heritage and has sought to promote it abroad through initiatives such as the International Yoga Day, the promotion of Indian classical music and dance, and the establishment of Indian cultural centers around the world.
India’s foreign policy has also been influenced by its security concerns. India has been a victim of cross-border terrorism and has faced threats from non-state actors operating from its neighborhood.BPSE 142 Solved Free Assignment 2023
India has sought to counter these threats by pursuing a policy of deterrence, by enhancing its military capabilities and by building strategic partnerships with countries that share its concerns. BPSE 142 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Q 2. How does political leadership of a state affect its foreign policy. Explain with reference of India.
Ans. The political leadership of a state plays a crucial role in shaping its foreign policy. In the case of India, the political leadership has had a significant impact on the country’s foreign policy over the years.
India has had a diverse range of political leadership over the years, each with their own vision and approach to foreign policy.
Jawaharlal Nehru, India’s first Prime Minister, pursued a policy of non-alignment and sought to maintain equidistance from both the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War. BPSE 142 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Nehru’s foreign policy was shaped by his belief in India’s moral superiority and his desire to promote peace and disarmament on the global stage.
Indira Gandhi, India’s first female Prime Minister, pursued a more assertive foreign policy and sought to position India as a leader of the developing world.
Gandhi’s foreign policy was characterized by her support for anti-colonial movements, her emphasis on self-reliance and her close ties with the Soviet Union.
Rajiv Gandhi, India’s youngest Prime Minister, sought to modernize India’s economy and promote closer ties with the West.
Gandhi’s foreign policy was characterized by his focus on economic liberalization and his efforts to build closer ties with the United States.
Narendra Modi, India’s current Prime Minister, has pursued a policy of proactive diplomacy and sought to establish India as a major power on the global stage.
Modi’s foreign policy is characterized by his emphasis on economic growth, his focus on building strategic partnerships with key countries such as the United States and Japan, and his efforts to promote India’s cultural and soft power.
The political leadership of a state not only shapes its foreign policy but also affects how the country is perceived by the international community.
A strong and visionary political leadership can help build a positive image of the country and attract foreign investment and support.
In contrast, a weak or ineffective leadership can lead to a negative perception of the country and undermine its ability to achieve its foreign policy goals.
India’s political leadership has been recognized for its strategic vision and ability to navigate complex geopolitical challenges.
The country’s foreign policy has been characterized by a mix of realism and idealism, as well as a willingness to engage with diverse actors and stakeholders on the global stage.BPSE 142 Solved Free Assignment 2023
However, there have also been instances where India’s political leadership has faced criticism for its foreign policy decisions.
For example, India’s nuclear tests in 1998 led to international condemnation and economic sanctions, while its handling of the Kashmir issue has been criticized for being too aggressive and lacking in sensitivity.
Overall, it is clear that the political leadership of a state has a significant impact on its foreign policy.
In the case of India, the country’s foreign policy has been shaped by a diverse range of leaders over the years, each with their own vision and approach to international relations.
While there have been both successes and failures, India’s political leadership has generally been recognized for its strategic vision and ability to navigate complex global challenges.BPSE 142 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Assignment – II
Q 1. What are the main features of Indian foreign Policy?
Ans.Indian foreign policy has evolved over time, but there are certain key features that have remained constant. Some of the main features of Indian foreign policy are:
Non-alignment: India has historically followed a policy of non-alignment, which means that it avoids aligning itself with any major power blocs. This policy has allowed India to maintain its independence and pursue its own interests.
Strategic autonomy: India has always emphasized the importance of strategic autonomy in its foreign policy. BPSE 142 Solved Free Assignment 2023
This means that India is not bound by the interests of any particular country or group and can make its own decisions based on its national interests.
Regional focus: India has a strong focus on its immediate neighborhood and the wider South Asian region.BPSE 142 Solved Free Assignment 2023
It has played a leading role in regional organizations such as SAARC and has sought to promote regional integration and cooperation.
Multi-lateralism: India is a strong supporter of multi-lateralism and believes in the importance of the United Nations and other international institutions in promoting global peace and security.
Economic diplomacy: In recent years, India has placed a greater emphasis on economic diplomacy, seeking to promote trade and investment with other countries as a means of achieving its economic objectives.
Soft power: India has a rich cultural heritage and has used its soft power to promote its image and influence abroad. BPSE 142 Solved Free Assignment 2023
This includes the promotion of Indian culture, language, and tradition, as well as its expertise in fields such as information technology and space exploration.
Strategic partnerships: India has developed strategic partnerships with key countries such as the United States, Russia, Japan, and Israel. These partnerships have helped India to secure its interests and enhance its global standing.
Nuclear policy: India’s nuclear policy has been a major factor in its foreign policy. India is not a signatory to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) but has sought to establish itself as a responsible nuclear power.
It has emphasized the importance of a world free of nuclear weapons while maintaining a credible nuclear deterrent.
Counter-terrorism: India has been a victim of terrorism and has made counter-terrorism a key priority in its foreign policy.
It has sought to build international consensus on the need to combat terrorism and has worked with other countries to address this threat.
Climate change: India is a developing country and has a significant stake in the global response to climate change.
It has been actively engaged in international negotiations on climate change and has sought to promote sustainable development while addressing the challenges of climate change.BPSE 142 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Cultural diplomacy: India has a rich cultural heritage and has used cultural diplomacy as a tool of foreign policy. It has promoted Indian culture and heritage abroad, with the aim of enhancing its soft power and promoting a positive image of India.
Q 2. Highlight important changes in India Foreign policy since 1991.
Ans. India’s foreign policy underwent significant changes after the liberalization of the Indian economy in 1991. Some of the important changes are:
Economic diplomacy: With the opening up of the Indian economy, economic diplomacy became a major component of India’s foreign policy.
India sought to enhance trade and investment relations with other countries, and played an active role in regional and global economic forums such as the World Trade Organization (WTO), the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank.BPSE 142 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Look East Policy: In the early 1990s, India began to shift its foreign policy focus towards its eastern neighbours, with the launch of the Look East Policy.
The policy aimed to enhance economic and strategic ties with the countries of Southeast Asia, and later expanded to include East Asia.
Nuclear policy: In 1998, India conducted nuclear tests, which led to international condemnation and sanctions.
In response, India redefined its nuclear policy and sought to establish itself as a responsible nuclear power. It pursued a policy of minimum deterrence and sought to build closer relations with other nuclear powers.
Strategic partnerships: India began to pursue strategic partnerships with countries such as the United States, Japan, and Israel.
These partnerships were aimed at enhancing India’s security and economic interests, and reflected a shift away from India’s traditional non-aligned stance.
Regional integration: India played an active role in regional integration initiatives such as the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and the Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC). It also pursued closer ties with other regional powers such as China.
Multilateralism: India became an active participant in multilateral forums such as the United Nations (UN), where it sought to promote its interests and contribute to global governance. BPSE 142 Solved Free Assignment 2023
It also played an active role in the establishment of the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa) grouping.
Overall, India’s foreign policy has been successful in achieving its objectives, and the country has emerged as a major player in the global arena.
However, India still faces several challenges such as dealing with its hostile neighbors, managing its relationships with major powers, and balancing its economic and strategic interests.
Therefore, India needs to continue its efforts to build strong partnerships with other countries, enhance its soft power capabilities, and pursue a foreign policy that is guided by its national interests and values.
Q 3. Describe the nature of India Foreign policy during the Cold War.
Ans. During the Cold War, India pursued a policy of non-alignment, which was based on the principle of staying neutral in the conflict between the two superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union. BPSE 142 Solved Free Assignment 2023
India, under the leadership of Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, sought to maintain its independence and autonomy in international affairs by avoiding taking sides in the ideological and military rivalry between the two blocs.
India’s non-alignment policy was based on five principles, which were laid out in the Bandung Conference in 1955.
These principles were mutual respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity, non-interference in the internal affairs of other countries, respect for equality and mutual benefit, peaceful co-existence, and co-operation for the promotion of economic and social development.
India’s non-alignment policy was based on the belief that countries should have the freedom to pursue their own path of development and foreign policy without being dictated by the superpowers. BPSE 142 Solved Free Assignment 2023
India actively promoted peace and disarmament and was a leading voice in the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM), which was formed in 1961 to provide a forum for developing countries to voice their concerns and promote their interests.
India’s non-alignment policy was tested during the Cold War, particularly during the India-China War in 1962 and the India-Pakistan Wars of 1965 and 1971.
However, India remained committed to its non-alignment policy and continued to pursue an independent foreign policy based on its national interests.
During the Cold War, India’s foreign policy was marked by a quest for strategic autonomy, non-alignment, and opposition to hegemonic powers.
India was one of the founding members of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM), which aimed to create a third force in world politics and promote peaceful coexistence between nations. BPSE 142 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Non-alignment allowed India to maintain friendly relations with both the United States and the Soviet Union, while avoiding military alliances or commitments.
India’s foreign policy during the Cold War was also influenced by its desire to promote decolonization and support the struggles of other newly independent countries against imperialism and colonialism.
India played an active role in the Afro-Asian solidarity movement, which aimed to support the national liberation struggles of countries in Africa and Asia against colonialism, racism, and oppression.
Another important aspect of India’s foreign policy during the Cold War was its commitment to promoting global disarmament, nuclear non-proliferation, and peaceful coexistence between nations.
India proposed the idea of a nuclear weapons-free world and advocated for disarmament and the reduction of nuclear weapons.
Finally, India’s foreign policy during the Cold War was shaped by its regional interests and concerns. BPSE 142 Solved Free Assignment 2023
India sought to maintain stability and peace in South Asia and worked to promote regional integration and cooperation through initiatives such as the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC).
At the same time, India faced security challenges from its neighbors, including China and Pakistan, and had to balance its relations with these countries while protecting its own national interests and security.
Assignment – III
Q 1. Describe the main goals of India’s Foreign Policy.
Ans.India’s foreign policy has several goals, which have been modified and adapted over the years based on changing regional and global dynamics. Some of the main goals of India’s foreign policy include:
Promoting national security: Ensuring national security is the foremost objective of India’s foreign policy. BPSE 142 Solved Free Assignment 2023
India’s foreign policy is aimed at protecting the country’s territorial integrity and sovereignty, securing its borders, and ensuring the safety and security of its citizens.
Promoting economic development: India’s foreign policy aims to promote economic growth and development by creating opportunities for trade and investment, securing energy supplies, and building strategic partnerships with countries that can provide technological and other resources.
Promoting regional stability: India is a major player in South Asia and has a crucial role in promoting regional stability and security.
India’s foreign policy aims to build strong partnerships with its neighbors, resolve regional conflicts, and promote economic integration in the region.
Promoting global peace and security: India is committed to promoting global peace and security and works closely with the international community to address global challenges such as climate change, terrorism, and nuclear disarmament.
Protecting the interests of Indian diaspora: India has a significant diaspora population around the world. BPSE 142 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The country’s foreign policy aims to protect the interests and welfare of the Indian diaspora and promote their cultural and economic ties with India.
Q 2. Why India did not sign the Nuclear Non –Proliferation Treaty?
Ans. India did not sign the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) due to various reasons. The primary reason was India’s long-standing concern regarding the discriminatory nature of the treaty.
The NPT, which came into effect in 1970, recognized only five states – the United States, Russia, China, the United Kingdom, and France – as nuclear weapon states.
India, along with other non-aligned countries, believed that this provision in the treaty created an unequal balance of power and perpetuated a global nuclear hierarchy. BPSE 142 Solved Free Assignment 2023
India also believed that the NPT had failed in its objective of nuclear disarmament. The treaty had provisions for the gradual elimination of nuclear weapons, but the nuclear weapon states had failed to comply with these provisions.
Furthermore, India believed that the NPT was an impediment to its national security interests.
India faced the threat of nuclear-armed neighbors, such as China and Pakistan, and the NPT restricted its ability to acquire nuclear weapons to deter any aggression.
In response to the NPT, India formulated its own nuclear policy that emphasized a minimum credible deterrence posture. India conducted its first nuclear test in 1974, which demonstrated its nuclear capability.
In 1998, India conducted a series of nuclear tests, which further cemented its position as a nuclear power. BPSE 142 Solved Free Assignment 2023
In summary, India did not sign the NPT due to concerns about the discriminatory nature of the treaty, its failure to achieve nuclear disarmament, and restrictions on India’s national security interests.
India formulated its own nuclear policy based on a minimum credible deterrence posture, which allowed it to acquire nuclear weapons to safeguard its national security interests.
Q 3. What was Afro -Asian Unity?
Ans. Afro-Asian unity, also known as Third World solidarity, refers to the concept of solidarity and cooperation among the newly independent countries of Asia and Africa during the Cold War era.
This concept emerged after the Bandung Conference held in Bandung, Indonesia in 1955, which was attended by leaders of 29 Asian and African countries.
The Afro-Asian leaders believed that the former colonial powers had exploited and subjugated their people, and that they could achieve their political and economic goals through cooperation with each other.
The leaders also sought to create a non-aligned bloc of nations that could remain neutral in the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union.
The concept of Afro-Asian unity was based on the principles of anti-colonialism, anti-imperialism, and non-alignment.BPSE 142 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The leaders of these countries believed that they could promote economic development, cultural exchange, and regional cooperation through mutual assistance and cooperation.
Afro-Asian unity had a significant impact on the international community, as it challenged the dominant global power structures of the time.
It provided a platform for developing countries to voice their concerns and assert their sovereignty on the world stage.
The Non-Aligned Movement, which emerged from this concept, played an important role in shaping international relations during the Cold War era.
Q 4. The Panchsheel Agreement
Ans. The Panchsheel Agreement, also known as the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, is a set of principles that were agreed upon by India and China in 1954.
The agreement was signed by then-Prime Minister of India, Jawaharlal Nehru, and the Chinese Premier, Zhou Enlai, and was seen as a significant step towards improving relations between the two countries.
The five principles of the Panchsheel Agreement are mutual respect for each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty, non-aggression, non-interference in each other’s internal affairs, equality and mutual benefit, and peaceful coexistence.
These principles were seen as a way for India and China to peacefully coexist and work together for the benefit of both nations.
The Panchsheel Agreement was seen as a significant diplomatic achievement for India, as it was able to establish peaceful relations with China after years of tension and conflict. BPSE 142 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The agreement was also seen as a way for India to assert its independence and to distance itself from the Cold War politics that were dominating international relations at the time.
However, the Panchsheel Agreement was not without controversy. Critics of the agreement argued that it was one-sided and favored China, as it allowed China to expand its influence in Tibet and other border regions.
The agreement also did little to address the ongoing border disputes between India and China, which would eventually lead to the Sino-Indian War in 1962.
Despite its shortcomings, the Panchsheel Agreement remains an important milestone in India’s foreign policy, as it represents India’s commitment to peaceful coexistence and its desire to maintain good relations with its neighbors.
Q 5. The Tashkent Agreement
Ans. The Tashkent Agreement was a peace agreement signed between India and Pakistan on January 10, 1966, after the Indo-Pakistan War of 1965.
It was signed in Tashkent, the capital city of Uzbekistan, with the mediation of Soviet Premier Alexei Kosygin.BPSE 142 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The agreement was signed by Indian Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri and Pakistani President Ayub Khan.
The main objective of the agreement was to bring an end to the hostilities between the two countries and to normalize their relations.
The agreement emphasized the need to respect the Line of Control and to settle disputes peacefully.
Under the agreement, both countries agreed to withdraw their armed forces to their respective pre-war positions and to release all prisoners of war.
The two countries also agreed to hold talks to resolve all outstanding issues between them.
The Tashkent Agreement was hailed as a major breakthrough in Indo-Pakistani relations and was seen as a step towards long-lasting peace in the region.
However, the agreement was not welcomed by many in India, as it was seen as a compromise with Pakistan, especially since India was making significant military gains at the time of the war. BPSE 142 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Furthermore, the sudden death of Prime Minister Shastri, who died of a heart attack on the same day the agreement was signed, led to speculation and conspiracy theories about the circumstances surrounding his death.
Despite these criticisms and controversies, the Tashkent Agreement remains an important event in the history of India-Pakistan relations.
It demonstrated the willingness of both countries to engage in dialogue and negotiation to resolve their disputes peacefully.