INTRODUCTION OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
BPSC 134 Solved Free Assignment 2023
BPSC 134 Solved Free Assignment January 2023
Assignment – I
Q 1. Examine the causes of World War –I and its impact for Europe.
Ans. World War I was a global conflict that lasted from 1914 to 1918 and involved the major powers of Europe, as well as several other countries from around the world.
The war was triggered by a complex set of factors, including political, economic, and social tensions that had been building up in Europe for several decades.
Some of the main causes of World War I and its impact for Europe are discussed below:
Nationalism: Nationalism was a powerful force in Europe in the early 20th century, with many countries seeking to assert their dominance over other nations.
This led to intense competition and rivalry between countries, particularly in the Balkans region.BPSC 134 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Imperialism: The major European powers were engaged in a fierce competition for colonial territories and economic resources around the world, which often led to conflicts and tensions between nations.
Alliance system: The complex system of alliances that existed between European nations made it difficult to contain conflicts and prevent escalation. Countries were often obligated to come to the aid of their allies, even if this meant going to war.
Militarism: Many countries in Europe had developed large and powerful military forces, which they saw as essential for maintaining their security an prestige.
However, this also created a sense of competition and aggression that contributed to the outbreak of war.
Impact: BPSC 134 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Human toll: The human toll of World War I was staggering, with millions of soldiers and civilians losing their lives or being injured in the conflict.
The war also had a profound psychological impact on those who survived, with many experiencing trauma and lasting emotional scars.
Economic devastation: The war had a devastating impact on the economies of Europe, with many countries experiencing widespread poverty and hardship in the aftermath.
The cost of rebuilding and repairing the damage caused by the war was enormous, and many countries struggled to recover.
Political upheaval: The war led to significant political upheaval in Europe, with several major empires collapsing and new states emerging.
This created a sense of uncertainty and instability, which contributed to the rise of authoritarian regimes and the outbreak of World War II.
International relations: The war had a profound impact on international relations, with many countries reevaluating their relationships with one another and seeking new alliances and partnerships. BPSC 134 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The war also set the stage for the emergence of the United States as a major global power, as well as the decline of European dominance in world affairs.
Cultural and social changes: World War I also had a profound impact on cultural and social norms in Europe.
The conflict brought about significant changes in gender roles, with women taking on new roles and responsibilities both at home and in the workplace.
The war also led to the emergence of new cultural movements, such as Dadaism and Surrealism, that challenged traditional notions of art and culture.
Rise of nationalism and fascism: The war contributed to the rise of nationalism and fascism in Europe, as many people became disillusioned with the existing political order and sought more extreme solutions to the problems facing their countries.
This led to the emergence of authoritarian regimes and the erosion of democratic institutions in many parts of Europe.
Impact on international relations: The war had a profound impact on international relations, setting the stage for the emergence of the United States as a major global power and the decline of European dominance in world affairs.
It also led to the formation of the League of Nations, which aimed to prevent future conflicts but ultimately proved ineffective in achieving this goal.
Technological advancements: World War I saw significant advancements in military technology, with new weapons and tactics being developed that would shape the nature of warfare for decades to come.
This included the widespread use of machine guns, tanks, and chemical weapons, which led to unprecedented levels of destruction and death on the battlefield.
Legacy of the war: The legacy of World War I continues to be felt in Europe and around the world today. BPSC 134 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The war contributed to the development of new political and economic systems, such as socialism and communism, and paved the way for the emergence of new global powers.
It also created a sense of disillusionment and cynicism among many people, who felt that the war had been fought for little gain and at a tremendous cost in human life and suffering.
Q 2. Explain different theoretical approaches of international relations.
Ans. International Relations (IR) is a complex field that involves the study of interactions between different countries, international organizations, and non-state actors.
There are several theoretical approaches to IR, each of which offers a unique perspective on the nature of international politics and the forces that shape it. Here are some of the most important approaches:
Realism: Realism is a dominant theory of IR that emphasizes the role of power and the pursuit of self-interest in shaping international politics.
According to realists, the international system is inherently anarchic, and states are motivated primarily by the desire to maximize their power and security.
Liberalism: Liberalism is a theory of IR that emphasizes the importance of international institutions, law, and cooperation in shaping international politics.
Constructivism: Constructivism is a theory of IR that emphasizes the role of ideas, norms, and identities in shaping international politics.
According to constructivists, the international system is not just a product of material factors such as power and interests but is also shaped by cultural and normative factors.BPSC 134 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Marxism: Marxism is a theory of IR that emphasizes the role of economic factors and class struggle in shaping international politics.
According to Marxists, the international system is dominated by capitalist states and is characterized by unequal power relations and exploitation.
Feminism: Feminism is a theoretical approach to IR that emphasizes the role of gender in shaping international politics.
Feminists argue that the international system is characterized by patriarchy and that gender inequalities are reflected in the distribution of power and resources.
Postcolonialism: Postcolonialism is a theoretical approach to IR that emphasizes the legacy of colonialism and the impact of colonialism on contemporary international politics.
Postcolonial theorists argue that the international system is characterized by unequal power relations and that the dominant powers continue to shape the global political order to their advantage.
Critical theory: Critical theory is a theoretical approach to IR that emphasizes the role of power and ideology in shaping international politics.
Critical theorists argue that the international system is not just a product of material factors such as power and interests but is also shaped by cultural and ideological factors that perpetuate inequality and oppression.
Poststructuralism: Poststructuralism is a theoretical approach to IR that emphasizes the role of language, discourse, and power in shaping international politics.
According to poststructuralists, the meaning of international events is not fixed but is constructed through language and discourse, and power is distributed through the ability to define and shape discourse.BPSC 134 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Environmentalism: Environmentalism is a theoretical approach to IR that emphasizes the role of environmental factors in shaping international politics.
Environmentalists argue that environmental issues, such as climate change and resource depletion, are critical challenges that require international cooperation and collective action.
Rational choice theory: Rational choice theory is a theoretical approach to IR that emphasizes the role of individual decision-making in shaping international politics.
According to rational choice theorists, individuals and states make decisions based on their rational self-interest and seek to maximize their utility or benefits.
Game theory: Game theory is a theoretical approach to IR that uses mathematical models to analyze strategic interactions between actors in the international system.
Game theorists study how actors make decisions in situations of conflict and cooperation and analyze the outcomes of these interactions.
System theory: System theory is a theoretical approach to IR that emphasizes the importance of the international system as a whole and how it shapes the behavior of individual actors. BPSC 134 Solved Free Assignment 2023
System theorists study how the structure of the international system, such as the distribution of power and the presence of international norms and institutions, affects the behavior of states and other actors.
Assignment – II
Q 1. Define Collective security and the purpose of UN collective security approach.
Ans. Collective security is a concept in international relations that refers to the establishment of a system of mutual security among states, where all states agree to come to each other’s defense in the event of an act of aggression by another state.
The purpose of collective security is to prevent conflicts from arising or escalating into war by creating a system of deterrence and cooperation among states.
The United Nations (UN) is a global organization that was founded in 1945 with the goal of promoting peace and security among its member states.
The UN collective security approach is based on the principle of collective action, where all member states agree to take measures to prevent and address threats to international peace and security. BPSC 134 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The UN Security Council, which is composed of 15 member states, is responsible for implementing the collective security approach.
The primary purpose of the UN collective security approach is to maintain international peace and security by preventing and resolving conflicts.
This is achieved through a range of measures, including diplomatic efforts, economic sanctions, and the use of force as a last resort.
The UN Security Council has the power to authorize the use of force, and member states are obligated to comply with its decisions.
The UN collective security approach is based on the belief that peace and security can only be achieved through collective action and cooperation among states.
The approach is designed to prevent individual states from resorting to unilateral action, which can lead to further conflict and instability.
By establishing a system of collective security, the UN aims to create a more stable and peaceful international environment, where states can work together to address common challenges and promote global prosperity.
The UN collective security approach has been used in a number of conflicts around the world, including the Gulf War, the conflict in Kosovo, and the intervention in Libya. BPSC 134 Solved Free Assignment 2023
In some cases, the use of collective security measures has been successful in preventing or resolving conflicts.
In other cases, however, the approach has faced challenges, such as the lack of consensus among member states, the difficulty in implementing sanctions, and the limitations of military force.
One of the major challenges facing the UN collective security approach is the issue of sovereignty. Some states are reluctant to cede control over their own security to an international organization, and are hesitant to intervene in the affairs of other states.
In addition, there are concerns about the effectiveness of collective security measures, particularly in cases where the UN Security Council is divided or where there are veto-wielding members who are opposed to taking action.
Despite these challenges, the UN collective security approach remains an important tool for preventing and resolving conflicts. It provides a framework for international cooperation and helps to promote peace and stability around the world.
However, the approach is not without its limitations, and it will continue to face challenges as the international system evolves and new threats emerge.
Q 2. Describe the factors responsible for World War –II.
Ans. World War II was a global conflict that lasted from 1939 to 1945, and was primarily fought between the Axis powers (led by Germany, Japan, and Italy) and the Allied powers (led by the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union).
The causes of World War II were complex and multifaceted, and included a range of political, economic, and social factors.
One of the main factors that contributed to the outbreak of World War II was the aggressive foreign policies of Germany, Italy, and Japan.
These countries were all seeking to expand their territories and increase their power, which led to a series of territorial disputes and conflicts.
Germany, under the leadership of Adolf Hitler, had been rearming since the 1930s, and had already annexed Austria and the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia.
In 1939, Germany invaded Poland, which prompted the United Kingdom and France to declare war.BPSC 134 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Another factor that contributed to the outbreak of World War II was the failure of the policy of appeasement.
In an effort to avoid war, the Western powers had pursued a policy of appeasement towards Germany, allowing Hitler to take over the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia in 1938.
However, this policy only emboldened Hitler, who saw it as a sign of weakness and continued his aggressive expansionist policies.
The failure of the League of Nations was another contributing factor to the outbreak of World War II.
The League of Nations, which was established after World War I to promote international cooperation and prevent future conflicts, was unable to prevent the aggression of Germany, Italy, and Japan.
The League was also weakened by the withdrawal of the United States and the Soviet Union, two major powers that refused to participate.
Economic factors also played a role in the outbreak of World War II. The global economic depression of the 1930s had caused widespread unemployment and economic hardship, which led to the rise of extremist political movements and the erosion of democracy in many countries.
In addition, the policy of protectionism and trade barriers that had been adopted by many countries in response to the depression created tensions and economic instability.BPSC 134 Solved Free Assignment 2023
In summary, the causes of World War II were multifaceted and complex, and included a range of political, economic, and social factors.
The aggressive foreign policies of Germany, Italy, and Japan, the failure of the policy of appeasement, the weakness of the League of Nations, and the economic instability of the 1930s all contributed to the outbreak of the war.
Q 3. Methods of securing national interests in world politics.
Ans. Securing national interests is a key concern for all states in world politics. There are several methods that states can use to protect and promote their national interests, including the following:
Diplomacy: Diplomacy involves using dialogue and negotiation to achieve desired outcomes.
This can include bilateral or multilateral negotiations, as well as the use of international institutions such as the United Nations or the World Trade Organization.
Diplomacy can help to build relationships, resolve disputes, and promote cooperation among states.BPSC 134 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Economic leverage: Economic power can be used to promote national interests in world politics. This can include measures such as trade agreements, sanctions, or investment policies.
Economic leverage can be a powerful tool to influence the behavior of other states and to achieve desired outcomes.
Military force: Military force can be used to protect national interests in world politics, although it is generally seen as a last resort. Military force can be used to defend territory, deter aggression, or to intervene in conflicts that threaten national security.
The use of military force can be highly controversial, however, and can have significant diplomatic and economic consequences.
Soft power: Soft power involves using cultural, economic, and social influence to achieve desired outcomes.
This can include promoting a country’s values and culture through cultural exchange programs or by using the media to shape public opinion.
Soft power can be an effective way to build relationships and to promote cooperation among states.BPSC 134 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Alliances and partnerships: Alliances and partnerships can be used to promote national interests in world politics. This can include formal military alliances such as NATO, or economic partnerships such as the European Union.
Alliances and partnerships can help to provide security, promote economic cooperation, and increase political influence.
Intelligence gathering: Intelligence gathering involves collecting and analyzing information about other states and their activities.
This can help states to better understand the intentions and capabilities of other actors in world politics, and to identify potential threats to their national interests.
Intelligence gathering can be conducted through a variety of methods, including human intelligence, signals intelligence, and open source intelligence.
Cybersecurity: Cybersecurity has become an increasingly important method of securing national interests in world politics, as more and more activities are conducted online.
States must protect their information and communication systems from cyber attacks, which can come from other states, non-state actors, or individuals.
Cybersecurity can involve a range of measures, including encryption, firewalls, and intrusion detection systems.BPSC 134 Solved Free Assignment 2023
International law and norms: International law and norms can be used to promote national interests in world politics. States can use international law to secure their legal rights, such as territorial sovereignty or the right to self-defense.
International norms can also be used to shape behavior and promote cooperation among states. For example, the norm against the use of chemical weapons has helped to deter their use in conflicts.
Public diplomacy: Public diplomacy involves using communication and outreach to shape public opinion and promote national interests.
This can include activities such as cultural exchange programs, public speeches by political leaders, or social media campaigns.
Public diplomacy can help to build relationships with other states, promote understanding of a country’s values and policies, and shape perceptions of the country in the global community.
Economic development: Finally, economic development can be a key method of securing national interests in world politics.
By promoting economic growth and prosperity, states can enhance their security, promote stability, and increase their influence in the global community.
Economic development can be achieved through a range of measures, including investment in infrastructure, education, and innovation, as well as trade policies and international economic cooperation.
Assignment – III
Q 1. Critical theories of International Relations
Ans. Critical theories of International Relations are a diverse set of approaches that share a common focus on questioning and challenging dominant assumptions and power structures in world politics. BPSC 134 Solved Free Assignment 2023
These theories are often concerned with issues such as inequality, exploitation, and oppression, and seek to understand how these dynamics are perpetuated and challenged in global affairs.
Some of the key critical theories of International Relations include Marxism, feminism, postcolonialism, and critical race theory.
Marxist theory is a critical approach that emphasizes the role of class struggle in world politics. Marxists argue that global capitalism is the root cause of many of the world’s problems, including poverty, inequality, and environmental degradation.
They view the world as divided between the wealthy capitalist class and the working-class masses, and see international relations as an arena of struggle between these two groups.
Feminist theory is another critical approach that focuses on gender as a key axis of power in world politics.
Feminists argue that traditional IR theories have neglected the experiences and perspectives of women, and that gender-based power relations are central to understanding global politics. BPSC 134 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Feminists seek to highlight the ways in which gender norms and stereotypes shape international relations, and to promote gender equality and women’s empowerment.
Postcolonial theory is a critical approach that examines the legacy of colonialism and imperialism in world politics.
Postcolonial theorists argue that the dominant Western-centric perspectives in IR have obscured the experiences and perspectives of non-Western countries and peoples.
They seek to challenge the ways in which Western powers have imposed their cultural and political values on other societies, and to promote more equitable and respectful relationships between different cultures and nations.
Q 2. International anarchy and world politics
Ans. International anarchy is a central concept in the study of world politics. It refers to the absence of a centralized world government that can enforce rules and regulate the behavior of states.
Instead, international relations are characterized by a state of nature, where each state is free to pursue its own interests and there is no higher authority to appeal to.
This creates a situation of potential conflict and competition between states, as each seeks to protect its own security and advance its own interests.
The concept of international anarchy is closely related to the realist school of thought in international relations. BPSC 134 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Realists argue that the absence of a world government means that states must rely on their own power and capabilities to ensure their survival and protect their interests.
This often leads to a focus on military strength, alliances, and balance of power politics, as states seek to deter potential threats and project their influence in the international system.
Critics of the realist perspective argue that it neglects the role of non-state actors, international institutions, and transnational issues in world politics.
They point out that states are not the only actors in the international system, and that issues such as climate change, economic globalization, and human rights can have a significant impact on international relations.
Moreover, they argue that the absence of a world government does not necessarily lead to conflict and competition, and that cooperation and diplomacy are also important features of international relations.
Despite these criticisms, the concept of international anarchy remains a central feature of the study of world politics.
It highlights the fundamental challenges that states face in navigating a complex and uncertain international system, and underscores the importance of understanding the motivations and interests of other actors in order to achieve cooperation and mutual benefit.BPSC 134 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Q 3. Describe Green Politics.
Ans. Green politics is a political ideology that prioritizes environmentalism and sustainability, and seeks to address ecological and social issues through policy and activism.
It emerged in the 1970s as a response to growing concerns about pollution, deforestation, and other environmental problems, and has since become a significant force in politics and social movements around the world.
At its core, green politics emphasizes the interconnectedness of environmental and social issues, and seeks to create a more just and sustainable society.
This involves a focus on ecological sustainability, social justice, and participatory democracy.
Green politics also emphasizes the importance of community, solidarity, and grassroots organizing, and seeks to build coalitions between social and environmental movements.BPSC 134 Solved Free Assignment 2023
In terms of policy, green politics advocates for a range of measures to promote sustainability and protect the environment.
These can include measures such as renewable energy subsidies, carbon taxes, emissions trading schemes, and conservation efforts.
Green politics also advocates for measures to address social inequality, such as progressive taxation, universal healthcare, and affordable housing.
Green politics has been influential in a number of countries, and has led to the formation of green political parties and the adoption of green policies by mainstream political parties.
In some cases, green parties have gained significant electoral success, such as the Green Party in Germany and the Green Party of Canada.
Q 4. Describe Treaty of Versailles
Ans. The Treaty of Versailles was a peace agreement signed on June 28, 1919, in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles in France, officially ending World War I.
The treaty was negotiated by representatives of the Allied powers, including France, Britain, and the United States, and Germany was forced to accept its terms.
The treaty imposed a number of harsh penalties on Germany, including significant territorial losses, disarmament, and the payment of reparations to the Allies.
Germany was required to cede territory to France, Poland, and other nations, and was forced to accept full responsibility for the war, which ultimately led to a loss of prestige and a significant blow to national morale.
The Treaty of Versailles also established the League of Nations, a precursor to the United Nations, with the aim of promoting international cooperation and preventing future wars. BPSC 134 Solved Free Assignment 2023
However, the United States never joined the League, and it ultimately failed to prevent the outbreak of World War II.
The treaty was widely criticized by many, including some within the Allied powers, who felt that it was too harsh on Germany and would lead to future conflicts.
The treaty also failed to address many of the underlying political and economic issues that contributed to the outbreak of World War I.
Q 5. Regionalism and New Regionalism
Ans. Regionalism refers to the political and economic cooperation among countries that share geographic proximity, cultural ties, or economic interests.
Regionalism can take various forms, such as trade agreements, political alliances, or joint military arrangements.
The main goal of regionalism is to promote greater economic growth, security, and political stability among the participating countries.
New Regionalism, on the other hand, refers to a recent trend in regional cooperation that has emerged since the 1980s.
Unlike traditional regionalism, which focused on creating formal organizations and institutions, new regionalism is characterized by more flexible and decentralized forms of cooperation, such as informal networks, cross-border cooperation, and public-private partnerships. BPSC 134 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The main goal of new regionalism is to promote greater economic integration and competitiveness among the participating countries, and to address common challenges such as environmental degradation, migration, and security threats.
Both regionalism and new regionalism have their advantages and drawbacks. Regionalism can help promote greater economic growth, social and cultural exchange, and political stability among neighboring countries.
However, it can also lead to increased competition and conflicts among the participating countries, and can sometimes be exclusionary or discriminatory towards non-participating countries.
New regionalism, on the other hand, can help promote greater economic integration and cooperation among countries in a more flexible and inclusive manner.
However, it can also lead to greater inequality and marginalization of less developed regions or countries, and can sometimes undermine national sovereignty and democracy.
In recent years, there has been a growing interest in regionalism and new regionalism as a means to promote greater economic growth and development, especially in developing countries.
Regional trade agreements such as the European Union, ASEAN, and NAFTA have been successful in promoting greater trade and investment flows among their members. BPSC 134 Solved Free Assignment 2023
At the same time, new forms of regionalism, such as the African Union, MERCOSUR, and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, are also emerging as important players in global politics and economics.
Overall, regionalism and new regionalism are likely to continue to play a significant role in shaping the future of world politics and economics.