INDIAN GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS
BPSC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
BPSC 132 Solved Free Assignment January 2023
Assignment – I
Q 1. Discuss Marxist perspective to study Indian politics.
Ans. Marxism is a social, economic, and political theory developed by Karl Marx, which aims to create a classless society by promoting the interests of the working class.
The Marxist perspective provides a critical lens to analyze Indian politics, as it focuses on the role of class struggle, economic exploitation, and political power in shaping the country’s political landscape.
In the context of Indian politics, Marxist theory can be used to examine the historical and current structures of power, economic inequality, and class conflict that affect the country’s political system.
Marxism argues that the state is an instrument of class domination, which serves the interests of the ruling class. BPSC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
According to Marxist theory, India’s political system is dominated by a small capitalist class that controls the economy and the state.
The capitalist class has been able to maintain its power through the exploitation of the working class, which includes peasants, laborers, and other marginalized groups.
Marxism also highlights the importance of social movements and the role of the masses in bringing about social change.
Indian politics has seen various social movements, including the peasant movements, labor movements, and Dalit movements, which have challenged the dominance of the ruling class.
From a Marxist perspective, political parties in India are seen as instruments of class struggle. BPSC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The Marxist political parties in India, such as the Communist Party of India (CPI) and the Communist Party of India (Marxist) (CPM), aim to represent the interests of the working class and challenge the dominance of the capitalist class.
Furthermore, Marxist theory emphasizes the importance of economic factors in shaping political power.
The economic liberalization policies initiated in India in the 1990s, which led to the privatization of public sector enterprises, trade liberalization, and deregulation, have further strengthened the power of the capitalist class.
One of the key concepts of Marxist theory is the idea of surplus value. According to Marxist theory, labor is the source of all value in the economy.
However, the capitalist class extracts surplus value from the labor of the working class, which creates profits for the capitalist class.
In India, this surplus value extraction has resulted in the exploitation of workers, including the laborers in industries such as textiles, construction, and agriculture.
Marxism also provides an analysis of imperialism, which is the political and economic domination of one country over another.
Imperialism is seen as a result of the capitalist system, as the capitalist class seeks to expand its markets and profits. BPSC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
In the case of India, imperialism is reflected in the country’s colonial history and its ongoing economic ties with developed countries, which often result in the exploitation of the country’s natural resources and labor force.
In terms of the Indian state, Marxism views the state as an instrument of the ruling class. The state’s role is to maintain the capitalist system and protect the interests of the ruling class.
This can be seen in the way the Indian state has often suppressed social movements and labor unions that challenge the status quo.
Marxism also highlights the importance of social class in shaping political consciousness and political behavior.
In India, social class is closely tied to caste, which is a hierarchical system of social stratification based on birth. BPSC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Marxism argues that the working class can only achieve political power by uniting across caste and other social divisions.
In terms of political parties in India, the Marxist perspective sees them as representing different class interests.
The mainstream parties, such as the Indian National Congress and the Bharatiya Janata Party, are seen as representing the interests of the ruling class.
The Communist parties, on the other hand, represent the interests of the working class and other marginalized groups.
Marxism also critiques the Indian judiciary system as being dominated by the ruling class.
According to Marxist theory, the judiciary system operates in the interests of the ruling class, and its decisions are often influenced by economic and political factors.
The Supreme Court of India, for example, has been criticized for its role in upholding the interests of the capitalist class and failing to protect the rights of marginalized groups.
Furthermore, Marxist theory highlights the importance of economic development in shaping political power. BPSC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
India’s economic growth over the past few decades has been impressive, but it has also led to significant inequality and exploitation.
Marxist analysis argues that economic development must be accompanied by political and social change to ensure that the benefits of growth are distributed more equitably.
Marxism also provides a critique of liberal democracy, which is the dominant political ideology in India. According to Marxist theory, liberal democracy is a form of bourgeois democracy that serves the interests of the ruling class.
It provides the illusion of political representation while allowing the capitalist class to maintain its power through economic exploitation.
Finally, Marxism emphasizes the importance of internationalism and solidarity among working-class movements across the globe.
The Marxist perspective on Indian politics is not limited to the domestic context but also looks at India’s relationship with other countries.
Marxism views international relations as a site of class struggle, where powerful countries seek to exploit weaker ones for their economic gain.
The Marxist perspective advocates for global solidarity among working-class movements to challenge this domination.
In conclusion, the Marxist perspective provides a comprehensive and critical analysis of Indian politics.BPSC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
It highlights the importance of class struggle, economic exploitation, and social movements in shaping the country’s political landscape.
It also critiques the role of the state, judiciary, and liberal democracy in maintaining the power of the ruling class.
Finally, the Marxist perspective emphasizes the importance of global solidarity among working-class movements in challenging the structures of power and achieving social and economic justice.
Q 2. Explain the essential features of the Indian Constitution.
Ans. The Indian Constitution is a comprehensive and detailed document that lays out the framework for the country’s political system.
It was adopted on January 26, 1950, and is one of the longest written constitutions in the world. The Constitution has several essential features that define its nature and scope. In this essay, we will explore these features in detail.
One of the most critical features of the Indian Constitution is its commitment to democracy. The Constitution establishes India as a sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic republic. BPSC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
It provides for a system of government that is based on the principle of popular sovereignty, with power vested in the people.
The Constitution establishes a parliamentary system of government, with the President as the head of state and the Prime Minister as the head of government. The Constitution also provides for a federal system of government, with power divided between the central government and the state governments.
Another important feature of the Indian Constitution is its commitment to social justice.
The Constitution recognizes the importance of promoting social and economic equality and prohibits discrimination on the grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth.
The Constitution provides for affirmative action measures such as reservations in education and employment to ensure that disadvantaged groups have access to opportunities.
The Indian Constitution also includes a comprehensive Bill of Rights. The fundamental rights guaranteed by the Constitution include the right to equality, the right to freedom, the right against exploitation, the right to freedom of religion, the right to cultural and educational rights, and the right to constitutional remedies.
These rights are enforceable by the courts and are essential for protecting the individual liberties and freedoms of citizens.
In addition to the fundamental rights, the Constitution also includes Directive Principles of State Policy. BPSC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
These principles are not enforceable by the courts but provide guidelines for the government to achieve the objectives of social and economic justice, equality, and human rights.
The Directive Principles include provisions for promoting the welfare of the people, securing economic justice, promoting equal opportunities for all citizens, protecting the environment, and providing for the common good.
The Indian Constitution also establishes an independent judiciary. The Constitution provides for a hierarchical system of courts, with the Supreme Court as the highest court of the land.
The judiciary has the power of judicial review, which allows it to strike down laws that are inconsistent with the Constitution.
The judiciary plays a crucial role in protecting the fundamental rights of citizens and ensuring that the government acts within the framework of the Constitution.
The Indian Constitution also establishes a system of checks and balances. The Constitution provides for the separation of powers between the legislature, the executive, and the judiciary.
Each branch of government has its own powers and responsibilities, and each branch serves as a check on the other branches.
This system ensures that no single branch of government becomes too powerful and that the government operates within the limits of the Constitution.
Another essential feature of the Indian Constitution is its commitment to federalism. India is a federal state, with power divided between the central government and the state governments. BPSC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The Constitution provides for a distribution of powers between the central government and the state governments, with the central government having authority over matters of national importance, and the state governments having authority over matters of regional and local importance.
The Constitution also provides for a system of intergovernmental relations to ensure cooperation and coordination between the central government and the state governments.
The Indian Constitution also provides for a system of emergency powers. The Constitution provides for three types of emergencies: national emergency, state emergency, and financial emergency.
During an emergency, the central government has the power to suspend or modify the normal operation of the Constitution to deal with the situation.
However, the emergency powers are subject to constitutional limitations and can only be exercised in exceptional circumstances.
It is also important to note that the Indian Constitution is a living document that has evolved over time. Since its adoption, it has been amended several times to reflect the changing needs and aspirations of the country.
For example, the 42nd Amendment Act of 1976 introduced several changes to the Constitution, including the insertion of the word “socialist” in the Preamble and the addition of several Fundamental Duties for citizens.
Similarly, the 73rd and 74th Amendments Acts of 1992 introduced significant changes to the Constitution to empower local self-government institutions and promote decentralization.BPSC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Furthermore, the Indian Constitution has served as a model for other countries in the region and beyond. Its commitment to democracy, social justice, and individual liberties has inspired other countries to adopt similar constitutional frameworks.
For example, the Constitution of Nepal, adopted in 2015, has several similarities with the Indian Constitution, including a commitment to secularism, federalism, and fundamental rights.
However, the Indian Constitution is not without its flaws and challenges. Despite the constitutional guarantees of social and economic equality, India continues to face significant social and economic inequalities based on factors such as caste, religion, and gender.
The implementation of affirmative action measures such as reservations has been a contentious issue, with some arguing that they perpetuate caste-based divisions and others arguing that they are essential for promoting social justice.
In addition, the Indian Constitution has faced challenges from various quarters. Some critics have argued that the Constitution is too rigid and does not allow for flexibility in addressing changing circumstances.
Others have argued that the Constitution is too verbose and contains too many provisions, making it difficult to interpret and implement.
Despite these challenges, the Indian Constitution remains a beacon of hope for democracy and human rights. Its commitment to social justice, fundamental rights, and democracy has provided a robust framework for the country’s political system.
The Constitution has played a vital role in ensuring that the government operates within the limits of the law and protects the rights and freedoms of citizens.
The Indian Constitution is a testament to the resilience and determination of the Indian people to build a democratic and just society.
In conclusion, the Indian Constitution is a comprehensive document that provides the framework for the country’s political system.
Its essential features include a commitment to democracy, social justice, fundamental rights and directive principles, an independent judiciary, a system of checks and balances, federalism, emergency powers, and a process of constitutional amendment. BPSC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
These features ensure that the government operates within the limits of the Constitution and protects the individual liberties and freedoms of citizens.
The Indian Constitution is an essential element of the country’s democratic system and reflects the values and aspirations of the Indian people.
Assignment – II
Q 1. Critically examine the Basic Structure doctrine.
Ans. The Basic Structure doctrine is a legal principle developed by the Indian Supreme Court that holds that certain fundamental features of the Indian Constitution cannot be amended by the parliament.
This doctrine was first articulated in the landmark case of Kesavananda Bharati v. State of Kerala (1973) and has been the subject of much debate and discussion since then.
Proponents of the Basic Structure doctrine argue that it is necessary to protect the fundamental principles of the Constitution and prevent the government from undermining them. BPSC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
They contend that the Constitution is not just a legal document but also a social and political contract that reflects the aspirations and values of the Indian people.
The Basic Structure doctrine is seen as a safeguard against the arbitrary exercise of power by the government and helps to preserve the democratic and secular character of the Constitution.
However, critics of the Basic Structure doctrine argue that it undermines the principle of parliamentary sovereignty, which is a fundamental feature of the Indian Constitution.
They contend that the doctrine gives too much power to the judiciary and allows unelected judges to override the will of the elected representatives of the people.
Critics also argue that the Basic Structure doctrine is too vague and ill-defined and that it is difficult to determine what constitutes the “basic structure” of the Constitution.
Furthermore, some critics argue that the Basic Structure doctrine has been used to advance the political agendas of the judiciary.
They contend that the Supreme Court has used the doctrine to strike down laws that it considers to be politically or ideologically unacceptable, thereby encroaching on the powers of the elected representatives of the people.
Despite these criticisms, the Basic Structure doctrine has been a vital legal principle in protecting the fundamental principles of the Indian Constitution.
It has been used to strike down laws that violate the principles of democracy, secularism, and social justice. BPSC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
For example, in the case of Indira Gandhi v. Raj Narain (1975), the Supreme Court used the Basic Structure doctrine to strike down an amendment that sought to immunize the Prime Minister from legal challenge.
the Basic Structure doctrine is a legal principle that has been the subject of much debate and controversy.
While it has been instrumental in protecting the fundamental principles of the Indian Constitution, it has also been criticized for encroaching on the powers of the elected representatives of the people.
It is essential to strike a balance between the principles of parliamentary sovereignty and the protection of the Constitution’s fundamental features.
The Basic Structure doctrine must be applied judiciously and with caution, keeping in mind the principles of democracy and the rule of law.
Q 2. Explain the powers and functions of the Speaker of Lok Sabha.
Ans. The Speaker of the Lok Sabha is a crucial constitutional position in the Indian parliamentary system. BPSC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The Speaker is the presiding officer of the Lok Sabha, the lower house of the Indian Parliament, and is responsible for maintaining order and decorum during parliamentary proceedings.
The Speaker is also responsible for performing several important administrative and political functions. In this essay, we will discuss the powers and functions of the Speaker of the Lok Sabha.
One of the primary powers of the Speaker is to conduct the proceedings of the Lok Sabha. The Speaker is responsible for ensuring that parliamentary debates and discussions are conducted in an orderly and disciplined manner.
The Speaker can call members to order, admonish them for disorderly conduct, and even suspend them for a specified period if they continue to disrupt proceedings.
The Speaker’s role is crucial in ensuring that parliamentary debates are conducted in a civil and constructive manner.
Another important power of the Speaker is to decide on questions of parliamentary procedure. The Speaker is the final authority on all matters related to parliamentary procedure and is responsible for interpreting the rules of the Lok Sabha.
The Speaker’s decisions on questions of procedure are binding and are not subject to appeal. BPSC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The Speaker’s role in interpreting and enforcing parliamentary rules is critical in ensuring that parliamentary proceedings are conducted in a fair and transparent manner.
The Speaker also has several administrative functions. The Speaker is responsible for the administration of the Lok Sabha Secretariat, which is responsible for providing support services to members of parliament.
The Secretariat provides logistical support for parliamentary proceedings, manages parliamentary archives, and provides research and reference services to members.
The Speaker is responsible for the overall management and supervision of the Secretariat, and is responsible for ensuring that its functions are carried out efficiently and effectively.
The Speaker also plays a crucial role in the appointment of parliamentary committees. The Speaker is responsible for appointing members to parliamentary committees and for determining their terms of reference.
Parliamentary committees play an important role in scrutinizing legislation, conducting inquiries, and examining government policies.
The Speaker’s role in appointing committee members is critical in ensuring that parliamentary committees are representative, diverse, and have the necessary expertise to carry out their functions.BPSC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The Speaker also has an important role to play in the legislative process. The Speaker is responsible for deciding which bills are to be taken up for consideration in the Lok Sabha.
The Speaker can also refer bills to parliamentary committees for detailed scrutiny and examination.
The Speaker’s role in the legislative process is critical in ensuring that legislation is scrutinized thoroughly and that the interests of all stakeholders are taken into account.
In addition to the above functions, the Speaker also has several ceremonial and representational roles.
The Speaker represents the Lok Sabha at official functions and ceremonies and is responsible for maintaining the dignity and prestige of the institution.
The Speaker also represents the Lok Sabha in its interactions with other branches of government, such as the executive and judiciary.
Q 3. Discuss the parliamentary devices to control the executive
Ans. In a parliamentary democracy like India, the executive branch of government is responsible to the legislative branch. BPSC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The Parliament exercises control over the executive through various devices to ensure that the executive acts in the public interest and is accountable to the people.
Question Hour: One of the most important parliamentary devices used to control the executive is the Question Hour.
During this time, members of Parliament can ask questions related to any aspect of governance, including policy decisions, administrative actions, and expenditure.
The minister concerned must provide a satisfactory answer to the question asked, failing which the government can be criticized for its inaction or lack of transparency.
No-Confidence Motion: Another important device is the No-Confidence Motion. This motion can be moved in the Lok Sabha by any member and if passed, results in the resignation of the government.
The No-Confidence Motion is a powerful tool in the hands of the Opposition to hold the government accountable for its policies and actions.
Adjournment Motion: The Adjournment Motion is another important device used by Members of Parliament to seek clarification from the government on urgent matters.
This motion requires the suspension of normal business of the House for the discussion of a matter of urgent public importance.
If passed, the discussion may lead to a formal resolution or may lead to the government taking corrective action.BPSC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Calling Attention Motion: The Calling Attention Motion is a device used by Members of Parliament to draw the attention of the government to a matter of urgent public importance.
The motion requires the attention of the government, and a response must be given within a specified period of time. This device is often used to highlight matters of public concern or to demand immediate action on an issue.
Parliamentary Committees: The parliamentary committees are also used to exercise control over the executive.
These committees are constituted to scrutinize bills, examine policy decisions, and investigate government functioning.
These committees can summon officials and experts to give evidence, ask for reports and papers, and recommend corrective action.
Debate: The parliamentary debate is another powerful device used to control the executive. BPSC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
During a debate, members of Parliament can express their views on matters of public concern, criticize government policies, and suggest corrective action.
These debates are a way of exercising the sovereignty of the people, which is vested in Parliament.
Budgetary Control: The Parliament exercises significant control over the budgetary policies of the government.
The budget is presented to the Parliament, and members can question the government on various aspects of the budget, such as revenue projections, expenditure estimates, and the overall macroeconomic policy.
Members can also suggest changes to the budget, and if they are passed, these changes become part of the budget.
Oversight: The Parliament exercises oversight over the executive through the system of parliamentary questions, parliamentary committees, and debates.
The Parliament also has the power to set up a Joint Parliamentary Committee to investigate any matter of public interest.
This system of oversight is critical in ensuring that the executive is accountable to the people and acts in the public interest.BPSC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Assignment – III
Q 1. Write a brief note on Parliamentary Privileges.
Ans. Parliamentary Privileges are a set of special rights and immunities enjoyed by members of Parliament and legislatures, as well as the Houses themselves, to ensure that they can effectively carry out their duties without fear or interference from outside forces.
These privileges are rooted in the principle of separation of powers, which holds that the legislature, executive, and judiciary should function independently of each other.
The privileges are aimed at ensuring the independence of the legislature, protecting its dignity, and enabling it to discharge its functions effectively.
The nature and scope of parliamentary privileges are defined by the Constitution of India, as well as various laws and precedents.
Some of the key privileges enjoyed by Members of Parliament include freedom of speech and expression, immunity from legal proceedings for statements made in Parliament or its committees, and freedom from arrest while attending Parliament.
The privileges of Parliament itself include the right to regulate its own proceedings, to punish members and outsiders for breach of privilege, and to control the publication of its debates and proceedings.
While these privileges are essential to enable Parliament to function independently, they are not absolute. BPSC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
They must be exercised within the framework of the Constitution and are subject to reasonable restrictions in the interest of public order, morality, and the integrity of the country.
There have been instances where the privileges have been misused by Members of Parliament, leading to controversy and public outrage.
It is therefore important that these privileges are exercised responsibly and with due regard for the public interest.
Q 2. Discuss the special powers and function of Rajya Sabha.
Ans. The Rajya Sabha, also known as the Council of States, is the upper house of the Parliament of India. BPSC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
While the Lok Sabha is the more powerful of the two houses, the Rajya Sabha has certain special powers and functions that make it an important part of India’s parliamentary democracy.
Representation of States: One of the key functions of the Rajya Sabha is to represent the interests of the states of India.
The members of the Rajya Sabha are elected by the state legislatures, and the number of seats allocated to each state is determined by its population.
This system ensures that the smaller states are also represented in the Parliament, thus promoting federalism and ensuring that the interests of all states are taken into account.
Legislative Functions: The Rajya Sabha has an important role to play in the legislative process. While the Lok Sabha is the more powerful of the two houses, both houses must pass a bill for it to become law.
The Rajya Sabha can also initiate legislation, although most bills are introduced in the Lok Sabha. In some cases, if the Lok Sabha is dissolved, the Rajya Sabha can also pass bills during the interim period.BPSC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Constitutional Powers: The Rajya Sabha has certain constitutional powers that give it a unique role in the Indian political system.
For example, if the Lok Sabha passes a resolution declaring that it has no confidence in the government, the government must resign.
However, the Rajya Sabha can also pass a resolution expressing no confidence in the government, which can lead to a political crisis and further political developments.
Special Powers: The Rajya Sabha also has some special powers that are not available to the Lok Sabha.
For example, the Rajya Sabha has the power to impeach the President of India, the Chief Justice of India, and other high officials.
The Rajya Sabha also has the power to approve the proclamation of emergency, which can be declared by the President if he is satisfied that the country is facing an internal or external threat.
Q 3. Explain the legislative powers of the President of India.
Ans. The President of India is the head of state and the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. BPSC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
While the President does not have any direct role in the day-to-day administration of the country, he or she does have certain important legislative powers.
Ordinance Making Power: One of the key legislative powers of the President is the power to promulgate ordinances. An ordinance is a temporary law that is passed by the President when Parliament is not in session.
The ordinance has the same force and effect as an Act of Parliament, but it must be approved by both houses of Parliament within six weeks of the commencement of the next session, failing which it lapses.
Assent to Bills: The President also has the power to assent to bills passed by both houses of Parliament. The President can either give his assent or withhold it, in which case the bill does not become law.
The President can also return a bill to Parliament for reconsideration, along with a message explaining his or her objections to the bill.
Summoning and Proroguing of Parliament: The President also has the power to summon and prorogue Parliament. The President can summon the Parliament for a session, and also prorogue it when the session is over.
The President can also dissolve the Lok Sabha, although this power is rarely used and is subject to certain limitations.BPSC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Addressing Parliament: The President can also address both houses of Parliament at the commencement of the first session after each general election and at the beginning of the first session of each year.
In his or her address, the President outlines the government’s policies and programs for the upcoming year.
Veto Power: The President also has the power to veto bills passed by Parliament. The President can either withhold his or her assent to a bill or return it to Parliament for reconsideration.
The President can also refuse to sign a bill into law if he or she believes it is unconstitutional or violates the principles of natural justice.
Q 4. Write a note on the original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.
Ans. The Supreme Court of India is the highest court of law in the country, with both appellate and original jurisdiction. While its appellate jurisdiction is well-known, its original jurisdiction is equally important.
The original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court is defined in Article 131 of the Constitution of India. According to this article, the Supreme Court has exclusive jurisdiction in any dispute:
➔. Between the Government of India and one or more States.
➔. Between the Government of India and any State or States on one side and one or more other States on the other.
➔. Between two or more States.
This means that if there is a dispute between the central government and one or more states, or between two or more states, the Supreme Court has the exclusive jurisdiction to resolve it. BPSC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
This jurisdiction is original, which means that the case can be directly filed in the Supreme Court, without having to go through any lower courts.
The Supreme Court has used its original jurisdiction in a number of cases. For example, in the case of State of Karnataka v. State of Andhra Pradesh (2007), there was a dispute between the two states over the sharing of the Krishna river water.
The case was filed directly in the Supreme Court under its original jurisdiction, and the court appointed a tribunal to resolve the dispute.
Similarly, in the case of State of Bihar v. State of Jharkhand (2005), there was a dispute between the two states over the sharing of the water of the Damodar river.
The case was again filed directly in the Supreme Court under its original jurisdiction, and the court appointed a committee to look into the matter and suggest a solution.
Q 5. Explain what is a Money Bill.
Ans. A Money Bill is a type of bill introduced in the Indian Parliament that deals with matters related to finance, taxation, and government expenditure.
According to Article 110 of the Indian Constitution, a bill is considered a Money Bill if it contains only provisions related to these specific areas.
To be considered a Money Bill, a bill must meet the following criteria:
It must contain only provisions dealing with matters of finance, taxation, or government expenditure.BPSC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
It must be introduced in the Lok Sabha, the lower house of Parliament.
It must be certified by the Speaker of the Lok Sabha as a Money Bill.
Once a bill is certified as a Money Bill by the Speaker, it is sent to the Rajya Sabha, the upper house of Parliament, for its consideration. However, the Rajya Sabha can only make recommendations on a Money Bill, and it cannot amend or reject it.
If the Rajya Sabha does not return the bill to the Lok Sabha within 14 days, it is deemed to have been passed by both houses.
The reason for this restriction on the Rajya Sabha’s power is to ensure that the Lok Sabha, which is directly elected by the people, has primacy in matters related to finance and taxation.
Since the Lok Sabha represents the people and their interests, it is believed that it should have the final say on matters related to financial policy.
It is important to note that the definition of a Money Bill has been the subject of much debate and controversy in Indian politics.
There have been instances where bills have been certified as Money Bills even though they contain provisions that go beyond matters of finance and taxation.
This has been criticized by opposition parties as a way for the ruling party to bypass the Rajya Sabha and push through legislation without proper scrutiny.