BPSC 110 Solved Free Assignment 2023
BPSC 110 Solved Free Assignment January 2023
Assignment – I
Q 1. Explain different theoretical approaches of globalisation.
Ans. Globalisation is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon that has been the subject of much academic inquiry.
There are several theoretical approaches to understanding globalisation, each with its own perspective on the causes, effects, and implications of globalisation. I
Neoliberalism: The neoliberal approach to globalisation emphasizes the role of free markets, open trade, and private enterprise in promoting economic growth and development.
According to this perspective, globalisation is a positive force that creates new opportunities for businesses, consumers, and workers around the world.
Neoliberalism views globalisation as a means of spreading prosperity and democracy, and argues that trade liberalization and deregulation are necessary to achieve these goals.
However, critics of neoliberalism argue that globalisation can exacerbate inequality and environmental degradation, and that it can lead to the erosion of local cultures and traditions.
Culturalism: The culturalist approach to globalisation emphasizes the importance of culture in shaping globalisation. BPSC 110 Solved Free Assignment 2023
According to this perspective, globalisation is not just about economic and political factors, but also about cultural values, beliefs, and practices.
Culturalists argue that globalisation can lead to the homogenization of culture, as global media, brands, and popular culture become dominant around the world.
However, culturalists also recognize that globalisation can lead to the emergence of new hybrid cultures and the revitalization of local traditions.
Imperialism: The imperialist approach to globalisation emphasizes the role of powerful nations and multinational corporations in shaping globalisation.
According to this perspective, globalisation is a form of domination and exploitation, in which powerful actors impose their will on weaker nations and peoples.
Imperialists argue that globalisation can lead to the exploitation of natural resources, the displacement of local communities, and the suppression of local cultures and traditions.
However, critics of imperialism argue that this perspective ignores the agency of weaker nations and peoples, and that it oversimplifies the complex dynamics of globalisation.
Cosmopolitanism: The cosmopolitan approach to globalisation emphasizes the importance of a shared human identity and a commitment to global justice.
According to this perspective, globalisation is a process of increasing interdependence and interconnectedness, which requires a new ethic of global citizenship. BPSC 110 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Cosmopolitans argue that globalisation can lead to the creation of new networks of solidarity and cooperation, as people around the world come together to address common challenges.
However, critics of cosmopolitanism argue that this perspective overlooks the importance of local identities and cultures, and that it can lead to the imposition of a universalist worldview on diverse communities.
While each of these theoretical approaches to globalisation offers a unique perspective, there are some common themes that emerge across all of them.
One such theme is the idea that globalisation is a complex and multifaceted process that affects different groups of people in different ways.
Another common theme is the idea that globalisation involves a range of interconnected economic, political, and cultural factors.
In addition, all of these approaches highlight the role of power in shaping globalisation.
Whether it is the power of markets and corporations in the neoliberal approach, the power of culture in the culturalist approach, the power of dominant nations and actors in the imperialist approach, or the power of a shared human identity in the cosmopolitan approach, power is a central concern in understanding globalisation.
Moreover, all of these approaches recognize the importance of agency and resistance in the context of globalisation. BPSC 110 Solved Free Assignment 2023
While powerful actors may exert a great deal of influence on the global system, weaker actors are not simply passive victims of globalisation.
Instead, they are capable of engaging in a range of strategies to resist and challenge dominant narratives and practices.
Another important theme in these approaches is the tension between global and local identities and cultures.
While globalisation can lead to the spread of homogenizing cultural and economic practices, it can also lead to the emergence of new hybrid identities and the revitalization of local cultures and traditions.
Balancing these competing forces is a challenge that confronts societies around the world.BPSC 110 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Finally, all of these approaches highlight the importance of ethical and normative considerations in the context of globalisation.
Whether it is the promotion of free markets and democracy in the neoliberal approach, the preservation of cultural diversity and heritage in the culturalist approach, the recognition of the rights and interests of weaker nations and peoples in the imperialist approach, or the commitment to global justice and solidarity in the cosmopolitan approach, ethical and normative considerations play a central role in shaping globalisation.
Q 2. Describe the functions and impacts of MNC and TNC in the process of globalisation.
Ans. Multinational corporations (MNCs) and transnational corporations (TNCs) are major actors in the process of globalization.
These corporations have significant functions in the global economy, as well as major impacts on the economic, social, and environmental conditions of countries around the world. BPSC 110 Solved Free Assignment 2023
MNCs and TNCs are companies that operate in multiple countries, with a global reach in terms of production, sales, and investment.
These companies have the ability to move capital, goods, and services across borders, and to influence the economic and political conditions of countries where they operate.
One of the major functions of MNCs and TNCs is to take advantage of the global market opportunities, through increased efficiency in production, access to new resources and technologies, and the ability to respond to changing consumer demands.
By expanding their operations across national borders, MNCs and TNCs are able to achieve economies of scale, reduce costs, and increase profits, while also gaining access to new markets and customers.
However, the impacts of MNCs and TNCs on the global economy are complex and varied. On the one hand, MNCs and TNCs are major drivers of economic growth, job creation, and technological innovation.
They provide investment, infrastructure, and expertise to countries where they operate, and contribute to the development of local industries and economies.
Moreover, MNCs and TNCs are often involved in the transfer of technology, which can lead to the diffusion of knowledge and innovation across countries and regions.
On the other hand, the impacts of MNCs and TNCs on the global economy are not always positive. BPSC 110 Solved Free Assignment 2023
These corporations can have negative impacts on the environment, through the use of natural resources and the production of waste and pollution.
They can also have negative impacts on local economies, through the displacement of local businesses, the exploitation of labor, and the transfer of profits out of the country.
Moreover, MNCs and TNCs can contribute to the widening income gap between developed and developing countries, by taking advantage of lower labor costs and weaker environmental and labor regulations in developing countries.
In addition to economic impacts, MNCs and TNCs also have significant social and cultural impacts on countries where they operate.
For example, MNCs and TNCs can promote the spread of Western culture and values, which can lead to the erosion of local cultures and traditions.
They can also have a negative impact on human rights, by supporting repressive regimes or engaging in the exploitation of vulnerable populations.
In some cases, MNCs and TNCs have been accused of engaging in unethical or illegal activities, such as bribery, corruption, or tax evasion.
Despite these negative impacts, MNCs and TNCs can also have a positive impact on social and cultural conditions in countries where they operate.
For example, they can promote the development of education, health, and infrastructure, and contribute to the reduction of poverty and inequality.
Moreover, MNCs and TNCs can support the development of civil society and democratic institutions, through the promotion of transparency, accountability, and good governance.BPSC 110 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Effective policies and regulations are necessary to mitigate the negative impacts of MNCs and TNCs on the global economy and local communities.
These policies should promote transparency and accountability, and ensure that MNCs and TNCs operate in compliance with ethical and legal standards.
Governments can play a critical role in this process, by regulating the activities of MNCs and TNCs, and by promoting responsible corporate behavior.
One approach to regulating MNCs and TNCs is through international agreements and standards.
For example, the United Nations Global Compact is a voluntary initiative that promotes responsible corporate citizenship and sustainable development, and has been signed by thousands of companies worldwide.
Similarly, the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises provide recommendations for responsible business conduct, and have been endorsed by OECD member countries.BPSC 110 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Another approach to regulating MNCs and TNCs is through national laws and regulations.
Many countries have enacted laws that require companies to disclose information on their environmental and social impact, or that set standards for labor practices and human rights.
Moreover, some countries have implemented tax and investment policies that encourage responsible corporate behavior, such as tax incentives for companies that invest in local communities.
In addition to regulation, governments can also promote responsible corporate behavior through collaboration and dialogue with MNCs and TNCs.
This can involve engaging with companies on issues such as environmental sustainability, human rights, and social responsibility, and working together to develop solutions that benefit both the company and the community.
governments can also promote the development of local industries and economies, to reduce the dependency on MNCs and TNCs.
This can involve policies and investments that support small and medium-sized enterprises, promote the development of local industries, and provide education and training for local workers.BPSC 110 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Assignment – II
Q 1. Examine the role and the functions of International Monetary Fund (IMF).
Ans. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization that was created in 1944 to promote international monetary cooperation, exchange rate stability, and economic growth.
The IMF is one of the key institutions of the global financial system, and its main role is to provide policy advice, financial assistance, and technical assistance to member countries.
One of the primary functions of the IMF is to provide financial assistance to member countries that are experiencing economic difficulties.
This assistance can take the form of loans, which are provided to countries that are experiencing balance of payments problems or other types of economic crises.
The IMF also provides technical assistance and policy advice to member countries, helping them to design and implement economic policies that promote stability and growth.BPSC 110 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Another important function of the IMF is to promote international monetary cooperation and exchange rate stability.
The IMF works to promote stable exchange rates between currencies, and to prevent large fluctuations in exchange rates that can cause economic instability.
To this end, the IMF provides guidance and support to member countries on exchange rate policy and other related issues.
The IMF also plays a key role in global economic surveillance, monitoring economic developments in countries around the world and providing analysis and advice on economic policy issues.
The IMF conducts regular assessments of the economic policies and performance of member countries, and provides recommendations for policy changes when necessary.BPSC 110 Solved Free Assignment 2023
In addition to its financial and policy advisory functions, the IMF also serves as a forum for cooperation and dialogue among its member countries.
The IMF provides a platform for member countries to discuss economic policy issues and share best practices, and facilitates the exchange of ideas and information among policymakers, academics, and other experts.
The IMF’s governance structure is designed to ensure that its decisions and policies are informed by the perspectives and interests of its member countries.
The IMF is governed by a board of governors, which is made up of one governor and one alternate governor from each member country.
The board of governors is responsible for setting the overall policies and direction of the IMF, and for electing the executive board, which is responsible for day-to-day management of the organization.
The executive board is composed of 24 directors, who are appointed or elected by member countries. The executive board is responsible for approving IMF loans and providing policy guidance to member countries.
The managing director, who is appointed by the executive board, serves as the head of the IMF and is responsible for overseeing its day-to-day operations.
While the IMF plays an important role in promoting global economic stability and growth, it has also been criticized for its policies and practices.
Critics argue that the IMF’s lending policies can be overly restrictive and may exacerbate economic problems in recipient countries.
Others have criticized the IMF’s governance structure, arguing that it does not adequately represent the interests of developing countries.
Q 2. Ideology of neoliberalism.
Ans. Neoliberalism is an economic ideology that advocates for free markets, deregulation, and limited government intervention in the economy.
It emerged in the late 20th century as a response to the perceived failure of Keynesian economics and the belief that market forces should be allowed to operate more freely. BPSC 110 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Neoliberalism has been influential in shaping economic policy in many countries around the world, particularly in the United States and the United Kingdom.
One of the key principles of neoliberalism is the belief in the power of free markets to allocate resources efficiently.
Neoliberal economists argue that government intervention in the economy, such as regulations and subsidies, can distort market forces and lead to inefficiencies.
Therefore, they advocate for reducing government intervention and allowing market forces to operate more freely.
Another important principle of neoliberalism is the belief in the importance of individual choice and responsibility.
Neoliberalism emphasizes the importance of individual freedom and choice, and advocates for reducing the role of the state in regulating and controlling individuals and businesses. BPSC 110 Solved Free Assignment 2023
This includes reducing regulations on businesses, lowering taxes, and privatizing public services.
In addition to promoting free markets and individual freedom, neoliberalism also emphasizes the importance of globalization and free trade.
Neoliberal economists argue that free trade and globalization can promote economic growth and reduce poverty, by allowing countries to specialize in the production of goods and services in which they have a comparative advantage.
Critics of neoliberalism argue that it can lead to economic inequality and social instability.
By reducing the role of the state in regulating the economy, neoliberalism can lead to a concentration of wealth and power in the hands of a few individuals and corporations. BPSC 110 Solved Free Assignment 2023
This can result in economic inequality, as those with the most resources are able to accumulate even more wealth and power.
Furthermore, critics argue that neoliberalism can lead to a race to the bottom, in which countries compete with each other to attract investment by lowering labor standards and environmental regulations.
This can lead to exploitation of workers and environmental degradation, as countries prioritize economic growth over social and environmental concerns.
Despite these criticisms, neoliberalism continues to be influential in shaping economic policy in many countries around the world.
Proponents of neoliberalism argue that it has been successful in promoting economic growth and reducing poverty in many countries, and that its principles are essential for promoting economic freedom and individual choice.
Q 3. How does globalisation affect the states jurisdiction?
Ans. Globalization is a complex process that has had far-reaching impacts on the way that states govern their territories and interact with one another.
One of the most significant effects of globalization has been to challenge the traditional concept of state sovereignty and jurisdiction, as economic, political, and social forces have become increasingly interconnected across national borders.
One of the key ways in which globalization affects state jurisdiction is by limiting the ability of states to regulate economic activity within their borders.
As international trade and investment have increased, multinational corporations and other actors have become more powerful and have sought to influence national economic policies to further their own interests.
This has led to a situation in which states are often forced to compete with one another to attract investment and promote economic growth, which can result in a race to the bottom in terms of labor and environmental standards.
In addition, states may find it difficult to regulate the activities of multinational corporations that operate in multiple jurisdictions, as these actors may have the resources and legal expertise to challenge national laws and regulations.
Another way in which globalization affects state jurisdiction is by increasing the importance of international law and governance structures.
As economic, political, and social forces have become more interconnected across national borders, states have had to rely more heavily on international institutions and agreements to manage these issues.
This can limit the ability of states to act unilaterally in addressing global challenges, but it can also provide opportunities for cooperation and collaboration on issues of mutual concern.BPSC 110 Solved Free Assignment 2023
At the same time, globalization can also create opportunities for states to exercise greater jurisdiction and influence beyond their borders.
As economic, political, and social forces become more intertwined, states may find that they have more leverage over other actors in the international system.
For example, states with large economies or advanced technological capabilities may be able to shape global norms and standards in ways that reflect their interests and values.
Similarly, states may be able to leverage their position in global supply chains to influence the behavior of multinational corporations or other actors.
However, globalization also creates challenges for states in terms of managing issues that cross national borders.
For example, transnational threats such as terrorism, organized crime, and environmental degradation may require coordinated responses from multiple states, which can be difficult to achieve in practice.
In addition, the increasing interconnectedness of global economic and financial systems means that economic crises in one part of the world can quickly spread to other parts, requiring international cooperation and coordination to address.
Assignment – III
Q 1. Examine the phenomenon of merger and acquisition (M&M) in the global economy.
Ans. Merger and acquisition (M&A) is a common phenomenon in the global economy, where companies combine or acquire other companies to achieve strategic goals. BPSC 110 Solved Free Assignment 2023
One of the key drivers of M&A is the pursuit of economies of scale and scope. By combining with other companies, firms can access new markets, products, and technologies, and achieve cost savings through shared resources and operations.
This can result in greater efficiency and competitiveness, as well as increased market power and bargaining leverage.
Another driver of M&A is the desire to gain access to new or complementary capabilities and expertise.
By acquiring firms with specific skills or knowledge, companies can enhance their own capabilities and expand their product or service offerings.
This can help firms to stay competitive in a rapidly changing market and increase their chances of success.BPSC 110 Solved Free Assignment 2023
M&A can also be driven by the desire to reduce risk or diversify revenue streams. By acquiring companies in different industries or geographic locations, firms can spread their risk and reduce their exposure to any single market or product.
This can provide a more stable revenue base and help firms to weather economic downturns or other challenges.
However, M&A can also have negative impacts on the global economy. For example, it can lead to reduced competition and higher prices for consumers, as well as job losses and reduced innovation in industries that are consolidated.
It can also result in the concentration of economic power in the hands of a few large firms, which can limit the ability of smaller players to compete and innovate.
In addition, M&A can be challenging to implement successfully, as it involves combining different organizational cultures, structures, and systems.
This can lead to conflicts and difficulties in integrating operations and achieving synergies. BPSC 110 Solved Free Assignment 2023
It can also result in cultural clashes and employee resistance, which can undermine the success of the merger or acquisition.
Q 2. Examine the organisational structure of World Bank.
Ans. The World Bank is a global organization that provides financial and technical assistance to developing countries.
It was established in 1944 and currently has 189 member countries.
The World Bank is governed by a Board of Governors, which is made up of one representative from each member country. The Board of Governors meets annually to discuss and decide on major policies and strategies.
It also elects a Board of Executive Directors, which is responsible for the day-to-day operations of the World Bank.
The Board of Executive Directors is composed of 25 directors, each of whom represents a group of countries. BPSC 110 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The directors are responsible for approving loans and grants, setting policies and strategies, and overseeing the work of the World Bank staff.
The World Bank is organized into six operational regions: Africa, East Asia and Pacific, Europe and Central Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, Middle East and North Africa, and South Asia.
Each region is headed by a Vice President who is responsible for managing the operations of the Bank in that region.
Within each region, the World Bank has country offices that work closely with national governments and local stakeholders to identify development priorities and design programs and projects to address them.
The country offices are headed by Country Directors who report to the Regional Vice President.
The World Bank also has several specialized units and departments that support its operations.
These include the International Finance Corporation (IFC), which provides financing and advisory services to private sector companies in developing countries; the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA), which provides political risk insurance and credit enhancement guarantees to investors in developing countries; and the Inspection Panel, which investigates complaints and grievances from individuals and communities affected by World Bank projects.
Q 3. Digital Globalisation
Ans. Digital globalization is the process by which the digital technologies, such as the internet and social media, are connecting people and businesses around the world.
It has transformed the way people communicate, work, and do business, and has created new opportunities for economic growth and development.
One of the key features of digital globalization is the increased connectivity between people and businesses across borders.
This has been facilitated by the widespread adoption of digital technologies, which have made it easier and more affordable to communicate and share information across the globe. BPSC 110 Solved Free Assignment 2023
This has created new opportunities for businesses to access new markets and customers, and for individuals to connect with others from different countries and cultures.
Digital globalization has also led to the emergence of new business models and industries.
For example, e-commerce has transformed the way people shop, allowing them to purchase products from anywhere in the world, at any time of day.
Online marketplaces such as Amazon and Alibaba have created new opportunities for small businesses to access global markets and for consumers to access a wider range of products and services.
Social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn have also transformed the way people communicate and connect with each other.
These platforms have created new opportunities for people to share information, collaborate on projects, and build networks with others from around the world.
However, digital globalization also presents challenges and risks. One of the main challenges is the digital divide, which refers to the unequal access to digital technologies and connectivity between countries and within countries.
This can limit the opportunities for economic growth and development in poorer countries, and can exacerbate inequality within societies.
Digital globalization also poses risks to privacy and security. As more data is generated and shared online, there is a risk that this information could be accessed or misused by third parties. BPSC 110 Solved Free Assignment 2023
This has raised concerns about data protection and cybersecurity, and has led to the development of new regulations and standards to address these issues.
Another challenge of digital globalization is the impact on jobs and the workforce. While digital technologies have created new opportunities for growth and innovation, they have also disrupted traditional industries and led to job losses in some sectors.
This has raised concerns about the need for retraining and upskilling workers to adapt to the changing demands of the digital economy.
Q 4. IBRD
Ans. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that was created to support economic development and reconstruction efforts in the aftermath of World War II.
The IBRD is also known as the World Bank, and it is the largest and most influential international financial institution in the world.
The IBRD was established in 1944 as part of the Bretton Woods Agreement, which was signed by representatives from 44 countries.
Its primary mandate was to provide loans and financial assistance to countries that had been devastated by the war, with the goal of helping them to rebuild their economies and infrastructure.BPSC 110 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Over the years, the IBRD’s mandate has expanded to include a broader range of development initiatives, including poverty reduction, social welfare, and environmental sustainability.
Today, the IBRD provides loans, grants, and technical assistance to countries in need around the world, with a focus on promoting sustainable economic growth and reducing poverty.
The IBRD is governed by a Board of Governors, which is made up of one representative from each member country.
The Board of Governors is responsible for setting the overall direction and policy of the IBRD, and for approving new loans and initiatives.
The day-to-day operations of the IBRD are managed by a Board of Directors, which is made up of representatives from 25 member countries.
The Board of Directors is responsible for overseeing the IBRD’s loan portfolio, managing its finances, and ensuring that its policies and programs are aligned with its mandate and goals.BPSC 110 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The IBRD operates through a network of country offices around the world, which are staffed by local experts who work closely with governments, NGOs, and other stakeholders to identify development needs and design effective solutions.
The IBRD also works closely with other international organizations, such as the United Nations, to coordinate development efforts and maximize impact.
One of the key strengths of the IBRD is its ability to mobilize resources from a wide range of sources, including member countries, private investors, and multilateral development institutions.
This allows the IBRD to leverage its resources and maximize the impact of its development programs.
Overall, the IBRD plays a critical role in promoting economic development and reducing poverty around the world.
Its broad mandate and global reach make it a powerful force for change, and its commitment to sustainability and social welfare ensures that its impact is both long-lasting and positive.
Q 5. Impacts of Globalisation on Cultures
Ans. Globalisation is a process that has led to increased interconnectedness and interdependence of nations and cultures around the world.
While globalisation has brought about many positive changes such as increased trade, economic growth and technological advancement, it has also had negative impacts on cultures.BPSC 110 Solved Free Assignment 2023
One of the main impacts of globalisation on cultures is the homogenization of cultures. Globalisation has led to the spread of Western culture, values and practices across the world.
The cultural domination of Western countries has led to the loss of traditional cultural practices, values and norms in many parts of the world.
Many people are now more likely to adopt Western fashion, music, language and lifestyles, which are viewed as modern and progressive, leading to the erosion of traditional cultural practices.
Another impact of globalisation on cultures is the commodification of culture. Many traditional cultural practices have become commercialized, with cultural artifacts and symbols being sold as souvenirs to tourists.
This has led to the commodification of culture and the commercialization of traditional cultural practices.
Globalisation has also led to cultural clashes between different cultures. The spread of Western culture and values has often led to conflicts between traditional cultures and modern Western culture. BPSC 110 Solved Free Assignment 2023
For instance, Western values such as individualism, secularism and liberalism may conflict with traditional values such as collectivism, religion and conservatism, leading to cultural conflicts.
Moreover, globalisation has led to the spread of a dominant culture, which can lead to cultural imperialism.
Dominant cultures often dominate and subjugate minority cultures, leading to the loss of cultural identity and diversity.
This can lead to the loss of cultural heritage and the erosion of traditional cultural practices and beliefs.
Globalisation has also led to the spread of consumer culture, which is based on materialism and consumerism.
The spread of consumer culture has led to the commodification of culture and the promotion of Western values such as individualism, competition and consumerism.