PERSEPCTIVES ON INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND WORLD HISTORY
BPSC 107 Solved Free Assignment 2023
BPSC 107 Solved Free Assignment January 2023
Assignment – I
Q 1. Critically examine the important undergoing structural changes in global politics and international relations.
Ans. Global politics and international relations have been undergoing significant structural changes in recent years.
These changes have been driven by several factors, including shifts in economic power, the emergence of new non-state actors, and technological advancements.
One of the most significant changes in global politics has been the shift in economic power away from the traditional Western powers towards emerging economies in Asia and elsewhere.
This shift is reflected in the growing influence of countries like China, India, and Brazil, which are rapidly becoming major players in the global economy.
This shift has important implications for global governance, as these emerging economies seek to exert greater influence over global institutions like the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund.
Another important structural change in global politics has been the rise of non-state actors, particularly multinational corporations and international NGOs.
Multinational corporations now play a central role in shaping global economic policy, while NGOs have emerged as important actors in promoting human rights and social justice. BPSC 107 Solved Free Assignment 2023
These non-state actors operate outside traditional political structures, but they often have significant influence over them.
The proliferation of new technologies has also had a profound impact on global politics and international relations.
The widespread availability of social media and other digital platforms has made it easier for non-state actors to mobilize public opinion and influence policy decisions.
It has also created new challenges for traditional state actors, as they struggle to keep pace with the rapidly changing technological landscape.
The changing nature of conflict is another important structural change in global politics.
Traditional state-on-state conflicts have been replaced by more diffuse, asymmetric conflicts involving non-state actors like terrorist organizations and transnational criminal networks.
This has created new challenges for states and international organizations in terms of responding to these new forms of conflict and maintaining international security.
The proliferation of nuclear weapons is another important structural change in global politics. BPSC 107 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The continued development of nuclear weapons by countries like North Korea and Iran, as well as the potential for the proliferation of these weapons to other states or non-state actors, poses a major threat to global security.
The potential for a nuclear conflict is one of the most significant and urgent challenges facing the international community.
Finally, climate change is an important structural change in global politics that is affecting all aspects of international relations.
The increasing frequency and intensity of extreme weather events, rising sea levels, and other climate-related impacts are creating significant challenges for states and other actors around the world.
This is leading to increased competition for resources and potential conflicts over territory and other issues.
Additionally, these structural changes are also causing shifts in power dynamics among nations.
As emerging economies, such as China and India, continue to grow and become major players in the global economy, traditional Western powers such as the United States and Europe are losing their relative dominance.
This has resulted in a shift towards a multipolar world order, with multiple nations holding significant power and influence.
This change has led to increased competition and tensions among nations, as they seek to maintain or increase their power and influence in the changing global landscape.BPSC 107 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Another key structural change is the rise of non-state actors in international relations.
Non-governmental organizations (NGOs), multinational corporations, and other non-state actors have become increasingly influential in shaping global politics and decision-making.
They have the power to influence policies, mobilize resources, and hold states and international organizations accountable.
This shift towards a more complex and diverse set of actors has also led to challenges in governance and decision-making processes, as traditional state-centric approaches struggle to accommodate these new actors.
Finally, there is a growing emphasis on issues of global governance and global public goods.
As the world becomes more interconnected and interdependent, there is a growing recognition of the need for collective action to address global challenges such as climate change, poverty, and pandemics.
This has led to increased calls for international cooperation and the development of new global governance structures to address these challenges.
Overall, the structural changes underway in global politics and international relations are leading to a more complex, multipolar, and interconnected world.
While these changes present new opportunities for cooperation and addressing global challenges, they also pose significant challenges to traditional approaches to governance and decision-making. BPSC 107 Solved Free Assignment 2023
As such, navigating this new global landscape will require innovative thinking and adaptive approaches to governance and international relations.
Q 2. Describe the key challenges in transformation of the United Nations and its role in the non –traditional security threats and threats of nuclear non–proliferations in international relations.
Ans. The United Nations (UN) is a multilateral organization established in 1945 to promote international cooperation and maintain global peace and security.
The organization has undergone numerous transformations to adapt to the changing global environment.
In recent years, the UN has faced several challenges in addressing non-traditional security threats such as terrorism, cybercrime, and nuclear non-proliferation.
One of the major challenges facing the UN is its inability to adapt to the changing geopolitical landscape. The UN was created in the aftermath of World War II when the United States emerged as the dominant superpower.
However, the world has changed significantly since then, and new players such as China, India, and Brazil have emerged.
The UN has failed to adapt to this changing reality, and its power structures and decision-making processes are still dominated by the five permanent members of the Security Council – the US, Russia, China, France, and the UK.
This has led to a perception of the UN as an outdated institution that is no longer representative of the world’s population.
Another challenge facing the UN is its inability to effectively address non-traditional security threats such as terrorism and cybercrime.
The UN has been criticized for its slow response to these threats, and its inability to develop effective strategies to counter them.
This has led to a perception that the UN is not capable of effectively addressing the complex security challenges of the 21st century.
Nuclear non-proliferation is another area where the UN has faced significant challenges. BPSC 107 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The proliferation of nuclear weapons is a major threat to global peace and security, and the UN has been working to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons since its inception. However, the UN’s efforts have been hampered by the lack of political will among the world’s major powers.
The failure of the US and North Korea to reach an agreement on nuclear disarmament is a stark reminder of the challenges facing the UN in this area.
The UN has also faced challenges in addressing humanitarian crises around the world. The Syrian refugee crisis is a stark reminder of the UN’s failure to effectively address such crises.
The UN has been criticized for its slow response to the crisis, and for its inability to coordinate efforts with other organizations and governments to provide humanitarian assistance to those in need.
Another challenge facing the UN is its limited resources. The UN relies heavily on contributions from member states to fund its operations, and its ability to respond to crises is often limited by the availability of resources.
The UN’s peacekeeping operations, for example, are often underfunded and understaffed, which limits their effectiveness.
The UN’s role in global governance has also been questioned in recent years. Some critics argue that the UN has become too bureaucratic and that its decision-making processes are too slow and inefficient.
This has led to a perception that the UN is no longer capable of effectively addressing the complex challenges facing the world.
Despite these challenges, the UN remains an important global institution with a critical role to play in addressing non-traditional security threats and promoting global peace and security. BPSC 107 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The UN has made significant contributions in areas such as climate change, human rights, and peacekeeping, and it has the potential to continue to play a significant role in shaping global governance in the 21st century.
In addition to the challenges mentioned above, there are several other issues that have affected the United Nations’ role in addressing non-traditional security threats and nuclear non-proliferation in international relations.
One such issue is the issue of sovereignty, which often poses a challenge to the UN’s ability to intervene in the affairs of sovereign nations.
Many nations are unwilling to cede their sovereignty to an international organization, and this often leads to a lack of cooperation and coordination between nations.BPSC 107 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Another challenge is the issue of funding. The UN relies heavily on funding from member states to carry out its mandate.
However, there are often disagreements among member states over the allocation of funds, which can lead to a lack of resources for critical programs and initiatives.
Additionally, the UN’s bureaucratic structure can sometimes be a hindrance to its effectiveness. The complex decision-making processes and multiple layers of bureaucracy can slow down the implementation of policies and initiatives, making it difficult for the organization to respond quickly to emerging threats.
The lack of political will is also a significant challenge in the UN’s efforts to address non-traditional security threats and nuclear non-proliferation.
Many member states may prioritize their national interests over the collective interest of the international community, making it difficult for the UN to achieve its goals.
Finally, the issue of trust between member states is also a challenge. In order for the UN to effectively address non-traditional security threats and nuclear non-proliferation, member states must be willing to share information and cooperate with each other. BPSC 107 Solved Free Assignment 2023
However, there are often issues of distrust and suspicion between nations, which can hinder cooperation and coordination.
Assignment – II
Q 1. Major changes and challenges of the Post–Cold War order in international relations.
Ans. The Post-Cold War era brought about significant changes in the international system, particularly in the realm of international relations.
These changes have presented both opportunities and challenges, shaping the course of global politics in the 21st century.
One major change that emerged after the Cold War was the emergence of a unipolar world order, dominated by the United States.
With the collapse of the Soviet Union, the United States emerged as the sole superpower in the world, with significant military, economic and diplomatic power.
This has had significant implications for the balance of power in the international system, with other states having to adapt to this new reality.
Another significant change was the acceleration of globalisation, driven by advances in technology, communications and transportation.
This has resulted in increased economic interdependence between states, and the emergence of a global economy, characterised by the increasing flow of goods, services and capital across borders. BPSC 107 Solved Free Assignment 2023
While this has brought about significant economic growth and development, it has also led to new challenges, such as rising inequality and environmental degradation.
The emergence of new security threats was another major change in the Post-Cold War era.
Non-traditional security threats such as terrorism, cyberwarfare, and climate change have emerged as significant challenges to global security, and have required a new approach to security in international relations.
These new security threats have also challenged the traditional role of states in providing security, with non-state actors such as terrorist organisations and multinational corporations playing an increasingly important role.
The rise of China as a major global power has also been a significant change in the Post-Cold War era.
With its rapid economic growth and increasing military power, China has challenged the existing global order and the dominance of the United States.
This has resulted in increased competition and tensions between the two powers, and has raised important questions about the future of the international system.
The proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) has also been a major challenge in the Post-Cold War era. BPSC 107 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The emergence of new nuclear powers, such as North Korea and Iran, has raised concerns about the spread of nuclear weapons, and has challenged the existing non-proliferation regime.
This has required new approaches to arms control and disarmament in international relations.
The erosion of the international norms and rules-based order has been another significant challenge in the Post-Cold War era.
With the rise of populist and nationalist movements in many parts of the world, there has been growing skepticism towards multilateralism and the existing global governance structures.
This has resulted in the erosion of international norms, such as human rights and democratic governance, and the weakening of international institutions such as the United Nations.
The COVID-19 pandemic has also presented a significant challenge to the Post-Cold War order in international relations. BPSC 107 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The pandemic has had far-reaching economic, social and political impacts, and has exposed the vulnerabilities of the existing global governance structures.
It has highlighted the need for greater global cooperation and solidarity in addressing global challenges, and has underscored the importance of multilateralism in the international system.
Q 2. Critically examine the effects of decolonization on world politics.
Ans. Decolonization refers to the process by which former colonial territories attained independence and became sovereign nations.
This process was particularly significant in the mid-20th century, with a wave of decolonization that saw a large number of colonies in Africa, Asia, and the Middle East gain independence from European powers.
The process of decolonization had a profound impact on world politics and continues to shape international relations to this day.
One of the most immediate effects of decolonization was the emergence of a large number of new states in the international system.
These new states brought with them new challenges and opportunities for the existing great powers. BPSC 107 Solved Free Assignment 2023
On the one hand, the new states were often politically and economically weak, making them vulnerable to external influence and manipulation.
On the other hand, they also represented a significant shift in the global balance of power, with new actors emerging on the world stage and challenging the dominance of the traditional great powers.
Decolonization also had a significant impact on the dynamics of international relations. With the emergence of new states, the balance of power in the international system shifted in favor of the former colonies, leading to a more diverse and complex system of international relations.
This shift also led to a greater emphasis on issues of sovereignty and self-determination, with the new states asserting their right to make their own decisions and pursue their own interests.
However, decolonization also brought with it a number of challenges for the new states. Many of these states were economically and politically underdeveloped, with weak institutions and little experience in governance.
This made them vulnerable to internal instability, conflict, and external interference. In addition, many of the former colonies were divided along ethnic, religious, and linguistic lines, leading to the emergence of new and often deeply entrenched forms of identity-based conflict.BPSC 107 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Another challenge of decolonization was the legacy of colonialism itself. Many of the former colonies were left with deeply unequal societies, with entrenched poverty, limited access to education and healthcare, and a lack of basic infrastructure.
These legacies of colonialism have persisted in many parts of the world and continue to shape the political, economic, and social realities of the post-colonial era.
Furthermore, decolonization also had an impact on the international system in terms of the norms and values that shape international relations.
With the emergence of new states, there was a growing recognition of the importance of diversity and multiculturalism, as well as a greater emphasis on issues of human rights and social justice.
These values have played an important role in shaping the post-colonial era, as new states have sought to assert their own identities and promote their own interests on the world stage.
Finally, decolonization also had an impact on the global economy. With the emergence of new states, there was a significant shift in the distribution of resources and economic power.BPSC 107 Solved Free Assignment 2023
This shift has had a profound impact on the global economy, with new actors emerging as major players and challenging the dominance of the traditional great powers.
This has also led to new forms of economic integration and competition, as well as new challenges and opportunities for global governance.
Q 3. What are the feminist perspectives of theories of international relations?
Ans. Feminist perspectives of theories of international relations are relatively recent but have gained momentum in recent times.
Feminist theories of international relations seek to identify and analyze the ways in which gender influences the international political order.
The primary focus of feminist theories is the role that women play in the international political economy and the impact of gender on global political outcomes.
Feminist theories of international relations challenge the traditional patriarchal structure of international politics, which views the world through a male-centric lens.
This lens has limited the perspectives and contributions of women in the international political arena. BPSC 107 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Feminist theories seek to deconstruct the gendered assumptions that have been made about the roles and capacities of women in global politics.
The primary focus of feminist theories is the role that gender plays in shaping the international political economy.
One of the key contributions of feminist theories to international relations is the recognition of the role that women play in international development.
Feminist theories have highlighted the ways in which traditional development policies have marginalized women and failed to recognize their unique needs and contributions.
Feminist theorists have argued that development policies need to take into account the gendered nature of development and the specific needs and contributions of women in the process of development.
Another contribution of feminist theories to international relations is the recognition of the gendered nature of conflict and peace-building.
Feminist theorists have highlighted the ways in which traditional approaches to conflict resolution and peace-building have ignored the gendered nature of conflict.
They argue that gender must be taken into account in conflict resolution and peace-building processes, and that women must be included in these processes in order to ensure a more sustainable and just peace.
Feminist theories have also contributed to the understanding of the gendered nature of globalization. BPSC 107 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Feminist theorists argue that globalization has both positive and negative impacts on women, and that these impacts are often gendered.
They have highlighted the ways in which women are often marginalized in the global economy and the importance of incorporating gender perspectives into global economic policies.
Feminist theories of international relations also emphasize the importance of representation and participation of women in political decision-making.
They argue that women’s participation in political decision-making is crucial for ensuring more inclusive and representative governance.
Feminist theorists have called for greater representation of women in international organizations and for the incorporation of gender perspectives into global governance structures.BPSC 107 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Assignment – III
Q 1. Significance of Critical theory in International Relation
Ans. Critical theory is a school of thought that arose in the late 1960s and early 1970s as a response to the perceived limitations of traditional approaches to social and political analysis.
In the field of international relations, critical theory seeks to challenge the dominant paradigms and assumptions that underlie traditional approaches to the study of world politics.
It emphasizes the role of power, inequality, and social structures in shaping international relations, and it aims to reveal and critique the hidden ideologies and interests that shape political outcomes.
One of the key contributions of critical theory to the study of international relations is its focus on power and inequality.
Critical theorists argue that power is not only held by states, but also by other actors, such as multinational corporations, international organizations, and non-governmental organizations. BPSC 107 Solved Free Assignment 2023
They contend that these actors use their power to shape international outcomes in ways that benefit their own interests, often at the expense of marginalized groups and less powerful states.
Another important contribution of critical theory to international relations is its emphasis on social structures and institutions.
Critical theorists argue that international relations are shaped by underlying social structures and institutions, such as gender, race, class, and capitalism.
These structures and institutions create and perpetuate inequalities and injustices in the international system, and they must be critically analyzed and transformed in order to create a more just and equitable world order.
Finally, critical theory also emphasizes the role of ideology in shaping international relations.
Critical theorists argue that dominant ideologies, such as liberalism or realism, are not neutral or objective, but rather reflect the interests and values of those who hold power in the international system.
They therefore seek to reveal the hidden biases and assumptions of dominant ideologies, and to create alternative visions of international relations that are more inclusive and just.BPSC 107 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Q 2. Basic assumptions of realism and neorealism
Ans. Realism and neorealism are two prominent schools of thought in international relations that explain the behaviour of states and the nature of the international system.
While they share some similarities, they also have some key differences in their assumptions and approaches.
Realism is based on the assumption that the international system is anarchic, meaning that there is no central authority or world government to enforce rules and prevent conflicts between states.
States are seen as the primary actors in international relations and are assumed to act in their own self-interest to ensure their survival and security.
Realists argue that states are driven by power and seek to maximize their power and security by competing with each other for resources and influence.
They believe that states will use force if necessary to achieve their goals, and that war is an inevitable feature of international relations.
Neorealism, also known as structural realism, builds on the assumptions of realism but places more emphasis on the structure of the international system.
Neorealists argue that the behaviour of states is shaped by the distribution of power in the international system, which is determined by the capabilities of states.
They argue that the international system is characterized by a balance of power, in which states seek to maintain a balance of power to ensure their security.
Neorealists believe that the international system is characterized by self-help, meaning that states must rely on themselves to ensure their survival and cannot depend on others for protection.BPSC 107 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Both realism and neorealism emphasize the importance of power and self-interest in international relations, but neorealism places more emphasis on the structure of the international system and the distribution of power.
Realists and neorealists both argue that international politics is a struggle for power and that states must be prepared to use force to protect their interests.
Q 3. International Liberalism
Ans. International Liberalism is one of the main theoretical perspectives in international relations.
It emerged in the late 19th century and is based on the ideas of classical liberalism, which emphasizes individual freedom, democracy, free trade, and international cooperation.
The basic assumptions of international liberalism include the belief that states are not the only actors in international relations, and that other actors, such as international organizations, NGOs, and multinational corporations, can play important roles in promoting peace, prosperity, and human rights.
International liberals also believe that economic interdependence between states can promote cooperation and prevent conflict.
They support free trade and globalization as a means to promote economic growth and development, and believe that international institutions can help to regulate global economic relations.
Another important assumption of international liberalism is the belief in democracy and human rights as universal values that should be promoted and protected by the international community. BPSC 107 Solved Free Assignment 2023
International liberals support the promotion of democracy and human rights through diplomatic, economic, and military means, and believe that international institutions, such as the United Nations, can play an important role in promoting these values.
International liberals also tend to have a more optimistic view of international relations than realists.
They believe that conflicts can be resolved through peaceful means, such as negotiation and diplomacy, and that international cooperation can be achieved through the use of international law and institutions.
One of the key contributions of international liberalism to the study of international relations is the idea of complex interdependence.
This refers to the idea that states are interconnected and interdependent in multiple ways, such as through economic, cultural, and social ties.
This idea challenges the realist assumption that states are the only important actors in international relations and that they are driven primarily by power and self-interest.BPSC 107 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Critics of international liberalism argue that it can be too idealistic and unrealistic, particularly in its emphasis on the promotion of democracy and human rights.
They argue that the promotion of these values can sometimes be used as a cover for imperialist or neo-colonialist policies, and that the focus on cooperation and interdependence can sometimes mask power imbalances between states.
Q 4. E. H Carr’s critique of idealism
Ans. E. H. Carr was a British historian, journalist, and diplomat who was critical of the idealist theory in international relations.
Carr believed that the idealist approach was too simplistic and unrealistic. He argued that the idealists’ belief in the power of international law and morality to guide state behavior was flawed.
According to Carr, the idealist approach ignored the realities of power politics and the inherent conflict between states.
He believed that states were primarily concerned with maintaining their own power and security, and that international law and morality were secondary considerations.
Carr argued that the idealist approach failed to take into account the fact that states would use any means necessary to achieve their goals, including force and coercion.
Carr’s critique of idealism was based on his belief that the international system was inherently unstable and characterized by conflict.
He argued that power was the primary driver of international relations and that states sought to increase their power and influence at the expense of other states.
Carr believed that the pursuit of power was a natural and necessary aspect of international politics and that it was unrealistic to expect states to act in accordance with moral or ethical principles.BPSC 107 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Carr also criticized the idealist belief in the ability of international organizations to regulate and manage international affairs.
He argued that international organizations were ineffective and lacked the power to enforce their decisions.
Carr believed that the only effective mechanism for regulating international affairs was the balance of power between states.
Carr’s critique of idealism was influential in the development of realism, a theory that emphasizes the importance of power politics and the pursuit of national interests in international relations.
Realism is based on the assumption that the international system is anarchic and that states are primarily concerned with their own survival and security.
Realists believe that the pursuit of power and the use of force are natural and necessary aspects of international politics.
Overall, E. H. Carr’s critique of idealism played an important role in shaping the development of realist theory in international relations.
His belief in the primacy of power politics and the pursuit of national interests continues to be a central tenet of realist theory today.
Q 5. The Neo-Neo debates in International Relations
Ans. The Neo-Neo debates in International Relations are focused on the debate between the neorealist and neoliberal perspectives on international relations.
The neorealist perspective argues that international relations are driven by power and self-interest, while the neoliberal perspective emphasizes the importance of international institutions and cooperation.
The debate between neorealism and neoliberalism began in the 1970s and 1980s, as neorealism gained popularity in the wake of the Cold War.
Neorealism emphasizes the importance of power and self-interest in international relations, and argues that states are the most important actors in the international system. BPSC 107 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Neorealists believe that international institutions are ineffective, and that states must rely on their own military and economic capabilities to survive in the international system.
Neoliberalism, on the other hand, emphasizes the importance of international institutions and cooperation in international relations.
Neoliberals argue that international institutions can help to solve problems that individual states cannot solve on their own, and that cooperation can be mutually beneficial for all states.
Neoliberals believe that international institutions can help to prevent conflict and promote peace, and that economic interdependence can reduce the likelihood of war.
The Neo-Neo debates focus on the similarities and differences between neorealism and neoliberalism.BPSC 107 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Some scholars argue that the two perspectives are fundamentally opposed, while others suggest that they are more similar than they appear.
For example, some neoliberals argue that international institutions are only effective when they are supported by military power, which suggests that power and self-interest are still important factors in international relations.
Other scholars argue that the debate between neorealism and neoliberalism is ultimately a debate about the role of the state in international relations.
Neorealists believe that states are the most important actors in the international system, and that international institutions are ineffective because they are unable to enforce their decisions.
Neoliberals, on the other hand, argue that international institutions can help to solve problems that individual states cannot solve on their own, and that cooperation can be mutually beneficial for all states.BPSC 107 Solved Free Assignment 2023