INTRODUCTION TO COMPARATIVE GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS
BPSC 105 Solved Free Assignment 2023
BPSC 105 Solved Free Assignment January 2023
Assignment – I
Q 1. New Institutionalism uses a variety of methodological approaches to explain how norms, rules, culture and structures constrain and influence individuals within a political institution. Explain.
Ans. New Institutionalism is a theoretical framework used to explain how institutions shape individual behavior in political and social settings.
The theory asserts that social and political institutions, such as organizations, norms, rules, and structures, provide a framework that constrains and influences the behavior of individuals.
New Institutionalism draws on a variety of methodological approaches to understand how institutions work and how they affect individual behavior.
One of the key methodological approaches used by New Institutionalism is the analysis of institutional design. This approach focuses on how institutions are structured and designed to achieve certain goals.
For example, a political institution may be designed to promote democracy, to promote economic growth, or to provide social welfare.
Institutional design shapes the behavior of individuals within the institution by establishing norms and rules that define acceptable behavior.
Institutions may also use incentives and sanctions to encourage individuals to follow these norms and rules.BPSC 105 Solved Free Assignment 2023
By analyzing institutional design, New Institutionalism can explain how institutions shape individual behavior by creating incentives or imposing constraints on behavior.
Another methodological approach used by New Institutionalism is the analysis of institutional change.
This approach seeks to understand how institutions change over time and how these changes affect individual behavior.
Institutional change can occur through a variety of mechanisms, including formal rules and procedures, informal norms and customs, and external events such as technological or economic changes.
By analyzing institutional change, New Institutionalism can explain how changes in norms, rules, and structures influence individual behavior within political institutions.
A third methodological approach used by New Institutionalism is the analysis of institutional culture. BPSC 105 Solved Free Assignment 2023
This approach focuses on the shared values, beliefs, and attitudes that underpin institutional behavior. Institutional culture is shaped by the history, traditions, and social context of the institution.
By analyzing institutional culture, New Institutionalism can explain how the shared values and beliefs of an institution influence individual behavior.
A fourth methodological approach used by New Institutionalism is the analysis of institutional path dependence. This approach focuses on how the historical development of an institution can shape its future trajectory.
Institutional path dependence occurs when the choices made in the past constrain the choices available in the future.
For example, an institution may have established a particular set of norms and rules that are difficult to change because they have become deeply entrenched in the institution’s culture. BPSC 105 Solved Free Assignment 2023
By analyzing institutional path dependence, New Institutionalism can explain how the history of an institution can shape individual behavior in the present.
A fifth methodological approach used by New Institutionalism is the analysis of institutional logics. This approach focuses on the underlying assumptions and beliefs that guide institutional behavior.
Institutional logics are the normative frameworks that govern the behavior of institutions. These logics can be shaped by factors such as culture, history, and institutional design.
By analyzing institutional logics, New Institutionalism can explain how the underlying assumptions and beliefs of an institution influence individual behavior.
A sixth methodological approach used by New Institutionalism is the analysis of institutional isomorphism. This approach focuses on how institutions become similar to one another over time.
Institutional isomorphism occurs when institutions adopt similar structures, practices, and norms in response to common external pressures.
For example, institutions may adopt similar management practices in response to global economic trends. BPSC 105 Solved Free Assignment 2023
By analyzing institutional isomorphism, New Institutionalism can explain how external pressures can shape individual behavior within political institutions.
Finally, New Institutionalism often uses a comparative approach to understand how different institutions shape individual behavior.
By comparing institutions across different contexts, New Institutionalism can identify commonalities and differences in institutional behavior.
This comparative approach can help to identify the factors that drive institutional behavior and how these factors influence individual behavior within political institutions.
Q 2. Critically examine the issues and problems arising from capitalist development in contemporary times.
Ans. Capitalism is a dominant economic system in the world today. It has brought about economic growth, technological progress, and increased living standards for many people. BPSC 105 Solved Free Assignment 2023
However, capitalist development has also created numerous issues and problems that continue to affect society in contemporary times.
One of the most significant issues arising from capitalist development is economic inequality.
Despite the economic growth and technological progress, many people continue to live in poverty, while a small percentage of the population holds a vast amount of wealth.
This inequality has led to a sense of exclusion and marginalization for those left behind, as well as social unrest and political instability.
Another issue arising from capitalist development is the exploitation of labor. Capitalism relies on labor to create profits for capitalists, and workers are often exploited to maximize profits.
This exploitation can take many forms, including low wages, long hours, and unsafe working conditions. It also extends to the use of child labor and forced labor in some parts of the world.BPSC 105 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Environmental degradation is also a significant issue arising from capitalist development.
Capitalism encourages the exploitation of natural resources to drive economic growth, leading to the depletion of resources and damage to the environment.
Climate change, pollution, and loss of biodiversity are some of the environmental challenges facing the world today, which can be attributed to the pursuit of profits in capitalist development.
The financialization of the economy is another problem arising from capitalist development in contemporary times.
Financialization refers to the increasing role of the financial sector in the economy, where financial instruments such as derivatives, hedge funds, and speculative investments become the primary source of profit.
This trend has led to a focus on short-term gains over long-term investments, creating instability in financial markets and leaving the economy vulnerable to financial crises.BPSC 105 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The commodification of culture is also an issue arising from capitalist development. Capitalism often treats culture as a commodity to be bought and sold, rather than a social good with intrinsic value.
This has led to the commercialization of art, music, and other forms of cultural expression, where profit motives can influence the creation and distribution of cultural products.
The erosion of social capital is another problem arising from capitalist development. Social capital refers to the networks of relationships and trust that underpin social cooperation and community resilience.
Capitalist development has led to the atomization of society, where individuals are increasingly disconnected from one another, and social bonds are weakened.
This can lead to a breakdown in social cohesion and a lack of support systems for those in need.BPSC 105 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Finally, the power imbalance between capital and labor is a critical issue arising from capitalist development.
Capitalism gives disproportionate power to those who control capital, allowing them to shape economic and political systems to their advantage.
This can lead to policies that favor the interests of the wealthy over those of the working class, as well as a lack of democratic accountability in economic decision-making.
To address the issues arising from capitalist development, there is a need for a paradigm shift towards a more sustainable and equitable economic system.
One approach is to promote stakeholder capitalism, which recognizes the importance of all stakeholders, including employees, customers, suppliers, and the environment.
This approach aims to create long-term value for all stakeholders, rather than solely maximizing profits for shareholders.
Another approach is to promote sustainable development, which recognizes the interconnectedness of economic, social, and environmental systems.
This approach aims to achieve economic growth while protecting the environment and promoting social well-being. BPSC 105 Solved Free Assignment 2023
It involves the adoption of sustainable production and consumption patterns, the protection of natural resources, and the promotion of social equity and inclusion.
The promotion of democratic participation and accountability in economic decision-making is also crucial to address the issues arising from capitalist development.
This involves ensuring that all stakeholders have a voice in decision-making, and that decisions are made transparently and accountable.
It also involves the promotion of democratic institutions, such as labor unions and civil society organizations, to balance the power imbalance between capital and labor.
The promotion of fair trade practices is another approach to address the exploitation of labor and promote social equity.
Fair trade practices involve ensuring that workers receive fair wages, safe working conditions, and access to social services such as healthcare and education.
It also involves promoting gender equity and empowering marginalized communities.BPSC 105 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The adoption of green technologies and renewable energy sources is also crucial to address environmental degradation arising from capitalist development.
Green technologies and renewable energy sources can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions and promote sustainable development.
It also involves the promotion of energy efficiency and conservation, as well as the adoption of circular economy practices, which promote the reuse and recycling of materials.
Assignment – II
Q 1. Describe the distinct features of the state in the developing world.
Ans. The state is a complex and multifaceted institution that varies across countries and regions. In the developing world, the state has distinct features that are shaped by historical, cultural, and economic factors.
One of the key features of the state in the developing world is its weak institutional capacity. The state is often characterized by weak bureaucracies, inadequate legal systems, and limited resources.
This can result in inefficient and ineffective governance, leading to corruption, nepotism, and patronage. BPSC 105 Solved Free Assignment 2023
These weaknesses often create a governance gap between the state and the citizens, leading to a lack of trust and legitimacy in the state.
Another distinct feature of the state in the developing world is its limited capacity to provide public goods and services.
This can be attributed to limited resources, poor governance, and political instability. As a result, citizens often rely on informal networks and community-based organizations to meet their basic needs, such as education, healthcare, and infrastructure.
Political instability is another feature of the state in the developing world. Many developing countries have experienced civil wars, coups, and other forms of political instability that have undermined the state’s legitimacy and effectiveness.
This instability often results from ethnic, religious, or regional divisions, as well as economic inequality and exclusion.
The lack of stability creates challenges for economic development and hinders the state’s ability to provide essential services to citizens.
The state in the developing world is also characterized by weak democratic institutions. BPSC 105 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The democratic processes in developing countries often face challenges such as voter intimidation, corruption, and a lack of transparency.
This results in elections that are not free or fair, leading to the exclusion of minority groups and the perpetuation of authoritarian regimes.
Another feature of the state in the developing world is its dependence on external aid and support.
Many developing countries rely on foreign aid to finance their development efforts, which can create a dependency on external actors.
This can result in a lack of ownership and agency over development efforts, and limit the state’s ability to set its own agenda.
The state in the developing world also faces challenges related to its role in economic development.
The state often lacks the capacity to regulate economic activities effectively, leading to a lack of economic growth and development.
Q 2. Trace the evolution of the practice of parliamentary supremacy in the United Kingdom.
Ans. Parliamentary supremacy, also known as parliamentary sovereignty, is a constitutional principle that originated in the United Kingdom.
It holds that the authority of the UK Parliament is supreme and that no other institution, including the courts, can challenge or overrule its decisions.
The origins of parliamentary supremacy can be traced back to the English Civil War in the 17th century.BPSC 105 Solved Free Assignment 2023
During this time, the Parliamentarians, who were fighting against the royalists, sought to establish the authority of Parliament as the ultimate source of political power in England.
This idea was further developed by political philosophers such as John Locke and Thomas Hobbes, who argued that the people, through their representatives in Parliament, were the only legitimate source of political power.
The principle of parliamentary supremacy was first formally recognized in the case of Entick v Carrington in 1765.
In this case, the court ruled that the warrant used by the King’s messengers to search the home of John Entick was illegal, as it had not been authorized by Parliament.
This decision established the principle that the actions of the government and the monarch were subject to the authority of Parliament.
However, it was not until the 19th century that parliamentary supremacy became firmly entrenched in UK constitutional law.
This was largely due to the development of the modern political party system and the growth of democracy. BPSC 105 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The Reform Acts of 1832, 1867, and 1884 extended the franchise to more people and created a more representative Parliament.
This meant that the authority of Parliament was seen as more legitimate and representative of the people.
In the 20th century, parliamentary supremacy faced new challenges. The rise of the European Union and the creation of the European Court of Justice raised questions about the relationship between EU law and UK law.
Some argued that the supremacy of EU law undermined the principle of parliamentary sovereignty.
However, in the case of Factortame Ltd v Secretary of State for Transport in 1991, the House of Lords reaffirmed the principle of parliamentary supremacy, ruling that EU law could only be incorporated into UK law if Parliament specifically authorized it.
Q 3. Critically examine the functioning of federalism in Brazil.
Ans. Brazil is a federal republic with a federal system of government, in which power is divided between the central government and the states.
The Brazilian Constitution of 1988 established a complex system of federalism that seeks to balance the interests of the central government and the states.
One of the key features of federalism in Brazil is the division of powers between the federal government and the states. BPSC 105 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The federal government has exclusive powers over a range of areas, including foreign policy, defense, and monetary policy.
The states, on the other hand, have a significant degree of autonomy in areas such as education, health, and transportation.
This division of powers has been a source of tension between the central government and the states, as each seeks to assert its authority and protect its interests.
Another important aspect of federalism in Brazil is the distribution of resources between the federal government and the states.
Under the constitution, the federal government is responsible for raising revenue and distributing funds to the states.
This has led to a complex system of transfers and grants that seeks to ensure that resources are distributed fairly.
However, there have been criticisms that this system is opaque and inefficient, and that it does not adequately address the needs of the poorer states.
A key challenge facing federalism in Brazil is the issue of regional inequality. Brazil is a large and diverse country, with significant disparities in income, education, and health outcomes between different regions.
The federal system is intended to address these disparities by allowing the states to develop policies and programs that are tailored to their specific needs.
However, there have been criticisms that the federal system has not done enough to address regional inequality, and that the central government has not provided enough support to the poorer states.
The functioning of federalism in Brazil has also been impacted by the country’s political system. BPSC 105 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Brazil has a presidential system of government, in which the President is both the head of state and the head of government.
This has led to a concentration of power in the hands of the President, and has made it more difficult for the states to assert their authority.
The political system has also been characterized by corruption and political instability, which has further complicated the functioning of federalism.
Despite these challenges, there have been some successes in the functioning of federalism in Brazil.
The decentralization of health and education services, for example, has allowed the states to develop policies and programs that are tailored to their specific needs.
This has led to improvements in health and education outcomes in some parts of the country.
There have also been successful partnerships between the federal government and the states in areas such as environmental protection and disaster management.
Assignment – III
Q 1. Case study as a methods for comparison
Ans.1 Case study is a research method that involves in-depth analysis and investigation of a particular phenomenon or case.
It is commonly used in social sciences to examine complex and multifaceted issues that cannot be easily studied through quantitative methods.
Case study can also be used as a method for comparison, where two or more cases are compared to identify similarities and differences between them.
The comparative case study approach involves selecting two or more cases that share similar characteristics and then analyzing the similarities and differences between them. BPSC 105 Solved Free Assignment 2023
This method is often used to identify factors that contribute to success or failure in different contexts.
For example, researchers may compare the experiences of two countries with similar levels of economic development to understand why one has been more successful than the other in achieving economic growth.
One of the key advantages of case study as a method for comparison is its ability to provide rich and detailed data on the cases being studied.
This allows researchers to develop a deep understanding of the factors that contribute to similarities and differences between cases.
Case studies also allow researchers to study complex and multifaceted issues in a real-world context, which can be difficult to do using other research methods.
However, there are also some limitations to using case study as a method for comparison. One limitation is that it can be difficult to generalize findings from case studies to other contexts.
Because case studies are often based on a small number of cases, it can be difficult to know whether the findings are representative of other cases with similar characteristics. BPSC 105 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Another limitation is that case studies can be time-consuming and resource-intensive, which can limit their practicality for some research questions.
Q 2. New Institutionalism Mode of Production
Ans 2. New Institutionalism is a theoretical framework that focuses on the role of institutions in shaping social, economic, and political outcomes.
One of the key concepts in New Institutionalism is the mode of production, which refers to the dominant economic system and the social relations of production that characterize a particular society.
New Institutionalism argues that institutions play a key role in shaping the mode of production by establishing the rules, norms, and cultural values that govern economic behavior. BPSC 105 Solved Free Assignment 2023
For example, institutions like property rights, labor laws, and financial regulations shape the behavior of firms, workers, and consumers, and in doing so, shape the overall functioning of the economy.
New Institutionalism also emphasizes the role of power in shaping the mode of production.
It argues that institutions are not neutral, but rather reflect the interests of the powerful groups that create and maintain them.
For example, institutions like labor laws and trade agreements may be designed to benefit certain groups, such as employers or multinational corporations, at the expense of workers or smaller businesses.
New Institutionalism has been used to analyze a range of different modes of production, from pre-capitalist societies to modern industrialized economies.
It has also been applied to a range of different fields, including economics, sociology, and political science.BPSC 105 Solved Free Assignment 2023
One of the key contributions of New Institutionalism to the study of the mode of production is its emphasis on the role of institutions in shaping economic outcomes.
By analyzing the ways in which institutions create and maintain rules, norms, and cultural values, New Institutionalism provides a framework for understanding how economic behavior is shaped by broader social, political, and cultural factors.
Q 3. Theory of Modernization
Ans 3. The theory of modernization refers to a set of ideas and beliefs that explain the process by which societies become more modern over time.
This theory emerged in the post-World War II era and became influential in the field of sociology, anthropology, and political science.
The theory assumes that modernization is a natural process that occurs as societies develop and undergo changes in various areas of life.
The theory of modernization suggests that modern societies are characterized by certain features, including industrialization, urbanization, technological development, secularization, and individualism.
According to this theory, as societies undergo these changes, they become more complex and differentiated, with new institutions and social structures emerging to replace traditional forms.BPSC 105 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The theory of modernization also emphasizes the role of Western societies in the modernization process.
According to this view, Western societies are seen as the model for modernization, with other societies following their example and adopting their values and practices.
This view has been criticized for its Eurocentrism and for ignoring the diversity of non-Western societies and their own processes of modernization.
Critics of the theory of modernization argue that it is overly simplistic and fails to take into account the complexities of social change.
They point out that the process of modernization can have both positive and negative consequences, including increased inequality, environmental degradation, and cultural homogenization.
Additionally, they argue that the theory ignores the role of power and domination in the process of modernization, with Western societies using their economic and political power to impose their values and interests on other societies.
Overall, while the theory of modernization has been influential in shaping our understanding of social change, it has also been subject to criticism and revision over time.BPSC 105 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Q 4. Reforms of Deng Xiaoping
Ans 4. Deng Xiaoping was a Chinese politician and reformist leader who played a significant role in modernizing China’s economy and society in the late 20th century.
Here are some of the key reforms that Deng Xiaoping implemented during his tenure:
Economic Reforms: Deng Xiaoping introduced a series of economic reforms that transformed China from a centrally planned economy to a market-oriented one.
The reforms included opening up China to foreign investment, privatizing state-owned enterprises, and creating special economic zones where foreign companies could operate with greater freedom.
Agriculture Reforms: Deng Xiaoping’s reforms also targeted China’s agricultural sector, which had been struggling under the state-controlled system.
He introduced a system of household responsibility in which individual farmers were given more control over their land and production, and were allowed to sell any surplus crops on the open market.BPSC 105 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Education Reforms: Deng Xiaoping recognized the importance of education in modernizing China, and implemented reforms to expand access to education and improve the quality of teaching.
He also encouraged the study of science and technology, which he saw as key to China’s future development.
Political Reforms: Deng Xiaoping’s reforms also included some limited political reforms, such as increasing the power of local governments and allowing for more open debate within the Communist Party.
However, he also cracked down on political dissent, particularly in the aftermath of the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests.
One-Child Policy: Deng Xiaoping is also known for implementing China’s controversial one-child policy in 1979, which limited most urban couples to having only one child in order to control population growth.
The policy has since been relaxed, but its effects continue to be felt in Chinese society today.BPSC 105 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Overall, Deng Xiaoping’s reforms had a profound impact on China’s economy and society, lifting millions of people out of poverty and transforming China into a major economic power.
However, they also came with some costs, including increased inequality and environmental degradation, and raised questions about China’s commitment to human rights and political freedom.
Q 5. Ethnic Diversity and Federalism in Nigeria
Ans 5. Nigeria is a highly diverse country with over 250 ethnic groups and more than 500 languages. The country’s ethnic diversity has been a source of tension and conflict throughout its history, with groups competing for power and resources.
To address these challenges, Nigeria adopted a federal system of government, which allows for greater regional autonomy and decentralization of power.
The federal system of government in Nigeria is based on three tiers of government: federal, state, and local.
Each tier has its own set of responsibilities and powers, and there are mechanisms in place to ensure that power is shared among the different levels of government.
One of the key features of Nigeria’s federal system is the allocation of revenue and resources. BPSC 105 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The federal government collects revenue from various sources and distributes it to the states and local governments based on a formula that takes into account factors such as population and need.
This revenue-sharing arrangement helps to ensure that all regions of the country have access to resources and can participate in the development process.
Another important aspect of Nigeria’s federal system is the presence of state governments, which have their own constitutions and legislative bodies.
The states have considerable autonomy in areas such as education, health, and agriculture, and are able to adapt policies to meet the specific needs of their regions.
This has allowed for the development of diverse regional identities and cultures within Nigeria.
However, Nigeria’s federal system has also faced significant challenges, particularly in managing conflicts between different ethnic and religious groups.
Some states have sought to assert greater control over their resources and autonomy, leading to tensions with the federal government.
Additionally, there have been conflicts between different regions and ethnic groups over issues such as resource allocation, political representation, and access to power.
Despite these challenges, Nigeria’s federal system has been successful in promoting greater regional autonomy and decentralization of power.
It has also helped to manage conflicts between different groups and ensure that all regions of the country have access to resources and can participate in the development process. BPSC 105 Solved Free Assignment 2023
However, ongoing efforts are needed to address the underlying causes of ethnic and regional tensions and to strengthen the institutions of federalism in Nigeria.