PSYCHOLOGY OF GENDER
BPCG 176 Solved Free Assignment 2023
BPCG 176 Solved Free Assignment January 2023
Q 1. Trace the history of psychology of gender.
Ans. The psychology of gender is a complex field that has evolved over time. It explores the ways in which gender affects individual behavior, perception, and experiences.
The history of psychology of gender can be traced back to ancient times when people began to ponder the differences between males and females.
However, the formal study of psychology of gender started in the late 19th century and has continued to evolve ever since. In this article, we will trace the history of psychology of gender, from its roots to its current state.
The concept of gender differences can be traced back to ancient times. In many cultures, there were strict gender roles and expectations that were based on biological sex.
In ancient Greece, for example, men were expected to be warriors, while women were expected to be caretakers. This division of labor was based on the belief that men were naturally stronger and more aggressive than women.
In ancient China, gender roles were also strictly defined. Women were expected to be submissive to men and to focus on domestic duties, such as cooking and cleaning. Men, on the other hand, were expected to be providers and protectors of the family.
Despite these strict gender roles, there were some ancient philosophers who recognized that gender differences were not entirely determined by biology.
For example, the Greek philosopher Aristotle believed that women were inferior to men because they lacked the rationality and self-control that men possessed.
However, he also recognized that some women were more rational than some men, which suggested that there were other factors besides biology that influenced gender differences. BPCG 176 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The 19th Century
The formal study of psychology of gender began in the late 19th century. At that time, many scientists and scholars believed that men and women were fundamentally different, both biologically and psychologically.
This belief was based on a number of assumptions and stereotypes, such as the idea that women were emotional and irrational, while men were logical and rational.
One of the earliest psychologists to study gender was G. Stanley Hall. He believed that boys and girls were fundamentally different, and that these differences were rooted in biology.
Hall argued that boys were naturally aggressive and competitive, while girls were naturally nurturing and cooperative.
Another influential figure in the early psychology of gender was Sigmund Freud. Freud believed that gender differences were the result of the different ways in which boys and girls were socialized. BPCG 176 Solved Free Assignment 2023
He argued that boys were socialized to be masculine, which involved repressing their feminine traits, while girls were socialized to be feminine, which involved repressing their masculine traits.
Freud’s theories were controversial and have been criticized by modern psychologists. However, his work laid the foundation for the study of gender identity and gender development.
The 20th Century
In the 20th century, the study of psychology of gender continued to evolve. Many psychologists began to question the assumptions and stereotypes that had been prevalent in earlier studies.
They recognized that gender differences were not as clear-cut as previously thought, and that there was a great deal of overlap between male and female traits.
One of the key figures in the psychology of gender in the 20th century was Sandra Bem. Bem developed the concept of androgyny, which refers to individuals who possess both masculine and feminine traits.
She argued that androgynous individuals were more adaptable and psychologically healthy than individuals who were strictly masculine or feminine.
Other psychologists in the 20th century focused on the social and cultural factors that influenced gender. BPCG 176 Solved Free Assignment 2023
For example, Carol Gilligan studied the ways in which girls were socialized to be caring and nurturing, while boys were socialized to be independent and competitive.
Gilligan argued that this socialization led to differences in moral development between boys and girls.
Another important area of research in the 20th century was gender identity. Psychologists studied the ways in which individuals developed a sense of their own gender and how this affected their behavior and experiences.
For example, some studies explored the experiences of transgender individuals and the challenges they faced in a society that often only recognized binary gender identities.
In the latter half of the 20th century, feminist psychology emerged as a significant force in the field of psychology of gender.
Feminist psychologists challenged the traditional view of gender as a binary construct and recognized the ways in which gender intersected with other identities such as race, class, and sexuality. BPCG 176 Solved Free Assignment 2023
They also critiqued the ways in which traditional psychological research had often ignored or minimized the experiences of women and other marginalized groups.
Contemporary Psychology of Gender
Today, the study of psychology of gender continues to evolve and expand. Researchers are exploring a range of topics related to gender, including the effects of gender stereotypes on behavior, the experiences of individuals who identify as non-binary or genderqueer, and the ways in which gender intersects with other identities such as race and sexuality.
One area of particular interest is the impact of gender on mental health. Studies have shown that women are more likely to experience anxiety and depression than men, while men are more likely to experience substance abuse and other risky behaviors.
Researchers are exploring the ways in which social and cultural factors contribute to these differences in mental health outcomes.
Another area of focus is the intersectionality of gender with other identities. For example, studies have shown that women of color often face unique challenges related to both gender and race, such as experiencing racism and sexism simultaneously. BPCG 176 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Researchers are exploring the ways in which these intersecting identities affect individuals’ experiences and opportunities.
Q 2. Describe sex-differences in health seeking behaviour.
Ans. Sex-differences in health seeking behavior have been a topic of interest for researchers for many years. It is well known that men and women experience different health outcomes, and this is partly due to differences in health-seeking behaviors.
Health seeking behavior refers to the actions individuals take when they experience symptoms of illness or injury, or when they seek preventive care.
This can include seeking medical attention, using home remedies, or simply ignoring symptoms altogether.
Gender and Health-Seeking Behavior
The term “gender” refers to the social and cultural roles and expectations associated with being male or female. Gender influences health-seeking behavior in several ways. BPCG 176 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Firstly, social norms and expectations around gender can influence how men and women perceive their health and well-being.
For example, men may feel pressure to appear strong and invulnerable, and may be less likely to seek medical help for fear of appearing weak.
Women, on the other hand, may feel pressure to prioritize the health of others, such as children or elderly relatives, over their own health.
In addition, gender can influence the availability and accessibility of healthcare services. Women may face barriers to accessing healthcare due to factors such as poverty, lack of transportation, or caring responsibilities.
Men, on the other hand, may face barriers to accessing healthcare due to cultural norms around masculinity that discourage seeking help for health concerns.
Sex Differences in Health-Seeking Behavior
Research has consistently shown that men and women exhibit different patterns of health-seeking behavior. In general, women are more likely to seek healthcare than men. BPCG 176 Solved Free Assignment 2023
For example, women are more likely to seek preventive care, such as regular check-ups, and are more likely to visit a healthcare provider when they experience symptoms of illness or injury.
Men, on the other hand, are more likely to delay seeking medical attention, and may only seek help when their symptoms become severe.
There are several reasons why women may be more likely to seek healthcare than men. Firstly, women may be more attuned to their bodies and more aware of changes in their health.
Women may also be more likely to seek care for preventive services, such as cancer screenings, which may be less stigmatized than seeking care for a specific health concern.
In contrast, men may be more likely to delay seeking care due to a range of factors. Firstly, cultural norms around masculinity may discourage men from seeking help for health concerns.
Men may view seeking help as a sign of weakness, and may be reluctant to ask for assistance unless their symptoms are severe. Additionally, men may face barriers to accessing healthcare, such as a lack of insurance or transportation.
Other factors that may contribute to sex differences in health-seeking behavior include age, education, and socioeconomic status.
For example, older women may be more likely to seek healthcare than older men, while individuals with higher levels of education and income may be more likely to seek preventive care.BPCG 176 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Implications for Health Outcomes
Sex differences in health-seeking behavior can have significant implications for health outcomes. For example, delaying seeking care for a health concern can lead to more severe health problems down the line.
Men may be more likely to experience poor health outcomes due to delayed seeking of care, while women may be more likely to experience health problems related to overuse of healthcare services.
Additionally, sex differences in health-seeking behavior may contribute to disparities in health outcomes between different groups.
For example, women of color may be more likely to delay seeking care due to structural barriers to accessing healthcare, such as lack of insurance or limited availability of healthcare providers.
This can lead to poorer health outcomes for women of color compared to white women.BPCG 176 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Q 3. Explain Bem’s gender-schema theory.
Ans. Bem’s gender-schema theory is a psychological theory that explains how individuals develop and organize their understanding of gender.
According to this theory, individuals acquire gender schemas, which are cognitive structures that represent the characteristics, behaviors, and roles associated with being male or female.
These gender schemas guide individuals’ perceptions and expectations of gender, influencing their attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors.
Bem’s gender-schema theory posits that gender schemas are acquired through socialization, or the process by which individuals learn the norms, values, and expectations of their culture.
Children learn about gender through their interactions with parents, peers, and the media, and begin to develop gender schemas at a very young age.
These gender schemas are reinforced through continued exposure to gendered messages in the environment.BPCG 176 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Gender schemas are organized hierarchically, with more general and abstract schemas at the top, and more specific and concrete schemas at the bottom.
For example, the general schema of “male” might be organized at the top of the hierarchy, with more specific schemas for “father”, “son”, “athlete”, and “breadwinner” organized below it.
Similarly, the general schema of “female” might be organized at the top of the hierarchy, with more specific schemas for “mother”, “daughter”, “homemaker”, and “nurturer” organized below it.
Gender schemas influence the way individuals process information about gender. They guide individuals’ attention, interpretation, and memory of gender-relevant information.
For example, if an individual has a strong schema for “male”, they may be more likely to notice, remember, and attend to information that is consistent with that schema.
They may also be more likely to interpret ambiguous information in a way that is consistent with their gender schema.
Gender schemas also influence individuals’ attitudes and behaviors related to gender. For example, individuals may have attitudes about the appropriate roles and behaviors for men and women, based on their gender schemas.
They may also engage in gender-typed behaviors, or behaviors that are consistent with their gender schema.BPCG 176 Solved Free Assignment 2023
For example, a person with a strong schema for “male” may engage in behaviors such as playing sports, being assertive, or pursuing a career in a male-dominated field.
Bem’s gender-schema theory proposes that gender schemas can be modified through a process of gender schema reorganization.
This involves challenging and changing gender stereotypes and expectations, and encouraging individuals to develop more flexible and diverse gender schemas.
By expanding the range of characteristics and behaviors that are considered appropriate for men and women, individuals can develop a more nuanced and less rigid understanding of gender.
Bem’s gender-schema theory has been influential in the field of psychology, and has been used to explain a range of phenomena related to gender, such as gender identity development, gender role attitudes, and gender-based stereotypes.
However, the theory has also been criticized for its lack of attention to the role of power and social structures in shaping gender.
Critics argue that gender schemas are not simply cognitive structures, but are embedded within larger social, cultural, and political systems that shape the ways in which gender is experienced and expressed.
Q 4. How is gender prejudice a key barrier to gender equality across the world? Discuss.
Ans. Gender prejudice, also known as sexism, is a significant barrier to gender equality across the world. It refers to the negative attitudes, beliefs, and stereotypes that people hold about individuals based on their gender.
Gender prejudice can take many forms, including discrimination, harassment, and violence, and can be directed towards both women and men.
This prejudice reinforces gender-based inequalities and perpetuates gender-based violence, which can have devastating effects on individuals, families, and communities.BPCG 176 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Gender prejudice affects all aspects of life, including education, employment, politics, and family life.
In many countries, girls are less likely than boys to have access to education, and women are more likely to be excluded from formal employment and political participation.
Women are also more likely to be subject to gender-based violence, including sexual assault, domestic violence, and human trafficking.
One of the key ways in which gender prejudice operates is through gender-based stereotypes.
These stereotypes are often deeply ingrained in social and cultural norms, and can be difficult to challenge or change.
For example, women may be seen as emotional, nurturing, and domestic, while men are seen as rational, assertive, and competitive.
These stereotypes can limit women’s opportunities and reinforce gender-based inequalities, such as the gender pay gap, which reflects the fact that women are often paid less than men for the same work.
Gender prejudice can also lead to discrimination and exclusion from social and economic opportunities. For example, women may be excluded from certain occupations, or may be paid less than men for the same work.
Similarly, men may be excluded from certain care-giving roles, or may be subject to discrimination if they do not conform to traditional masculine stereotypes.
Gender prejudice can also be a key barrier to gender equality in political participation. BPCG 176 Solved Free Assignment 2023BPCG 176 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Women are often underrepresented in political decision-making, and may face significant barriers to running for office or holding political positions.
This can limit women’s ability to shape policy and affect change at the local, national, and international levels.
To address gender prejudice, it is important to challenge gender-based stereotypes, promote gender equality, and address the root causes of gender-based inequalities.
This can involve education and awareness-raising campaigns that aim to promote gender equality and reduce gender-based stereotypes.
It can also involve policy changes, such as the implementation of laws and policies that prohibit discrimination based on gender and promote gender equality in all areas of life.
Gender prejudice is a complex and multifaceted issue that requires a comprehensive approach to address.
By recognizing the ways in which gender prejudice reinforces gender-based inequalities and perpetuates gender-based violence, and by working to challenge gender-based stereotypes and promote gender equality, we can work towards a more just and equitable world for all.
Q 5. Describe the gender differences in non-verbal behaviour.
Ans. Non-verbal behavior refers to the communication cues that individuals use to convey messages without using spoken or written language. These can include facial expressions, gestures, body posture, eye contact, and tone of voice.
While there is significant variation within genders, research has identified some differences in non-verbal behavior between men and women.
Research suggests that women are generally more expressive than men in their facial expressions. They tend to smile more frequently and for longer periods of time, and are better at interpreting facial expressions in others.
Men, on the other hand, are more likely to display expressions of anger or aggression.
Gestures: BPCG 176 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Women tend to use more hand gestures and movements when they speak, while men are more likely to use larger, more forceful gestures.
Women may also be more likely to touch others during conversation, while men may be more likely to use gestures that emphasize their physical size or strength.
Women are more likely to adopt a closed posture, such as crossing their arms or legs, which can signal defensiveness or a desire to protect themselves.
Men are more likely to adopt an open posture, such as standing with their feet apart or their arms held away from their body, which can signal confidence or dominance.
Women tend to make more eye contact during conversation than men, which can signal interest and engagement. However, men are more likely to use eye contact to establish dominance or intimidate others.
Tone of voice:
Women’s voices tend to be higher in pitch and more variable in tone than men’s voices. Women may also use more verbal fillers, such as “um” or “like,” which can indicate uncertainty or hesitation.
Men’s voices are generally lower in pitch and more monotone, which can convey authority or dominance.
It is important to note that these gender differences in non-verbal behavior are not universal, and that individuals may display different patterns of behavior depending on a variety of factors, including cultural background, personality, and social context.
Additionally, it is important to recognize that gender is a social construct, and that there is significant variation within genders. It is not accurate to make assumptions about an individual’s behavior based solely on their gender.
Q 6. Role of family in gender socialization
Ans. The family plays a significant role in gender socialization, which is the process by which individuals learn and internalize gender roles and norms.
From a young age, children are exposed to socialization messages from their family about what is appropriate behavior for boys and girls, and how they should express themselves based on their gender.BPCG 176 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Parents and other family members often serve as the primary agents of gender socialization, as they are the first and most consistent sources of socialization messages for children.
Here are some ways in which family can influence gender socialization:
Gender roles and expectations: Families often have specific expectations for how boys and girls should behave, what interests and activities are appropriate for each gender, and how they should dress and present themselves.
These expectations can shape a child’s sense of gender identity and influence their behavior and preferences.
Reinforcement of gendered behaviors: Families may also reinforce gendered behaviors through rewards and punishments. For example, boys who exhibit traditionally masculine behaviors such as aggression or risk-taking may be praised or rewarded, while girls who exhibit similar behaviors may be scolded or punished.
This can reinforce gender-based stereotypes and limit opportunities for children to explore a range of behaviors and interests.
Gendered division of labor: The family can also influence gender socialization through the division of labor within the household.
For example, women may be expected to do more of the caregiving and household chores, while men may be expected to be the breadwinners.
Children can observe and internalize these gendered roles and expectations, which can influence their attitudes and behavior in adulthood.
Modeling gendered behaviors: Children learn through observation and modeling, and the family can serve as a primary source of role models for gendered behavior.
For example, boys may model their behavior after their fathers, while girls may model their behavior after their mothers or other female family members. These role models can reinforce gendered expectations and behaviors.
Q 7. Romantic relationship in digital age
Ans. The rise of digital technology has revolutionized the way we communicate, socialize, and form relationships, including romantic relationships.
While traditional forms of dating and courtship still exist, the digital age has introduced new ways of meeting, communicating, and expressing intimacy.
Here are some ways in which digital technology has influenced romantic relationships:BPCG 176 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Online dating: The advent of dating apps and websites has made it easier than ever to meet new people and form romantic connections.
Online dating platforms allow individuals to search for potential partners based on specific criteria, such as age, location, and interests. This can help people find compatible partners who they may not have met otherwise.
Long-distance relationships: Digital technology has made it easier for couples in long-distance relationships to stay connected.
Video chat platforms, messaging apps, and social media allow couples to communicate and share experiences in real-time, which can help maintain the intimacy of the relationship despite the physical distance.
Social media: Social media has become a ubiquitous part of modern life, and it has also had an impact on romantic relationships.
Couples can use social media to share their experiences, photos, and thoughts with each other, and to stay connected with each other’s lives.
However, social media can also create tension and conflict within relationships if one partner feels left out or if they perceive their partner’s interactions with others as inappropriate.BPCG 176 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Sexting and cybersex: Digital technology has also made it easier for couples to engage in sexual activity without physically being together.
Sexting, which involves sending sexually explicit messages or photos, and cybersex, which involves engaging in sexual activity through video chat or other digital means, have become more common in the digital age.
However, these activities can also be risky and may have negative consequences, such as privacy breaches or emotional harm.
Digital communication: Digital technology has also changed the way couples communicate with each other.
Text messaging, video chat, and social media messaging allow couples to stay connected throughout the day and to express affection and support in real-time.
However, the lack of non-verbal cues in digital communication can make it harder to interpret emotions and can lead to misunderstandings.
Q 8. Womb envy and mothering
Ans. “Womb envy” is a term coined by psychoanalyst Karen Horney to describe the feelings of envy and resentment that men may experience towards women due to their ability to bear children. BPCG 176 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Horney believed that men may feel inferior or inadequate because they are unable to bear children, and that this can lead to a desire for power and control over women.
In terms of mothering, womb envy can manifest as a desire for men to control women’s reproductive choices and to limit their autonomy.
This can take the form of restricting access to birth control and abortion, or by stigmatizing women who choose to prioritize their careers or other pursuits over motherhood.
Additionally, womb envy can lead men to devalue the work of caregiving and mothering, as it is seen as “women’s work” and therefore less important or valuable than work traditionally associated with men.
However, it is important to note that not all men experience womb envy or hold negative attitudes towards mothering and caregiving.
Additionally, women may also experience envy or resentment towards men for their social and economic advantages, and may experience pressure to conform to gendered expectations of motherhood and caregiving.
Overall, understanding the concept of womb envy can shed light on the ways in which gendered power dynamics can shape attitudes towards reproductive rights and mothering. BPCG 176 Solved Free Assignment 2023
By acknowledging and addressing these dynamics, we can work towards a more equitable and inclusive society where all individuals have the freedom to make choices about their reproductive health and family life.
Q 9. Legal recognition of gender and sexual identity
Ans. Legal recognition of gender and sexual identity refers to the legal recognition of an individual’s gender identity and sexual orientation by the government and other legal institutions.
This recognition is important for the protection of the rights and well-being of individuals who identify as LGBTQ+.
In many countries, legal recognition of gender and sexual identity is limited or nonexistent, which can result in discrimination, violence, and other forms of harm.
For example, individuals who are not legally recognized as their true gender may be denied access to healthcare, employment, education, and other basic rights and services. BPCG 176 Solved Free Assignment 2023
They may also face harassment, violence, and other forms of mistreatment due to their gender identity or sexual orientation.
Some countries have taken steps to address these issues by introducing laws and policies that recognize and protect the rights of LGBTQ+ individuals.
For example, many countries have passed laws that allow individuals to legally change their gender on official documents, such as passports and driver’s licenses.
This allows individuals to have legal recognition of their gender identity and reduces the risk of discrimination and mistreatment.
Similarly, some countries have passed laws that protect individuals from discrimination based on their sexual orientation or gender identity.
These laws can help ensure that LGBTQ+ individuals have equal access to employment, education, healthcare, and other services.
Some countries have also legalized same-sex marriage, allowing individuals to marry and have their relationships legally recognized.
However, there is still much work to be done to ensure that all individuals have legal recognition and protection of their gender and sexual identity.
Many countries still have laws that discriminate against LGBTQ+ individuals or fail to protect their rights. Additionally, legal recognition is just one aspect of creating a more inclusive and accepting society for LGBTQ+ individuals.
Education, social awareness, and cultural change are also important in promoting equality and reducing discrimination and prejudice.
Q 10. Feminism and Ecofeminism
Ans. Feminism is a social and political movement that seeks to achieve equality between genders and eliminate gender-based discrimination and oppression.
Ecofeminism is a specific branch of feminism that focuses on the connections between the oppression of women and the destruction of the environment.
Ecofeminism argues that the exploitation and degradation of nature are connected to the oppression and subordination of women.
It contends that patriarchal values and structures have contributed to the exploitation of both women and nature, and that these forms of oppression are interconnected.BPCG 176 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Ecofeminists argue that the Western capitalist system is based on the exploitation of resources, including natural resources and women’s labor.
The system encourages the exploitation of both women and nature for profit, leading to environmental degradation, climate change, and gender-based oppression.
Ecofeminism emphasizes the need for an alternative, more sustainable, and equitable system that recognizes the value of nature and women’s work.
It advocates for an approach to environmentalism that acknowledges the interdependence of humans and nature, and recognizes the importance of diverse knowledge systems, including traditional ecological knowledge.
Feminism and ecofeminism are closely related because they share a focus on issues of power, oppression, and inequality.
Both movements seek to challenge and transform the systems and structures that perpetuate gender-based discrimination and exploitation.
Overall, ecofeminism highlights the ways in which environmental issues and gender-based oppression are interconnected, and emphasizes the importance of addressing both issues in tandem to achieve a more just and sustainable world.