PSYCHOLOGY AND MEDIA
BPCG 174 Solved Free Assignment 2023
BPCG 174 Solved Free Assignment January 2023
Q 1. Explain the relationship between psychology and media. Discuss the role of media psychologist.
Ans. Psychology and media have a complex and interconnected relationship. Media, whether it’s traditional or new media, has a significant impact on our thoughts, emotions, and behaviors, and psychologists have long been interested in studying the effects of media on individuals and society.
In turn, media has become a vital tool for disseminating psychological knowledge and interventions to the wider public.
Media can have both positive and negative effects on individuals and society. On the positive side, media can be used to educate and inform individuals about psychological issues and interventions.
For example, social media platforms like Twitter and Facebook can be used to disseminate information about mental health resources and to provide a forum for individuals to share their experiences and seek support from others.
Media can also be used to increase public awareness and reduce stigma around mental health issues.
TV shows and movies that accurately depict mental health issues and treatment can help reduce stigma and promote understanding of psychological issues.
Conversely, media that sensationalizes or stigmatizes mental health issues can exacerbate stigma and contribute to negative stereotypes.
Media can also have negative effects on mental health. For example, exposure to violent or sexual content in media has been linked to increased aggression, anxiety, and depression. BPCG 174 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Social media use has been linked to increased feelings of loneliness and decreased self-esteem, particularly among young people.
Given the potential impact of media on mental health, the field of media psychology has emerged as a specialization within psychology.
Media psychologists study the effects of media on individuals and society and develop interventions to mitigate negative effects and enhance positive effects.
They also work with media professionals to promote accurate and responsible depictions of mental health issues in media.
The role of media psychologist is multifaceted. Media psychologists can work in a variety of settings, including academia, government, and industry.
In academia, media psychologists conduct research on the effects of media on individuals and society and develop theories to explain these effects.
They may also teach courses on media psychology and mentor students interested in the field.BPCG 174 Solved Free Assignment 2023
In government, media psychologists may work with policymakers to develop guidelines and regulations around media content.
For example, they may advise regulators on age-appropriate content ratings for movies and TV shows, or on guidelines for responsible reporting on suicide.
In industry, media psychologists may work with media producers to develop content that accurately depicts psychological issues and interventions.
They may also consult with media companies on the design and implementation of media interventions to promote positive mental health outcomes.
One area of media psychology that has received increasing attention in recent years is digital mental health.
With the rise of digital technologies, including mobile apps, online interventions, and virtual reality, media psychologists are exploring new ways to deliver psychological interventions and promote mental health.
For example, online therapy has become an increasingly popular alternative to traditional in-person therapy, and virtual reality has been used to treat phobias and anxiety disorders.
The field of media psychology encompasses a wide range of topics and issues. One area of research is media literacy, which refers to the ability to access, evaluate, and use media effectively. BPCG 174 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Media literacy is becoming increasingly important in the digital age, as individuals are exposed to a vast amount of information and media content on a daily basis.
Media psychologists study the factors that influence media literacy, such as age, education, and cultural background, and develop interventions to promote media literacy and critical thinking skills.
Another area of research in media psychology is the effects of advertising on individuals and society.
Advertising can be a powerful tool for influencing consumer behavior and promoting products, but it can also contribute to negative stereotypes and body image issues.
Media psychologists study the effects of advertising on attitudes and behaviors, and develop interventions to promote healthy body image and reduce the impact of negative advertising messages.
Media psychology also encompasses the study of virtual communities and social networks. BPCG 174 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Social media platforms like Facebook and Twitter have become important tools for social interaction and communication, but they can also have negative effects on mental health and social relationships.
Media psychologists study the factors that contribute to the formation and maintenance of virtual communities, as well as the effects of social media use on mental health and wellbeing.
One area of research in media psychology that has received increasing attention in recent years is cyberbullying.
Cyberbullying refers to the use of digital technologies to harass or intimidate others, and it can have serious consequences for mental health and wellbeing.
Media psychologists study the factors that contribute to cyberbullying, as well as the effects of cyberbullying on victims and perpetrators. They also develop interventions to prevent and mitigate the negative effects of cyberbullying.
Media psychology also encompasses the study of media use in the workplace. Digital technologies have transformed the way we work and communicate, and media psychologists study the effects of digital technologies on job performance, job satisfaction, and work-life balance.
They also develop interventions to promote healthy media use in the workplace and to reduce the negative effects of media use on job performance and wellbeing.
Finally, media psychology encompasses the study of media interventions for promoting positive mental health outcomes.
Digital technologies can be used to deliver psychological interventions and support to individuals with mental health issues, and media psychologists are exploring new ways to use digital technologies to improve mental health outcomes.
For example, online therapy, mobile apps, and virtual reality have all been used to deliver psychological interventions and support to individuals with mental health issues.BPCG 174 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Q 2. Elucidate the characteristics of a parasocial relationship. Discuss the factors affecting parasocial relationship.
Ans. A parasocial relationship is a one-sided relationship where an individual feels a strong sense of attachment and intimacy towards a media figure, such as a celebrity, athlete, or fictional character, while the other party is unaware of the existence of the relationship.
These relationships are common in today’s media-saturated society and can provide individuals with feelings of companionship, support, and entertainment. The characteristics of parasocial relationships include:
Unidirectional: The relationship is one-sided and the individual has a sense of intimacy with the media figure, but the media figure is unaware of their existence.
Illusory: The relationship is based on a perceived sense of intimacy and familiarity rather than actual interaction with the media figure.
Intense: The relationship can be emotionally intense, with the individual feeling a strong sense of attachment to the media figure.
Pseudo-friendship: The relationship can mimic the characteristics of a friendship or romantic relationship, with the individual feeling a sense of connection and loyalty to the media figure.BPCG 174 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Long-lasting: The relationship can persist over time, with the individual maintaining a strong attachment to the media figure even after they are no longer in the public eye.
There are several factors that can influence the development and intensity of parasocial relationships. These include:
Media Exposure: The more exposure an individual has to a media figure, the more likely they are to develop a parasocial relationship.
Personal Characteristics: Individuals with low self-esteem, social anxiety, and loneliness may be more likely to form parasocial relationships as a way to fulfill their social and emotional needs.
Shared Traits: Individuals may form parasocial relationships with media figures who share similar characteristics or experiences as themselves, such as race, gender, or life experiences.
Attachment Style: Individuals with insecure attachment styles may be more likely to form parasocial relationships as a way to fulfill their attachment needs.
Perceived Similarity: Individuals may form parasocial relationships with media figures who they perceive to be similar to themselves in terms of personality, interests, or values.
Emotional Appeal: Media figures who evoke strong emotional responses, such as admiration, empathy, or sympathy, are more likely to form parasocial relationships.
Fan Culture: Being part of a fan community or culture can increase the likelihood of forming parasocial relationships as individuals may feel a sense of belonging and connection with others who share their interest in a media figure.
Parasocial relationships have become increasingly prevalent in today’s society due to the widespread availability of media and the rise of social media platforms.
Social media platforms allow individuals to follow and interact with media figures in a way that was previously impossible, increasing the potential for the development of parasocial relationships. BPCG 174 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Additionally, the entertainment industry has become more focused on creating relatable and likable characters that viewers can easily form attachments to.
While parasocial relationships can be harmless and even beneficial for some individuals, they can also have negative consequences.
For example, individuals may become overly invested in the lives of media figures and may experience feelings of jealousy, envy, or disappointment when their expectations are not met.
This can lead to emotional distress and social isolation if individuals withdraw from their real-life relationships to focus on their parasocial relationships.
Media psychologists play an important role in understanding and managing parasocial relationships.
They can develop interventions and strategies to help individuals form healthy relationships with media figures and reduce the potential negative consequences of parasocial relationships. BPCG 174 Solved Free Assignment 2023
For example, media psychologists may develop media literacy programs to help individuals understand the nature of parasocial relationships and the potential risks associated with them.
They may also work with media professionals to create more responsible and ethical media content that promotes healthy media consumption.
Furthermore, media psychologists can provide support and guidance for individuals who are struggling with the negative consequences of parasocial relationships.
This may involve counseling individuals who have become overly invested in their parasocial relationships and helping them to develop more realistic expectations and healthier coping strategies.
Media psychologists can also provide support for individuals who are experiencing social isolation or loneliness as a result of their parasocial relationships.
Q 3. Define media. Explain the significance and functions of media.
Ans. Media refers to the various communication channels that transmit information, entertainment, and news to a wide audience.
It includes traditional media such as print, broadcast, and film, as well as digital media such as social media, websites, and online news sources.
The significance of media lies in its ability to connect people and provide them with access to a vast amount of information and entertainment. Media serves several important functions in modern society:
Informing: One of the primary functions of media is to provide people with news and information about current events, politics, science, and other topics of interest.
This allows individuals to stay informed about the world around them and make informed decisions.BPCG 174 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Educating: Media can also serve as an educational tool, providing people with information about history, science, and other topics.
Educational media can be particularly valuable for individuals who have limited access to traditional educational resources.
Entertaining: Media provides entertainment in the form of movies, television shows, music, and other types of content.
This entertainment can provide a much-needed escape from the stresses of daily life and bring people together through shared cultural experiences.
Socializing: Social media platforms and other forms of digital media provide a way for people to connect with others, share ideas and experiences, and build relationships with individuals who share their interests.
Influencing: Media has the ability to influence public opinion and shape cultural norms. Advertising, for example, can shape consumer behavior and influence public perceptions of products and services.
Advocating: Media can also serve as a tool for advocacy, allowing individuals and organizations to raise awareness about social and political issues and advocate for change.BPCG 174 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Overall, media plays a vital role in modern society by providing individuals with access to information, education, entertainment, and social connection.
Its ability to shape cultural norms and influence public opinion means that media has significant power and responsibility in shaping the world we live in.
Q 4. Explain the theory of Social Constructionism and differentiate it from Symbolicv Interactionism.
Ans. Social constructionism is a theory that argues that reality is not objectively determined, but rather is constructed through social processes and interactions.
According to social constructionists, individuals and groups create and maintain shared meanings, beliefs, and values through communication and social interactions.
These shared meanings and beliefs then shape social reality and influence how individuals understand and interact with the world around them.
One of the key assumptions of social constructionism is that language plays a central role in shaping social reality.
Language allows individuals to create and communicate shared meanings and beliefs, and these meanings and beliefs then become embedded in social institutions and practices.
For example, the meanings attached to gender and race are socially constructed, with social norms and expectations shaping how individuals understand and express their gender and racial identities.
Social constructionism differs from symbolic interactionism, another prominent theory in sociology and social psychology. Symbolic interactionism emphasizes the role of symbols and interactions in shaping social reality.
According to symbolic interactionists, individuals use symbols to communicate meaning and construct social reality through their interactions with others.
For example, a smile can be used as a symbol to communicate happiness or friendliness, and the meaning of that smile is constructed through the interaction between the individuals involved.
While social constructionism and symbolic interactionism share some similarities, such as the emphasis on social interactions and the importance of symbols in shaping social reality, there are also some key differences between the two theories.
One of the main differences is that social constructionism places a greater emphasis on the role of power and social structures in shaping social reality.
Social constructionists argue that social structures and institutions shape the meanings and beliefs that individuals hold, and that these meanings and beliefs are often used to reinforce social inequality and maintain the status quo.
For example, social constructionists might argue that gender roles are constructed in a way that reinforces patriarchal power structures, with women being assigned roles that are subordinate to men.BPCG 174 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Symbolic interactionism, on the other hand, tends to focus more on the micro-level interactions between individuals and how these interactions shape social reality.
Symbolic interactionists are interested in how individuals interpret symbols and meanings, and how these interpretations are negotiated and constructed through social interactions.
While symbolic interactionists do recognize the influence of social structures and power, they tend to focus more on the individual-level processes that shape social reality.
Another difference between the two theories is their approach to language. Social constructionism emphasizes the role of language in shaping social reality, arguing that language creates and reinforces social norms and values.
Symbolic interactionism also recognizes the importance of language in shaping social reality, but focuses more on the meaning-making processes that occur during interpersonal interactions.BPCG 174 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Q 5. Describe the role of media in development of education.
Ans. Media plays a crucial role in the development of education by providing access to information and resources that support learning and skill development.
With the proliferation of digital media and communication technologies, the role of media in education has become more important than ever before.
One of the primary ways that media supports education is by providing access to information and knowledge.
Digital media platforms and online resources provide students and educators with access to a vast amount of information on a wide range of topics.
This information can be accessed from anywhere, at any time, making it easier for students to learn and for educators to provide instructional materials.
Media can also support education by providing opportunities for collaborative learning and communication. BPCG 174 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Social media platforms and online forums allow students and educators to connect with one another, share ideas, and collaborate on projects.
This collaboration can help to enhance student learning, foster creativity, and build a sense of community within educational settings.
Another way that media supports education is by providing engaging and interactive learning experiences.
Educational games, simulations, and interactive videos can help to make learning more fun and engaging, which can increase student motivation and interest in learning.
Media can also support the development of digital literacy skills, which are essential for success in today’s digital age.
By using media in educational settings, students can learn how to navigate and use various digital platforms and tools, which can help them to become more confident and capable digital citizens.
Media can also support access to education for individuals who might otherwise face barriers to learning. BPCG 174 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Online courses and digital resources can be accessed from anywhere in the world, making education more accessible for people who live in remote or under-resourced areas.
Additionally, media can provide support for learners with disabilities, such as through the use of assistive technologies that make it easier for them to access and engage with educational materials.
Finally, media can support the development of critical thinking and media literacy skills, which are essential for navigating the complex information landscape of today’s world.
By using media in educational settings, students can learn how to evaluate and analyze information from various sources, which can help them to make informed decisions and avoid being misled by false or misleading information.
Q 6. News framing
Ans. News framing is the process by which news media organizations present and interpret news stories to the public.
This can involve selecting certain aspects of a story to emphasize, using certain language or visuals to convey a particular message, and presenting the story in a particular context or perspective.
The way a story is framed can have a significant impact on how it is perceived by the audience.BPCG 174 Solved Free Assignment 2023
There are various types of news frames that media organizations can use. One common type is the “episodic” frame, which focuses on specific events or individuals and tends to present issues in a more individualistic and personal way.
In contrast, the “thematic” frame emphasizes broader social issues and systemic problems, and tends to present issues in a more collective and structural way.
These frames can have different implications for how audiences perceive the issues being presented.
Another important aspect of news framing is the use of language and imagery. Media organizations may use certain words, phrases, or visual elements to convey a particular message or influence the audience’s perception of the story.
For example, using words like “crisis” or “emergency” can create a sense of urgency and importance around a story, while using words like “minor” or “isolated” can downplay the significance of a particular event.
The way a news story is presented can also be influenced by various factors, including the media organization’s own biases and perspectives, the preferences of their audience, and external pressures such as government regulations or advertiser preferences.
For example, a news organization that caters to a particular political ideology may present stories in a way that is more aligned with their audience’s beliefs.
News framing can have a significant impact on how people perceive and respond to issues in society. BPCG 174 Solved Free Assignment 2023
It can shape the public’s understanding of social problems, influence their opinions on policy issues, and even affect their behavior.
For example, the way media organizations have framed climate change in the past has been shown to impact public perceptions and support for environmental policies.
Q 7. Classification of cybercrime
Ans. Cybercrime is a type of criminal activity that involves the use of computers, networks, or other electronic devices to commit a crime.
Cybercrime can take many forms and can be classified into different categories based on the nature of the crime.
Here are some common categories of cybercrime:
Hacking: Hacking involves gaining unauthorized access to computer systems or networks in order to steal, manipulate or damage data.
It can include activities such as stealing passwords, installing malware, or exploiting security vulnerabilities in software or networks.
Identity theft: Identity theft occurs when someone steals personal information, such as social security numbers or credit card numbers, and uses it to commit fraud or other criminal activities. BPCG 174 Solved Free Assignment 2023
This can include creating false identities or using someone else’s identity to make fraudulent purchases or access sensitive information.
Phishing: Phishing involves using fake emails, messages, or websites to trick people into revealing sensitive information or downloading malware.
This can include emails that appear to be from a legitimate company or website, but are actually designed to steal information.
Cyberbullying: Cyberbullying involves using digital technologies to harass, intimidate, or harm someone.
This can include spreading rumors or lies online, posting hurtful comments or images, or creating fake profiles to harass someone.
Online fraud: Online fraud involves using the internet to deceive someone for financial gain.
This can include scams such as “Nigerian prince” scams, fake lottery scams, or fake websites that claim to sell goods or services.
Child exploitation: Child exploitation involves using the internet to exploit or harm children, including activities such as online grooming, child pornography, or luring children into dangerous situations.
Cyberstalking: Cyberstalking involves using digital technologies to harass or intimidate someone, including activities such as following someone online, sending threatening messages, or monitoring someone’s online activity.
Denial of service attacks: Denial of service attacks involve flooding a network or website with traffic in order to overwhelm the system and make it unavailable to users. BPCG 174 Solved Free Assignment 2023
This can be used to disrupt business operations or to extort money from companies.
Q 8. Media and well-being
Ans. Media can have both positive and negative effects on an individual’s well-being. Here are some ways that media can impact well-being:
Positive effects of media on well-being:
Entertainment and relaxation: Watching movies, listening to music, or playing video games can provide a source of relaxation and enjoyment, which can contribute to positive emotions and overall well-being.
Social connection: Social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram can provide a way for individuals to connect with others and build social support networks, which can promote well-being.
Education and learning: Media can provide a platform for individuals to learn and gain knowledge, which can contribute to personal growth and self-efficacy.
Positive role models: Media can provide positive role models for individuals to emulate, which can promote positive behaviors and attitudes.
Negative effects of media on well-being:
Exposure to violence: Exposure to violent or disturbing media content, such as news stories or movies, can lead to increased anxiety and negative emotions.
Social comparison: Social media can create feelings of inadequacy or low self-esteem through constant social comparisons with others.
Addiction: Overuse of media, such as excessive gaming or social media use, can lead to addiction and negative consequences on mental health and well-being.
Disinformation and fake news: Exposure to fake news or disinformation can lead to feelings of confusion, distrust, and anxiety.
Q 9. Health education and mass media
Ans. Mass media can play a significant role in health education by providing a platform to disseminate important health information to a large audience.
Here are some ways that mass media can be used to promote health education:
Awareness campaigns: Mass media can be used to raise awareness about health issues and encourage individuals to adopt healthy behaviors.
For example, public service announcements on television, radio, or social media can be used to promote healthy lifestyle choices, such as quitting smoking or increasing physical activity.BPCG 174 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Information dissemination: Mass media can be used to disseminate information about diseases, treatments, and prevention strategies to a large audience.
For example, news stories or articles can provide information about the latest research findings or breakthroughs in medical treatments.
Health promotion programs: Mass media can be used to promote health education programs or initiatives. For example, television shows or podcasts can be created to promote healthy eating habits or physical activity.
Behavioral interventions: Mass media can be used to deliver targeted interventions aimed at changing health behaviors.
For example, mobile health apps or text messaging campaigns can be used to encourage individuals to adopt healthy behaviors, such as taking medication or engaging in regular exercise.
Community engagement: Mass media can be used to engage communities in health education initiatives.
For example, community-based radio stations can be used to promote health education and encourage community participation in health promotion activities.
Q 10. Gaming addiction
Ans. Gaming addiction, also known as Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD), is a condition where individuals experience persistent and recurrent gaming-related behavior patterns that lead to significant impairment or distress.
Here are some characteristics and consequences of gaming addiction:
Preoccupation with gaming: Individuals with gaming addiction often have a strong preoccupation with gaming, spending a significant amount of time thinking about and engaging in gaming activities.BPCG 174 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Loss of control: Individuals with gaming addiction often struggle to control their gaming behavior, spending more time gaming than they intended and neglecting other responsibilities and activities.
Withdrawal symptoms: When unable to engage in gaming activities, individuals with gaming addiction may experience withdrawal symptoms such as anxiety, irritability, or restlessness.
Negative consequences: Gaming addiction can lead to negative consequences in multiple areas of life, such as academic or work performance, social relationships, and physical health.
Escalation: Individuals with gaming addiction may escalate their gaming behavior over time, requiring more time and resources to satisfy their cravings.
Interference with daily life: Gaming addiction can interfere with daily activities such as work, school, and personal relationships, leading to negative consequences.
Continued use despite negative consequences: Despite experiencing negative consequences, individuals with gaming addiction continue to engage in gaming activities.BPCG 174 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Treatment for gaming addiction may include cognitive-behavioral therapy, motivational interviewing, or other forms of psychotherapy. In severe cases, medication may also be prescribed.
It is important for individuals struggling with gaming addiction to seek professional help and support from family and friends.
Prevention strategies such as setting limits on gaming time and engaging in alternative activities can also be effective in reducing the risk of gaming addiction.