BPCC 102 Solved Free Assignment 2023
BPCC 102 Solved Free Assignment January 2023
Q 1. Define hormone. Explain the structure and functioning of pituitary gland. Support your answer with a suitable diagram.
Ans. Hormones are biochemical messengers secreted by endocrine glands in the body. They regulate various physiological processes such as growth and development, metabolism, and reproduction.
One of the most important endocrine glands in the body is the pituitary gland.
What is a hormone?
A hormone is a chemical messenger produced by endocrine glands in the body. Hormones are secreted directly into the bloodstream, where they travel to their target cells and organs.
Once they reach their target cells, hormones bind to specific receptors, triggering a response in the cells.
Hormones regulate a wide range of physiological processes, including growth and development, metabolism, and reproduction.
Structure of the Pituitary Gland:
The pituitary gland is a small, pea-sized gland located at the base of the brain. It is divided into two distinct lobes: the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis) and the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis).
The anterior lobe of the pituitary gland is the larger of the two lobes and is responsible for secreting several hormones, including growth hormone, prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone.
The anterior pituitary gland is controlled by hormones released from the hypothalamus in the brain.
The posterior lobe of the pituitary gland is responsible for secreting two hormones: oxytocin and vasopressin. BPCC 102 Solved Free Assignment 2023
These hormones are synthesized in the hypothalamus and transported to the posterior pituitary gland for storage and release.
Functioning of the Pituitary Gland:
The pituitary gland plays a crucial role in regulating various physiological processes in the body. Let’s look at the hormones secreted by the pituitary gland and their functions.
Growth hormone is secreted by the anterior pituitary gland and is responsible for regulating growth and development in the body. It stimulates the growth of bones and muscles and promotes the production of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1).
IGF-1 promotes cell growth and division and is essential for tissue repair and regeneration.BPCC 102 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Prolactin is secreted by the anterior pituitary gland and is responsible for stimulating milk production in the breasts during lactation. It also plays a role in regulating the immune system and metabolism.
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is secreted by the anterior pituitary gland and is responsible for regulating the thyroid gland’s function.
TSH stimulates the thyroid gland to produce and secrete thyroid hormones, which are essential for regulating metabolism.
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is secreted by the anterior pituitary gland and is responsible for regulating the adrenal gland’s function.
ACTH stimulates the adrenal gland to produce and secrete cortisol, a hormone that regulates stress response and metabolism.
Follicle-Stimulating Hormone and Luteinizing Hormone:
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) are secreted by the anterior pituitary gland and are responsible for regulating reproductive function in males and females. BPCC 102 Solved Free Assignment 2023
In females, FSH and LH stimulate the growth and development of ovarian follicles and promote ovulation. In males, FSH and LH stimulate the production of sperm in the testes.
Oxytocin is secreted by the posterior pituitary gland and is responsible for regulating uterine contractions during childbirth and stimulating milk letdown during breastfeeding.
It also plays a role in social bonding and attachment, promoting feelings of trust and intimacy.
Vasopressin, also known as antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is secreted by the posterior pituitary gland and is responsible for regulating water balance in the body.
It acts on the kidneys to promote water reabsorption and reduce urine output, helping to maintain hydration and electrolyte balance.
Regulation of Pituitary Hormones:
The pituitary gland is controlled by hormones released from the hypothalamus in the brain. The hypothalamus produces several releasing hormones that stimulate or inhibit pituitary hormone secretion.BPCC 102 Solved Free Assignment 2023
For example, growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) stimulates the secretion of growth hormone, while somatostatin inhibits its secretion.
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulates the secretion of TSH, while dopamine inhibits its secretion.
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulates the secretion of FSH and LH, while prolactin-inhibiting hormone (PIH) inhibits the secretion of prolactin.
Diagram of the Pituitary Gland:
Student Make Themselves Using Google
Diseases and Disorders Related to the Pituitary Gland:
There are several diseases and disorders that can affect the functioning of the pituitary gland. One common disorder is a pituitary adenoma, which is a noncancerous tumor that grows on the pituitary gland.
Depending on the location and size of the tumor, it can affect the production and secretion of one or more hormones.
Symptoms can include headaches, vision problems, fatigue, and menstrual irregularities.BPCC 102 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Another disorder related to the pituitary gland is acromegaly, which is caused by the excessive production of growth hormone in adulthood.
This can lead to abnormal growth of bones and tissues, as well as other symptoms such as enlarged hands and feet, joint pain, and sleep apnea.
Hypopituitarism is a condition in which the pituitary gland does not produce enough hormones.
This can be caused by damage to the gland, a tumor, or a genetic disorder. Symptoms can include fatigue, weight loss, low blood pressure, and decreased libido.
In addition to these disorders, there are also several hormonal imbalances that can be caused by dysfunction of the pituitary gland.
For example, hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism can both be caused by abnormalities in the production and secretion of TSH.
Treatment of Pituitary Disorders:
The treatment of pituitary disorders depends on the specific disorder and the underlying cause. For example, pituitary adenomas may require surgical removal, radiation therapy, or medication to reduce the size of the tumor.
Hormone replacement therapy may also be necessary for individuals with hypopituitarism.BPCC 102 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Q 2. Describe the functioning of forebrain. Illustrate the lateral view of human brain.
Ans. The forebrain is the largest and most complex part of the brain, and is responsible for a wide range of functions including perception, movement, thought, and emotion.
It is composed of several structures, including the cerebral cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus, and limbic system.
The cerebral cortex is the outermost layer of the forebrain and is responsible for higher cognitive functions such as language, memory, perception, and consciousness.
It is divided into two hemispheres, each of which is further divided into four lobes: the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, temporal lobe, and occipital lobe.
The frontal lobe is located at the front of the brain and is responsible for planning, decision-making, and motor control. BPCC 102 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The parietal lobe is located at the top of the brain and is responsible for sensory processing, including touch, taste, and temperature.
The temporal lobe is located on the sides of the brain and is responsible for processing auditory information and memory.
The occipital lobe is located at the back of the brain and is responsible for visual processing.
The thalamus is a structure located in the center of the forebrain that serves as a relay station for sensory information.
It receives input from the senses and relays that information to the appropriate regions of the cerebral cortex for further processing. It also plays a role in regulating sleep and consciousness.
The hypothalamus is a small structure located below the thalamus that plays a crucial role in regulating various bodily functions, including hunger, thirst, body temperature, and sleep-wake cycles. It also controls the release of hormones from the pituitary gland.BPCC 102 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The limbic system is a group of structures located in the middle of the brain that is involved in emotion, motivation, and memory. It includes the amygdala, hippocampus, and cingulate gyrus.
The amygdala is responsible for processing and regulating emotions, particularly fear and aggression.
The hippocampus is involved in the formation and consolidation of memories, particularly long-term memory. The cingulate gyrus is involved in attention, emotion, and decision-making.
Lateral View of the Human Brain:
The following diagram shows a lateral view of the human brain, with the cerebral cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus, and limbic system highlighted.
Lateral view of the human brain
The lateral view of the human brain shows the two cerebral hemispheres, the left and the right, which are separated by a deep groove called the longitudinal fissure.
The cerebral hemispheres are the largest and most highly developed part of the brain and are responsible for a variety of functions, including consciousness, perception, thought, and memory.
On the lateral view, the cerebral hemispheres are further divided into lobes: the frontal lobe, the parietal lobe, the temporal lobe, and the occipital lobe.
The frontal lobe is located at the front of the brain and is responsible for controlling movement, as well as cognitive processes such as decision-making and problem-solving. BPCC 102 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The parietal lobe is located towards the top and back of the brain and is responsible for processing sensory information from the body.
The temporal lobe is located towards the bottom and side of the brain and is responsible for processing auditory information and language comprehension.
The occipital lobe is located at the back of the brain and is responsible for processing visual information.
Diseases and Disorders Related to the Forebrain:
The forebrain is susceptible to a wide range of diseases and disorders, many of which can have a significant impact on an individual’s quality of life.
For example, dementia is a common disorder that affects the ability to think, reason, and remember. Alzheimer’s disease is a type of dementia that is characterized by the accumulation of protein deposits in the brain.
Other disorders that affect the forebrain include Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and multiple sclerosis. BPCC 102 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that affects movement, while Huntington’s disease is a genetic disorder that causes progressive brain damage and affects movement, cognition, and behavior.
Multiple sclerosis is a chronic autoimmune disorder that affects the myelin sheath that surrounds nerve fibers in the brain and spinal cord.
Treatment of Forebrain Disorders:
The treatment of forebrain disorders depends on the specific disorder and the underlying cause. In cases of dementia, medications may be prescribed to help slow the progression of the disease and manage symptoms.
In some cases, lifestyle changes such as exercise and a healthy diet may also be recommended.
Parkinson’s disease can be treated with medication, surgery, or a combination of both. BPCC 102 Solved Free Assignment 2023
In cases of Huntington’s disease, medications may be prescribed to manage symptoms such as mood swings and movement problems. There is currently no cure for Huntington’s disease.
In cases of multiple sclerosis, medications may be prescribed to manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. Lifestyle changes such as exercise, stress reduction, and a healthy diet may also be recommended.
Q 3. Amnesia
Ans.3 Amnesia is a condition characterized by partial or complete loss of memory. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including traumatic brain injury, stroke, alcoholism, certain medications, and neurological disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease and dementia.
There are several types of amnesia, including anterograde amnesia, which involves the inability to form new memories, and retrograde amnesia, which involves the loss of memories that were formed prior to the onset of the amnesia.
Treatment for amnesia depends on the underlying cause. In some cases, the condition may be reversible with treatment of the underlying condition, such as a brain injury or infection. BPCC 102 Solved Free Assignment 2023
In other cases, memory rehabilitation therapy may be recommended to help the individual re-learn lost information and improve memory function.
In addition to medical treatment, lifestyle changes such as a healthy diet and regular exercise may be recommended to help maintain brain health and improve memory function.
Strategies such as keeping a journal, using reminders and calendars, and practicing memory exercises can also be helpful in managing amnesia.
It is important to note that while amnesia can be a frustrating and debilitating condition, many individuals are able to manage the symptoms and lead fulfilling lives with the help of medical treatment and lifestyle changes.
If you or someone you know is experiencing memory loss or other symptoms of amnesia, it is important to seek medical attention for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.BPCC 102 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Q 4. Cranial Nerves
Ans. 4. In addition to the cerebral hemispheres and lobes, the lateral view of the human brain also shows several cranial nerves.
Cranial nerves are nerves that originate from the brainstem and are responsible for controlling sensory and motor functions in the head and neck.
There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves, each with its own specific function. Some of the most notable cranial nerves visible on the lateral view of the brain include:
The olfactory nerve (I): This nerve is responsible for the sense of smell and originates in the olfactory bulbs located in the frontal lobe of the brain.
The optic nerve (II): This nerve is responsible for vision and originates in the back of the eye, where it receives visual information and transmits it to the brain.
The oculomotor nerve (III), trochlear nerve (IV), and abducens nerve (VI): These three nerves are responsible for controlling eye movement and are involved in eye movement, pupil dilation, and focusing.
The trigeminal nerve (V): This nerve is responsible for sensation in the face and controls the muscles involved in chewing.
The facial nerve (VII): This nerve controls facial expressions and also plays a role in taste sensation.BPCC 102 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII): This nerve is responsible for hearing and balance and is involved in detecting sound and maintaining equilibrium.
The glossopharyngeal nerve (IX) and vagus nerve (X): These nerves are responsible for taste sensation, swallowing, and controlling the muscles of the throat.
The accessory nerve (XI): This nerve controls the muscles involved in head and neck movement.
The hypoglossal nerve (XII): This nerve controls the muscles involved in tongue movement.
Together, these cranial nerves play a vital role in controlling sensory and motor functions in the head and neck and are essential for maintaining overall health and wellbeing.
Q 5. Babinski Reflex
Ans 5. The Babinski reflex is a neurological reflex that is commonly used as a diagnostic tool to test for dysfunction in the central nervous system.
The reflex is named after the French neurologist Joseph Babinski, who first described it in 1896.BPCC 102 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The Babinski reflex is elicited by stroking the sole of the foot with a blunt instrument, such as a tongue depressor. In a normal response, the toes will curl downwards, towards the sole of the foot.
However, in individuals with certain neurological conditions, such as spinal cord injury, stroke, or multiple sclerosis, the reflex can be abnormal, causing the big toe to extend upwards and the other toes to fan out.
This abnormal response is known as the Babinski sign, and it indicates dysfunction in the corticospinal tract, which is a pathway that connects the brain to the spinal cord and is responsible for voluntary movement.
The Babinski sign is a common finding in conditions such as cerebral palsy, meningitis, and brain tumors.
The Babinski reflex is commonly used as a screening tool to assess for neurological dysfunction in infants and young children, as well as in adults who have suffered from a stroke or other neurological injury.
However, it is important to note that the Babinski reflex is not always present in individuals with neurological dysfunction, and its absence does not necessarily rule out the presence of a neurological condition.
Overall, the Babinski reflex is an important diagnostic tool that can provide valuable information about the functioning of the central nervous system.
If you are experiencing any neurological symptoms or have concerns about your neurological health, it is important to seek medical attention for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
Q 6. Hemispheric Specialization
Ans 6. Hemispheric specialization, also known as cerebral lateralization, is the concept that different functions are primarily processed in different hemispheres of the brain. BPCC 102 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The left hemisphere of the brain is typically associated with language processing, analytical thinking, and logical reasoning, while the right hemisphere is associated with spatial perception, creativity, and emotional processing.
However, it is important to note that the brain is highly complex and many functions involve both hemispheres working together.
One of the most well-known examples of hemispheric specialization is language processing.
In most people, the left hemisphere of the brain is dominant for language, and damage to this area can result in language difficulties such as aphasia.
Studies have also shown that certain tasks, such as mental arithmetic and logical reasoning, are typically performed more efficiently by the left hemisphere.
On the other hand, the right hemisphere is typically dominant for spatial processing, such as the ability to perceive and manipulate objects in space.
Studies have also shown that the right hemisphere is involved in the processing of emotional information, such as recognizing facial expressions and understanding emotional tone in speech.BPCC 102 Solved Free Assignment 2023
While hemispheric specialization is a well-established concept, it is important to note that not all individuals exhibit the same degree of lateralization, and there can be individual variability in the location of certain functions within the brain.
Additionally, some functions, such as memory and attention, involve both hemispheres and are not primarily lateralized to one side.
Overall, hemispheric specialization is an important concept in understanding the organization of the brain and the processing of various functions.
Ongoing research continues to explore the complexities of the brain and the various factors that influence lateralization.
Q 7. The Z Lens
Ans 7.The Z Lens is a term used to describe a theoretical lens that could revolutionize the field of optics.
Unlike traditional lenses, which are typically made up of curved glass or plastic, the Z Lens would be composed of a series of thin, flat sheets of material arranged in a specific pattern.BPCC 102 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The idea behind the Z Lens is based on the principles of metamaterials, which are materials engineered to have unique properties not found in nature.
Metamaterials can manipulate electromagnetic waves in ways that are not possible with conventional materials, making them an attractive area of research for scientists working on new optical technologies.
The Z Lens would be composed of a series of stacked sheets of metamaterials that are designed to bend and focus light in a way that mimics the function of a traditional lens.
However, because the Z Lens would not rely on curved surfaces, it would be much thinner and lighter than conventional lenses, potentially opening up new possibilities for applications such as smartphone cameras, medical imaging, and more.
One of the major challenges in developing the Z Lens is creating metamaterials with the precise properties needed to achieve the desired optical effects.
However, advances in nanotechnology and other areas of materials science are making this goal increasingly achievable.
While the Z Lens is still in the realm of theory and research, it has the potential to revolutionize the field of optics and open up new possibilities for a wide range of industries. BPCC 102 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Continued research and development in this area could eventually lead to the creation of thin, lightweight lenses that are more powerful and versatile than anything currently available.
Q 8. Importance of Synapse
Ans 8. Synapses are the tiny gaps between neurons where electrical and chemical signals are transmitted from one neuron to another.
They play a critical role in the functioning of the nervous system, and their importance cannot be overstated. Here are a few reasons why synapses are so important:
Information processing: The brain processes information by transmitting signals from one neuron to another through synapses.
This allows the brain to perform complex functions such as learning, memory, and decision-making.
Plasticity: Synapses play a key role in the brain’s ability to adapt and change in response to new experiences. This phenomenon, known as synaptic plasticity, is critical for learning and memory formation.
Development: During brain development, synapses are formed and eliminated in a highly regulated process that is essential for the proper wiring of the nervous system. BPCC 102 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Disruptions in this process can lead to developmental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia.
Neurotransmitter function: Synapses allow for the release and uptake of neurotransmitters, which are the chemicals that allow neurons to communicate with one another.
Imbalances in neurotransmitter function can contribute to a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders.
Disease: Many neurological disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and epilepsy, are associated with dysfunction at the synapse.
Understanding the mechanisms of synapse dysfunction in these disorders is critical for developing new treatments and therapies.
In summary, synapses are critically important for the proper functioning of the nervous system. They play a key role in information processing, plasticity, development, neurotransmitter function, and disease.
Continued research into the mechanisms of synapse function and dysfunction is essential for advancing our understanding of the brain and developing new treatments for neurological disorders.
Q 1. 1. Explain the role of neurotransmitters in the effect of black widow spider venom.
Ans. Black widow spiders are notorious for their venom, which can cause a range of symptoms in humans, including muscle pain, cramps, and spasms, as well as more severe symptoms such as respiratory failure and paralysis.
The venom of black widow spiders contains a number of different compounds, including a potent neurotoxin called alpha-latrotoxin, which is responsible for many of the symptoms associated with black widow spider envenomation.
Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that are released by neurons and travel across synapses to transmit signals to other neurons or to other types of cells such as muscles or glands. BPCC 102 Solved Free Assignment 2023
There are many different types of neurotransmitters, each with its own specific function in the nervous system.
Some of the most important neurotransmitters involved in muscle function include acetylcholine, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and glutamate.
When a nerve impulse reaches the end of a motor neuron, it triggers the release of acetylcholine into the synapse between the motor neuron and the muscle fiber.
The acetylcholine binds to receptors on the surface of the muscle fiber, triggering a series of biochemical events that ultimately result in muscle contraction.
GABA and glutamate, on the other hand, are primarily involved in regulating muscle tone and coordination.BPCC 102 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The venom of black widow spiders contains alpha-latrotoxin, which acts as a potent neurotoxin by disrupting the release of neurotransmitters from nerve terminals.
Alpha-latrotoxin works by binding to specific receptors on the surface of nerve terminals, causing an influx of calcium ions into the cell.
This influx of calcium triggers the release of large amounts of neurotransmitters into the synapse, leading to overstimulation of the postsynaptic neurons.
In the case of black widow spider envenomation, this overstimulation can lead to the release of massive amounts of acetylcholine, which can cause muscle fibers to contract uncontrollably.
This can result in muscle cramps, spasms, and pain, as well as more severe symptoms such as respiratory failure and paralysis.
The overstimulation of glutamate receptors may also contribute to the excitotoxicity observed in black widow spider envenomation.
The effects of black widow spider venom can be mitigated by administering antivenom, which contains antibodies that bind to the venom and neutralize its effects. BPCC 102 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Antivenom works by binding to the venom molecules before they can bind to their target receptors, thereby preventing the overstimulation of nerve terminals and the subsequent release of neurotransmitters.
K. Ozkan, “Black widow spider bites: a case report and review of the literature,” Turkish Journal of Emergency Medicine, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 36-39, 2016.
M. Herzig and G. King, “Venomous animals: from venom to medicine,” Swiss Medical Weekly, vol. 149, pp. w14080, 2019.
Q 2. ‘Older adult brains can generate new cells.’ Is this a myth or a reality? Support your argument with case studies and evidence.
Ans. The idea that the older adult brain cannot generate new cells has been a long-standing myth. However, recent research has shown that the adult brain has the ability to generate new cells, a process known as neurogenesis.
While the rate of neurogenesis may decline with age, it is not completely absent in older adults. BPCC 102 Solved Free Assignment 2023
One study conducted by Dr. Peter Eriksson and his colleagues found that new neurons could be generated in the brains of older adults.
They conducted their research by studying post-mortem brain tissue from healthy individuals ranging from 19 to 92 years of age.
The researchers found that there were new neurons present in the dentate gyrus, an area of the brain involved in memory processing, in all the brains examined, including those of the older adults.
This study suggests that the decline in cognitive function that often accompanies aging may not be due to an inability to generate new cells but rather due to other factors, such as the loss of existing neurons.
Another study conducted by Dr. Fred Gage and his team demonstrated that exercise can enhance neurogenesis in the adult brain.
They found that exercise increased the production of a protein called brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which is known to promote the growth and survival of new neurons. BPCC 102 Solved Free Assignment 2023
In addition, they found that exercise increased the number of new neurons in the hippocampus, an area of the brain involved in memory processing, in mice of all ages, including older mice.
This study suggests that lifestyle factors, such as exercise, may be able to enhance neurogenesis in older adults.
Furthermore, research has shown that certain drugs can enhance neurogenesis in the adult brain.
For example, a study conducted by Dr. Gerd Kempermann and his team found that the antidepressant drug fluoxetine (also known as Prozac) can increase the production of new neurons in the hippocampus of adult mice.
This study suggests that drugs may be able to enhance neurogenesis in older adults, which could be used to treat cognitive decline associated with aging.
There is also evidence to suggest that cognitive stimulation can enhance neurogenesis in the adult brain.
A study conducted by Dr. Elizabeth Gould and her colleagues found that rats that were housed in an enriched environment, with toys, tunnels, and other objects to stimulate cognitive activity, had more new neurons in the hippocampus compared to rats housed in a standard environment.
This study suggests that cognitive stimulation may be able to enhance neurogenesis in older adults, which could help to improve cognitive function.
While these studies provide evidence that older adult brains can generate new cells, it is important to note that the rate of neurogenesis may decline with age.
A study conducted by Dr. Orly Lazarov and her team found that the rate of neurogenesis in the hippocampus declines with age in mice.
However, they also found that the rate of decline was not uniform across all types of cells, and that certain types of cells, such as those involved in learning and memory, showed a slower decline in neurogenesis.
This suggests that while the rate of neurogenesis may decline with age, it may not be completely absent in older adults.BPCC 102 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Another study conducted by a team at Columbia University Medical Center in New York found that older adults who exercised regularly had increased hippocampal volume and higher levels of neural precursor cells than their sedentary counterparts.
The study involved a group of 80 older adults between the ages of 60 and 80 who were randomized to either engage in moderate physical exercise or participate in a stretching and toning program for a year.
MRI scans conducted at the beginning and end of the study showed that the group who exercised had increased hippocampal volume and higher levels of neural precursor cells.
The study provides further evidence that exercise can promote neurogenesis in the aging brain.
While the idea that older adult brains can generate new cells was once thought to be a myth, recent research suggests that it is indeed a reality.
The evidence presented in this paper suggests that neurogenesis can occur in older adults under certain conditions, including exercise, environmental enrichment, and antidepressant treatment. BPCC 102 Solved Free Assignment 2023
These findings have important implications for aging and brain health and suggest that interventions that promote neurogenesis could be beneficial for older adults.
Certainly. It is important to note that while the evidence presented in this paper suggests that neurogenesis can occur in older adults, the extent to which it occurs and its functional significance are still not fully understood.
Some studies have suggested that newly generated cells in the aging brain may not function as well as cells generated in younger individuals, which could limit the potential benefits of neurogenesis.
Additionally, the factors that regulate neurogenesis in the aging brain are not well understood and may vary from person to person.
Despite these uncertainties, there is growing interest in developing interventions that promote neurogenesis in older adults.
One approach is to develop drugs that specifically target neural precursor cells, which could stimulate the growth of new neurons in the aging brain.
Another approach is to identify environmental factors that promote neurogenesis, such as exercise or cognitive stimulation, and develop programs that encourage older adults to engage in these activities.
Eriksson PS, Perfilieva E, Björk-Eriksson T, Alborn AM, Nordborg C, Peterson DA, Gage FH. Neurogenesis in the adult human hippocampus. Nature Medicine. 1998 Nov;4(11):1313-7.BPCC 102 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Spalding KL, Bergmann O, Alkass K, Bernard S, Salehpour M, Huttner HB, Bostrom E, Westerlund I, Vial C, Buchholz BA, Possnert G. Dynamics of hippocampal neurogenesis in adult humans. Cell. 2013 Nov 7;153(6):1219-27.
Boldrini M, Fulmore CA, Tartt AN, Simeon LR, Pavlova I, Poposka V, Rosoklija GB, Stankov A, Arango V, Dwork AJ, Hen R. Human hippocampal neurogenesis persists throughout aging. Cell stem cell. 2018 Mar 1;22(4):589-99.
Erickson KI, Voss MW, Prakash RS, Basak C, Szabo A, Chaddock L, Kim JS, Heo S, Alves H, White SM, Wojcicki TR. Exercise training increases size of hippocampus and improves memory. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2011 Feb 15;108(7):3017-22.
van Praag H, Shubert T, Zhao C, Gage FH. Exercise enhances learning and hippocampal neurogenesis in aged mice. Journal of Neuroscience. 2005 Sep 28;25(38):8680-5.