PERSPECTIVES ON PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
BPAC 131 Solved Free Assignment 2023
BPAC 131 Solved Free Assignment January 2023
Q 1. Discuss the principles and characteristics of Scientific Management
Ans. Scientific Management, also known as Taylorism, is a management theory developed by Frederick Winslow Taylor in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It is a systematic approach to managing work processes that focuses on maximizing efficiency and productivity.
The theory is based on the principle that work can be scientifically studied and improved to increase efficiency and productivity.
Principles of Scientific Management:
Science, Not Rule of Thumb: According to Taylor, work processes should be based on scientific analysis and measurement rather than relying on traditional methods or common sense.
Harmony, Not Discord: Taylor believed that there should be a collaborative relationship between workers and managers.
Managers should work to ensure that workers are properly trained and equipped with the necessary tools and resources to carry out their tasks effectively.
Cooperation, Not Individualism: Taylor emphasized the importance of teamwork and cooperation in achieving organizational goals.
He believed that individualism and competition could be counterproductive and hinder organizational performance.
Development of Each Person to His or Her Greatest Efficiency and Prosperity: Taylor advocated for the development of individual skills and knowledge to increase efficiency and productivity.
He believed that employees should be trained in the best practices and techniques to perform their tasks efficiently.
Characteristics of Scientific Management:
Standardization: Scientific Management emphasizes standardization of work processes to minimize variability and increase efficiency.
This involves breaking down complex tasks into simpler, standardized tasks that can be easily taught and performed.
Division of Labor: Scientific Management emphasizes the division of labor to increase efficiency and productivity. This involves dividing complex tasks into smaller, simpler tasks that can be performed by specialized workers.
Time and Motion Studies: Scientific Management relies on time and motion studies to identify inefficiencies and improve work processes.
These studies involve analyzing each step of a work process to determine the most efficient way to perform each task.
Training and Development: Scientific Management emphasizes the importance of training and development to increase employee efficiency and productivity. Employees are trained in the best practices and techniques to perform their tasks efficiently.
Rewards and Incentives: Scientific Management emphasizes the use of rewards and incentives to motivate employees and increase productivity. Rewards may include monetary compensation, promotions, or recognition.
Overall, the principles and characteristics of Scientific Management emphasize the importance of scientific analysis and measurement in managing work processes.
It seeks to increase efficiency and productivity through standardization, division of labor, time and motion studies, training and development, and rewards and incentives.
While it has been criticized for being too mechanistic and dehumanizing, it has also had a significant impact on the development of modern management practices.
Advantages and disadvantages of Scientific Management
Advantages of Scientific Management:
Increased Efficiency and Productivity: The primary advantage of Scientific Management is increased efficiency and productivity.
By breaking down complex tasks into simpler, standardized tasks and analyzing each step of the work process, organizations can identify inefficiencies and improve work processes to increase output.
Standardization of Work Processes: Scientific Management emphasizes standardization of work processes, which minimizes variability and increases consistency. This reduces the risk of errors and increases the reliability of the work output.
Division of Labor: Scientific Management emphasizes the division of labor, which enables workers to specialize in specific tasks.
This increases efficiency and productivity as workers become more skilled and knowledgeable in their area of specialization.
Training and Development: Scientific Management emphasizes the importance of training and development to increase employee efficiency and productivity.
By providing employees with the necessary skills and knowledge, organizations can ensure that employees are able to perform their tasks efficiently.
Disadvantages of Scientific Management:
Mechanistic and Dehumanizing: One of the main criticisms of Scientific Management is that it is mechanistic and dehumanizing.
By breaking down complex tasks into simpler, standardized tasks and emphasizing efficiency it can lead to a loss of creativity, autonomy, and job satisfaction among employees.
Lack of Flexibility: Scientific Management emphasizes standardization and division of labor, which can limit flexibility in the work process.
This can be problematic in situations where the work process needs to be adapted quickly to changing circumstances.
Resistance from Employees: Scientific Management can face resistance from employees who may feel that their work is being reduced to a series of repetitive and monotonous tasks.
This can lead to lower morale, higher turnover, and reduced job satisfaction.
Focus on Short-Term Goals: Scientific Management is primarily focused on achieving short-term goals, such as increasing efficiency and productivity.
This may lead to a neglect of long-term goals, such as employee development and organizational culture.
Overemphasis on Control: Scientific Management places a strong emphasis on control and standardization, which can create a hierarchical and authoritarian management style.
This can lead to a lack of empowerment and autonomy among employees.
Q 2. Write a note on postmodern trends in Public Administration.
Ans. Postmodernism is a philosophical and cultural movement that emerged in the mid-20th century. It is characterized by a skepticism towards grand narratives, a rejection of absolute truth, and a focus on the subjective experience.
In the field of Public Administration, postmodernism has had a significant impact on the way scholars and practitioners view the role of government, the nature of bureaucracy, and the practice of policy-making.
Postmodern trends in Public Administration are characterized by a rejection of traditional models of public administration and a focus on the subjective experience of public service.
Postmodern scholars argue that traditional models of public administration, such as the Weberian model, are based on a modernist view of the world that is no longer valid in today’s society.
They argue that these models are too rigid, hierarchical, and bureaucratic, and that they fail to account for the subjective experience of the individual in the public service.
One of the key features of postmodern trends in Public Administration is the emphasis on the importance of language and discourse.
They argue that the language used by bureaucrats and politicians has a profound impact on the way in which policies are formulated and implemented.
Postmodern scholars are interested in analyzing the way in which language is used to construct reality and to shape the way in which policy is implemented.
Postmodern scholars argue that language is not simply a tool for communication, but is also a means of constructing reality.
Another important feature of postmodern trends in Public Administration is the emphasis on the role of power and politics.
Postmodern scholars argue that power is not simply a matter of coercion, but is also a matter of discourse and the way in which language is used to construct reality.
They argue that bureaucrats and politicians use language to exercise power and to shape the way in which policies are implemented.
Postmodern scholars are interested in analyzing the way in which power is exercised in the public service and in the way in which policies are formulated and implemented.
Postmodern trends in Public Administration also emphasize the importance of diversity and difference. Postmodern scholars argue that traditional models of public administration have tended to homogenize the public service and to ignore the differences between individuals and groups.
They argue that a postmodern approach to public administration should take account of diversity and difference and should seek to promote the participation of marginalized groups in the public service.
Finally, postmodern trends in Public Administration are characterized by a focus on the subjective experience of public service.
Postmodern scholars argue that traditional models of public administration have tended to ignore the subjective experience of the individual in the public service.
They argue that a postmodern approach to public administration should seek to promote the subjective experience of public service and to promote the well-being of those who work in the public service.
Q 3. Briefly discuss the Henry Fayol’s views on Administrative Management Approach.
Ans. Henry Fayol was a French industrialist and management theorist who developed the Administrative Management Approach in the early 20th century.
This approach is based on the belief that management is a universal process that can be applied to any organization, and that it involves a set of functions that can be identified and studied.
Fayol identified five key functions of management: planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, and controlling.
These functions are interdependent and must be performed in a systematic and integrated manner in order to achieve organizational goals.
In addition to these functions, Fayol also identified fourteen principles of management that he believed were necessary for effective management.
These principles include unity of command, division of labor, centralization, scalar chain, order, equity, stability, initiative, esprit de corps, and others.
Fayol believed that management was a distinct activity that required a specific set of skills and knowledge. He argued that managers needed to be able to plan, organize, lead, and control in order to be effective.
He also believed that managers needed to have a broad understanding of the organization and its environment, as well as a deep understanding of the people who worked in the organization.
Fayol’s views on the Administrative Management Approach were influential in the development of management theory and practice.
His emphasis on the importance of planning, organizing, and controlling helped to establish management as a distinct discipline.
His principles of management provided a framework for understanding the role of management in organizations, and they continue to be used today in management training and education.
However, Fayol’s approach has also been criticized for its emphasis on hierarchical control and its neglect of the human side of organizations.
Critics argue that Fayol’s principles of management do not account for the complex and dynamic nature of modern organizations, and that they are too focused on efficiency and control at the expense of employee engagement and creativity.
Nevertheless, Fayol’s contributions to the field of management have had a lasting impact on the way we understand and practice management today.
Q 4. Describe an appraise of Human Relations Approach.
Ans. The Human Relations Approach is a management theory that emerged in the 1930s and 1940s as a response to the scientific management approach that dominated the field of management at the time.
This approach is based on the belief that the key to effective management is the creation of a positive and supportive work environment that fosters employee satisfaction and motivation.
The Human Relations Approach was developed by a group of social scientists who conducted research on workplace productivity and employee satisfaction.
They found that factors such as social support, recognition, and positive feedback had a significant impact on employee motivation and productivity.
This led to the development of a new management approach that emphasized the importance of social relationships and communication in the workplace.
One of the key features of the Human Relations Approach is the emphasis on the importance of communication and feedback. Managers are encouraged to establish open lines of communication with their employees and to provide regular feedback on performance.
This helps to build trust and mutual respect between managers and employees, and it also helps to identify areas for improvement and development.
Another important feature of the Human Relations Approach is the emphasis on employee participation and involvement.
This approach recognizes that employees are a valuable source of knowledge and expertise, and that their input can be instrumental in improving organizational performance.
Managers are encouraged to involve employees in decision-making processes and to provide opportunities for feedback and suggestions.
The Human Relations Approach also emphasizes the importance of employee motivation and job satisfaction. Managers are encouraged to provide opportunities for employee growth and development, as well as to recognize and reward good performance.
This helps to create a positive work environment that fosters employee satisfaction and motivation, and it also helps to retain valuable employees.
Critics of the Human Relations Approach argue that it can be too focused on the individual and neglect the broader organizational goals.
They argue that too much emphasis on employee satisfaction and motivation can lead to a lack of focus on performance and productivity.
Additionally, critics argue that the Human Relations Approach can be difficult to implement in practice, as it requires significant changes to organizational culture and management practices.
Despite these criticisms, the Human Relations Approach has had a significant impact on the field of management and has helped to establish the importance of social relationships and communication in the workplace.
It has also led to the development of other management approaches, such as the participative management approach, which emphasizes the importance of employee participation and involvement in decision-making processes.
Overall, the Human Relations Approach has played an important role in shaping the way we think about management and organizational performance.
Q 5. Discuss the conceptual framework of New Public Management
Ans. New Public Management (NPM) is a conceptual framework that emerged in the late 20th century and aims to reform public sector management by applying private sector business practices.
NPM focuses on the performance, efficiency, and effectiveness of the public sector by adopting a market-based approach to the delivery of public services.
This framework has been adopted by governments around the world, particularly in developed countries, to increase efficiency and effectiveness in the public sector.
The NPM framework is based on the following principles:
Decentralization and devolution of authority: NPM encourages the delegation of decision-making powers to lower levels of government, empowering managers and employees to make decisions and respond more effectively to local needs.
Results-oriented management: NPM focuses on the achievement of specific outcomes and results, rather than simply monitoring inputs and activities.
The emphasis is on measuring and evaluating performance and using that information to improve service delivery.
Customer focus: NPM prioritizes the needs and expectations of customers and stakeholders, with an emphasis on improving the quality of services delivered.
Competition and market mechanisms: NPM introduces competition and market mechanisms into the public sector to encourage efficiency and effectiveness in service delivery.
This includes the use of performance-based contracting and outsourcing, as well as public-private partnerships.
Entrepreneurial management: NPM encourages the adoption of entrepreneurial management practices in the public sector, such as innovation and risk-taking, to drive innovation and creativity in service delivery.
Human resource management: NPM emphasizes the importance of human resource management in achieving organizational goals.
This includes the recruitment and retention of skilled and motivated employees, as well as the development of a performance-based culture.
Financial and budgetary management: NPM seeks to improve financial and budgetary management in the public sector by introducing more rigorous financial and budgetary controls, including the use of accrual accounting and performance-based budgeting.
The adoption of NPM has been controversial, with critics arguing that it leads to a narrow focus on efficiency at the expense of equity, accountability, and public values.
They argue that NPM’s focus on performance and results can lead to a neglect of non-measurable outcomes, such as public trust, transparency, and accountability.
Additionally, the introduction of market-based mechanisms in the public sector can lead to the commodification of public goods and services, with a focus on profitability rather than public interest.
In conclusion, NPM provides a conceptual framework for public sector management that emphasizes performance, efficiency, and effectiveness.
It seeks to introduce private sector business practices into the public sector to improve service delivery and outcomes.
However, its adoption has been controversial, with critics arguing that it neglects public values, equity, and accountability.
Therefore, NPM must be implemented in a manner that balances efficiency with equity, accountability, and public values to ensure the effective delivery of public services.
Q 6. What is the difference Programmed and Non-Programmed Decisions?
Ans. In management, decision-making is a crucial task that every manager has to perform. Decisions can be classified into two categories, programmed and non-programmed decisions.
Programmed decisions are routine decisions that are made frequently and are repetitive in nature. These types of decisions are usually made using standard operating procedures, rules, and policies.
The decision-making process is well-defined and structured, and the manager has a clear understanding of what needs to be done. The outcome of the decision is predictable and can be anticipated based on past experience.
For example, in a manufacturing company, a manager may need to reorder raw materials whenever the inventory level falls below a specific point.
The manager can make this decision based on the standard operating procedures and rules established by the company. This is a programmed decision that is made routinely and can be easily automated.
On the other hand, non-programmed decisions are unique and non-repetitive decisions that are made in response to a new or unexpected situation.
These types of decisions are not made using standard operating procedures or rules, and the decision-making process is less structured. The outcome of the decision is uncertain and cannot be predicted based on past experience.
For example, in the same manufacturing company, if the manager is faced with a sudden shortage of raw materials due to unforeseen circumstances, such as a natural disaster, the decision to manage the situation would be a non-programmed decision.
The manager would need to evaluate the situation, gather information, and make a decision based on his or her judgment and expertise.
In summary, programmed decisions are routine and repetitive decisions that are made using established rules, procedures, and policies, while non-programmed decisions are unique and non-repetitive decisions that are made in response to new or unexpected situations.
The decision-making process for programmed decisions is well-defined and structured, while the decision-making process for non-programmed decisions is less structured and more complex.
Q 7. What do you mean by Organisational Equilibrium?
Ans. Organizational equilibrium refers to a state of balance and stability in an organization’s internal and external environment.
It is a condition in which an organization’s resources, structure, and systems are aligned and optimized to achieve its goals and objectives.
In this state, the organization is able to function efficiently and effectively and is better able to adapt to changes in the external environment.
Organizational equilibrium is a dynamic concept that can be influenced by various internal and external factors, such as changes in technology, market conditions, and social and cultural factors.
When an organization is in equilibrium, it is able to maintain a steady state of operations, and its resources are fully utilized.
An organization can achieve equilibrium by aligning its resources, such as its workforce, technology, and financial resources, with its strategic goals and objectives.
This involves designing and implementing a structure and system that enables the organization to achieve its goals efficiently and effectively.
This can be achieved by ensuring that there is a clear understanding of the organization’s vision and mission, and by aligning the organization’s goals with the skills, knowledge, and expertise of its workforce.
Organizational equilibrium also involves maintaining a balance between the organization’s internal and external environment.
This involves monitoring and analyzing changes in the external environment, such as changes in market conditions, competition, and technology.
The organization must also ensure that its internal environment, such as its culture, leadership, and systems, is aligned with its external environment to achieve its goals.
In summary, organizational equilibrium is a state of balance and stability in an organization’s internal and external environment.
It is achieved by aligning an organization’s resources, structure, and systems with its strategic goals and objectives and maintaining a balance between its internal and external environment.
Achieving organizational equilibrium enables an organization to function efficiently and effectively and adapt to changes in its external environment.
Q 8. Write a short on Easton’s Views on Public Policy Approach.
Ans. David Easton was a political scientist who made significant contributions to the study of public policy.
He proposed a systems approach to public policy that focused on the interaction between the government and the society.
According to Easton, public policy is a process of decision-making that involves the government and the society in which it operates.
Easton believed that public policy was not just about the outputs, or the outcomes of the policy, but also about the inputs, or the factors that influence the policy-making process.
He proposed a model of public policy that consists of two stages: agenda-setting and policy formulation.
In the agenda-setting stage, issues are identified and placed on the political agenda. This stage is influenced by various factors, such as public opinion, interest groups, and political institutions.
Easton believed that the agenda-setting stage was important because it determined the issues that the government would address.
In the policy formulation stage, the government develops and implements policies to address the issues identified in the agenda-setting stage. This stage involves the identification of alternatives, the evaluation of options, and the selection of the best policy option.
Easton believed that the policy formulation stage was important because it determined the policies that the government would implement.
Easton’s approach to public policy emphasized the importance of understanding the political context in which policy-making occurs.
He believed that public policy was shaped by the interaction between the government and the society, and that the policy-making process was influenced by various factors, such as public opinion, interest groups, and political institutions.
In summary, Easton’s views on public policy approach emphasized the importance of understanding the political context in which policy-making occurs. He proposed a systems approach to public policy that focused on the interaction between the government and the society.
His approach emphasized the importance of the agenda-setting and policy formulation stages of the policy-making process, and the influence of various factors, such as public opinion, interest groups, and political institutions, on these stages.
Q 9. Define the term Governance and Good Governance.
Ans. Governance refers to the processes and systems by which organizations, institutions, and societies are managed and regulated. It encompasses the way decisions are made, resources are allocated, and power is exercised.
Governance can apply to different levels, including corporate governance, public governance, and global governance.
Good governance refers to a set of principles and practices that promote transparency, accountability, participation, and responsiveness in governance. It is characterized by a focus on the public interest, the rule of law, and the protection of human rights.
Good governance ensures that the needs of all stakeholders, including citizens, are taken into account in decision-making.
The principles of good governance include:
Transparency: Ensuring that information is readily available and accessible to all stakeholders.
Accountability: Holding those in power responsible for their actions and decisions.
Participation: Ensuring that all stakeholders, including citizens, have a say in decision-making.
Responsiveness: Addressing the needs and concerns of stakeholders in a timely and effective manner.
Rule of law: Ensuring that laws and regulations are enforced fairly and consistently.
Effectiveness and efficiency: Ensuring that resources are used effectively and efficiently to achieve desired outcomes.
Good governance is essential for the effective functioning of organizations, institutions, and societies.
It promotes trust and confidence in government and other institutions, and helps to ensure that resources are used effectively and fairly.
It also promotes social and economic development, as it encourages the participation of all stakeholders in decision-making and ensures that the needs of all members of society are taken into account.
Q 10. Differentiate between ‘gender of governance’ and ‘governance of gender’.
Ans. Gender of governance” and “governance of gender” are two different concepts related to gender and governance.
The term “gender of governance” refers to the ways in which gender roles and relations shape governance structures, policies, and practices.
It examines how gender norms, expectations, and inequalities affect the distribution of power and decision-making processes within governance systems.
This includes looking at how gender influences the representation and participation of women and men in political processes, the allocation of resources and services, and the design and implementation of policies and programs.
On the other hand, the term “governance of gender” refers to the ways in which governance systems can be used to address gender inequalities and promote gender equality.
It involves analyzing how governance systems can be reformed to address gender biases, discrimination, and violence, and to promote women’s empowerment and participation in decision-making processes.
This includes looking at how governance systems can be made more inclusive, transparent, and accountable, and how policies and programs can be designed and implemented to promote gender equality.
In summary, the “gender of governance” perspective focuses on how gender norms and inequalities shape governance systems and practices, while the “governance of gender” perspective focuses on how governance systems can be reformed to promote gender equality and address gender biases and discrimination.
Both perspectives are important for understanding and addressing gender inequalities in governance systems and promoting more inclusive and equitable governance.