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BLI-222

INFORMATION SOURCES AND SERVICES

BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment 2023

BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment January 2023

Q 1. Discuss in detail non-documentary sources of information with suitable examples.

Ans. Non-documentary sources of information are sources of information that do not involve written documents. These sources provide a wealth of information that can be used to understand the past, present, and future.

Examples of non-documentary sources of information include oral history, artifacts, photographs, audio and video recordings, and archaeological finds.

Oral History

Oral history is the process of collecting and preserving historical information through interviews with individuals who have personal knowledge of past events.

Oral history is an important source of information because it provides insights into the experiences, perspectives, and emotions of those who lived through historical events.

This information is often not recorded in written documents, and therefore, oral history can fill gaps in historical knowledge.

Oral history interviews can be conducted with individuals or groups of people. The interviews can be recorded and transcribed, or they can be captured through audio or video recordings. BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment 2023

The information collected through oral history interviews can be used to create documentaries, books, and other media that provide a more complete understanding of historical events.

An example of the importance of oral history is the collection of stories from Holocaust survivors.

These interviews provide valuable insights into the experiences of those who lived through one of the most horrific events in history.

Through their stories, we can understand the personal toll of the Holocaust on individuals and communities.

Artifacts

Artifacts are objects that are created by humans and provide insights into the culture and society of the time in which they were created.

Artifacts can be physical objects such as tools, weapons, pottery, and jewelry, or they can be artistic creations such as sculptures, paintings, and textiles.

Artifacts are important sources of information because they can reveal details about daily life, religious beliefs, and social practices.

By studying artifacts, we can learn about the materials and techniques used by people in the past, as well as their artistic and aesthetic sensibilities.

An example of the importance of artifacts is the study of ancient Egyptian tombs. The tombs are filled with artifacts such as pottery, jewelry, and furniture that provide insights into the beliefs and practices of the ancient Egyptians.

The intricate artwork and hieroglyphs found in the tombs also provide valuable information about the religious and cultural practices of the ancient Egyptians.

Photographs BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Photographs are images captured through a camera that provide visual documentation of events and people.

Photographs are important sources of information because they provide a visual record of historical events and can capture details that may not be recorded in written documents.

Photographs can be used to document social, political, and cultural events, as well as the daily lives of individuals and communities. They can also capture the emotions and reactions of people to historical events.

An example of the importance of photographs is the documentation of the Civil Rights Movement in the United States.

Photographs of sit-ins, protests, and marches provide a visual record of the struggle for civil rights and can capture the emotions and reactions of those involved in the movement. BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Audio and Video Recordings

Audio and video recordings are important sources of information because they capture the voices and images of historical events and people.

These recordings can provide a more complete understanding of historical events by capturing the tone and emotion of those involved.

Audio and video recordings can be used to document speeches, interviews, and events. They can also capture the everyday lives of individuals and communities, providing insights into their culture and social practices.

An example of the importance of audio and video recordings is the documentation of the speeches of Martin Luther King Jr.

The recordings capture the tone and emotion of King’s speeches, providing insights into his leadership and the impact of his message.

Archaeological Finds BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Archaeological finds are objects and artifacts that are discovered through archaeological excavation.

Archaeological finds are important sources of information because they can reveal details about past societies and cultures that may not be recorded in written documents or other sources.

Archaeological finds can provide insights into the technology, economy, social structures, and beliefs of past societies.

Archaeological finds can include tools, weapons, pottery, jewelry, buildings, and human remains. By analyzing these objects, archaeologists can reconstruct the daily lives and activities of past societies.

They can also use these objects to understand the social, economic, and political systems of past societies.

An example of the importance of archaeological finds is the discovery of the tomb of King Tutankhamun in Egypt. BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment 2023

The tomb was filled with treasures, including jewelry, furniture, and clothing, that provided insights into the wealth and artistic sensibilities of the ancient Egyptians.

The discovery of the tomb also provided important information about the religious beliefs and practices of the ancient Egyptians.

Non-documentary sources of information are important in providing a more nuanced understanding of historical events and social phenomena.

For example, while written documents can provide information on the actions of political leaders during a conflict, oral history interviews with soldiers can provide information on the daily experiences of soldiers in the field.

Similarly, while written documents can provide information on the economic systems of a society, artifacts such as tools and pottery can provide information on the daily lives of the people who lived in that society.

Non-documentary sources of information can also provide important context for understanding the meaning and significance of historical events.

For example, photographs and videos of protests and demonstrations can provide visual documentation of the size and intensity of the protests, as well as the diversity of the participants. BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment 2023

This information can help us to understand the social and political significance of the protests and the impact they had on society.

Another important aspect of non-documentary sources of information is that they can help to correct biases and inaccuracies in written documents.

Written documents are often written by those in positions of power, and may not accurately reflect the experiences and perspectives of marginalized communities.

By studying non-documentary sources of information such as oral history interviews and archaeological finds, historians can gain a more complete understanding of historical events and social phenomena.

Non-documentary sources of information are also valuable in providing a more diverse range of voices and perspectives.

For example, oral history interviews with women, people of color, and other marginalized groups can provide insights into their experiences and perspectives that may be missing from written documents.

Similarly, artifacts and archaeological finds can provide insights into the lives of everyday people, not just the elite and powerful.

Finally, non-documentary sources of information are important in preserving the history and cultural heritage of societies.

Archaeological finds and artifacts can provide tangible evidence of past societies and cultures, and can help to preserve their memory for future generations.

Similarly, audio and video recordings of events and interviews can help to preserve the voices and perspectives of those who lived through historical events.

In conclusion, non-documentary sources of information are important in providing a more complete and nuanced understanding of historical events and social phenomena. BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Oral history, artifacts, photographs, audio and video recordings, and archaeological finds are all valuable sources of information that can help historians to gain new insights into the past.

By studying these sources, historians can correct biases and inaccuracies in written documents, gain new perspectives and insights, and preserve the history and cultural heritage of societies for future generations.

Q 2. Discuss the Categorisation of information sources as given by Subramanyam.

Ans. In the field of library and information science, Dr. K. Subramanyam proposed a categorization of information sources in 1970 that has been widely adopted and used.

Subramanyam’s categorization is based on the concept of information sources being classified into primary, secondary, and tertiary sources, which are based on their originality, comprehensiveness, and depth of information.

Primary Sources BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Primary sources are original sources of information that provide direct and firsthand evidence of a particular event, person, or object.

These sources are not interpreted, summarized, or filtered through another source but are the original records or data themselves.

Primary sources are considered the most authoritative and reliable sources of information, as they provide firsthand accounts of events or data that have not been distorted by interpretation.

Examples of primary sources include diaries, letters, manuscripts, photographs, videos, maps, and artifacts.

For instance, a diary written by a soldier during World War II would be considered a primary source because it provides a firsthand account of the soldier’s experiences during the war.

Secondary Sources

Secondary sources are sources that interpret or analyze primary sources. These sources provide a summary or evaluation of information that has been gathered from primary sources. BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Secondary sources often provide analysis, interpretation, or commentary on primary sources and are useful for understanding the context and significance of the information in primary sources.

Examples of secondary sources include books, articles, encyclopedias, biographies, and textbooks.

For instance, a book that provides an analysis of the causes of the American Civil War would be considered a secondary source because it is based on the analysis and interpretation of primary sources, such as diaries and letters written by individuals who lived during the time.

Tertiary Sources

Tertiary sources are sources that compile and summarize information from secondary sources. These sources provide an overview of a particular topic or subject and are useful for gaining a general understanding of a topic.

Tertiary sources do not provide original information but instead provide an overview of the information that is available in primary and secondary sources.

Examples of tertiary sources include dictionaries, encyclopedias, directories, and handbooks.

For instance, an encyclopedia article on the American Civil War would be considered a tertiary source because it provides a summary of information that has been compiled from primary and secondary sources.

Importance of Subramanyam’s Categorization

Subramanyam’s categorization of information sources is important because it provides a framework for understanding the value and importance of different types of sources. BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment 2023

This categorization helps researchers to identify and evaluate sources based on their originality, comprehensiveness, and depth of information.

The categorization also helps researchers to understand the strengths and limitations of different types of sources.

Primary sources are the most authoritative and reliable sources of information, but they are often limited in scope and may not provide a comprehensive understanding of a particular topic.

Secondary sources provide analysis and interpretation of primary sources, but they may be influenced by the bias and perspective of the author. Tertiary sources provide a general overview of a topic but do not provide original information.

Moreover, Subramanyam’s categorization is also important for information professionals such as librarians, archivists, and museum curators.

It helps them to organize and classify information sources and to assist researchers in locating the most appropriate sources for their research.

For researchers, the categorization helps in the selection of the appropriate sources to use in their research. BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment 2023

By evaluating the available information sources based on the categorization, researchers can identify the sources that best suit their research needs.

For instance, a historian researching a particular event or person would benefit from using primary sources, as they provide direct and firsthand accounts.

In addition, Subramanyam’s categorization also helps researchers in assessing the reliability of the information they are using.

The originality and depth of information in primary sources make them more reliable than secondary or tertiary sources, which are often based on the interpretation of the original data.

The categorization is also helpful for librarians and information professionals who work in organizing and managing information sources.

It enables them to categorize information sources into primary, secondary, and tertiary sources, which makes it easier for researchers to locate the appropriate sources for their research.

Lastly, Subramanyam’s categorization is a widely accepted framework for categorizing information sources.

This framework is used in libraries, archives, and museums worldwide to categorize and organize their collections, making it easier for researchers to access and use the information available. BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment 2023

In conclusion, Subramanyam’s categorization of information sources is a crucial tool for researchers and information professionals.

The categorization helps in identifying and evaluating different types of information sources based on their originality, comprehensiveness, and depth of information.

It also helps researchers in selecting the appropriate sources for their research and in assessing the reliability of the information they are using.

This categorization is widely accepted and used, making it an essential framework for information organization and management.

Q 3. Explain the importance of institutions as sources of information. Describe different types of institutions.

Ans. Institutions are organizations that play an essential role in society by providing services and resources to individuals and communities.

They are crucial sources of information for researchers, professionals, and the general public.

Institutions can provide a wide range of information, including historical records, research studies, policy documents, and expert opinions.

Understanding the importance of institutions as sources of information is crucial for effective research and decision-making.BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment 2023

One of the significant benefits of institutions as sources of information is the credibility and reliability of the information they provide.

Institutions are often established by experts in a particular field, and their information is based on research and analysis.

Institutions such as universities, research organizations, and think tanks are highly respected for the quality of their research and analysis, making them valuable sources of information.

Institutions also provide a wealth of historical records and archives, making them essential for historians and researchers.

Archives can provide primary source material that is invaluable for research, including historical documents, photographs, and recordings.

Institutions such as libraries, museums, and archives are responsible for preserving these historical records and making them available to researchers.

Another important function of institutions is to provide policy documents and reports that are essential for decision-making.

Institutions such as government departments, international organizations, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) produce policy documents that provide insights into the policies, procedures, and practices of organizations.

These documents can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of policies, identify areas for improvement, and inform future policy decisions.

Institutions also play a critical role in education and training, providing resources and materials that are essential for students and professionals.

Institutions such as universities, colleges, and professional organizations provide educational resources, training programs, and professional development opportunities that are essential for career advancement and personal growth.

Different Types of Institutions:

Academic Institutions: Academic institutions such as universities and colleges are established to provide education and conduct research.

They are essential sources of information, providing academic publications, research reports, and other resources that are valuable to researchers and students.

Research Institutions: Research institutions are established to conduct research in specific fields. BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment 2023

They are important sources of information, producing research reports, studies, and data that are valuable to researchers and decision-makers.

Government Institutions: Government institutions are established by governments to provide services to the public. They produce policy documents, reports, and statistics that are essential for decision-making and research.

Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs): NGOs are established to address social issues and provide services to communities. They produce reports, research studies, and policy documents that provide valuable information on social issues.

International Organizations: International organizations such as the United Nations (UN), the World Bank, and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) are established to address global issues.

They produce reports, research studies, and policy documents that provide valuable information on global issues.

Professional Organizations: Professional organizations are established to provide resources and services to professionals in specific fields.

They produce professional publications, research reports, and other resources that are essential for career advancement and professional development.

Institutions as sources of information also have some limitations that researchers should consider. One limitation is the potential for bias in the information provided by institutions. BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Institutions may have particular interests or biases that influence the information they produce.

Researchers must be aware of this potential bias and take steps to evaluate the credibility and objectivity of the information provided by institutions.

Another limitation is access to information. Some institutions may have restrictions on access to information, particularly in cases where the information is sensitive or confidential.

Researchers may need to obtain permission or go through a formal process to access the information they need from certain institutions.

Moreover, institutions may also have limitations in terms of the types of information they provide.

For instance, academic institutions may focus on research and academic publications, while government institutions may produce policy documents and reports.

Researchers need to consider the scope of information provided by institutions and determine if it aligns with their research needs.

Different institutions also have varying levels of resources and expertise. Some institutions may have more resources and expertise to produce high-quality and comprehensive information, while others may have limited resources and expertise, resulting in less reliable information.

Researchers should evaluate the reputation and expertise of institutions before using their information sources.

The types of institutions vary based on the location, culture, and political systems of a country. The types of institutions commonly found in developed countries may differ from those found in developing countries.

For instance, developing countries may have limited access to academic institutions and research organizations, resulting in limited access to high-quality information.

Finally, institutions also play a vital role in disseminating information to the public. Institutions such as museums, libraries, and archives are responsible for making information available to the public, providing access to historical records, academic publications, and other resources.

Institutions also provide education and training, providing resources and materials that are essential for students and professionals.

Q 4. While analysing marketing opportunities, discuss the various factors that affect external environment of an organisation?

Ans. When analysing marketing opportunities, it is essential to consider the external environment of an organisation. BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment 2023

The external environment consists of factors outside the organisation that can influence its operations and performance.

Understanding these factors is crucial for businesses to identify potential opportunities and threats in the market.

Economic Factors: Economic factors are significant external factors that impact an organisation’s marketing opportunities.

These factors include economic growth, inflation, unemployment rates, consumer spending, and exchange rates.

Organisations need to understand the economic conditions of the markets they operate in to identify potential opportunities and threats.

For instance, during an economic downturn, consumers may reduce their spending, leading to decreased demand for products and services.

Technological Factors: Technological advancements impact an organisation’s marketing opportunities.

Technological factors include innovations, new technologies, automation, and the internet. BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Technological advancements offer opportunities for organisations to improve their operations, reduce costs, and offer new products and services.

For instance, the emergence of e-commerce has created new marketing opportunities for businesses, providing a new channel for sales and marketing.

Political and Legal Factors: Political and legal factors are essential external factors that impact marketing opportunities.

These factors include laws, regulations, and policies that influence the business environment.

For instance, changes in tax laws, trade agreements, or labour laws can significantly impact an organisation’s marketing opportunities.

Social and Cultural Factors: Social and cultural factors refer to the values, beliefs, and attitudes of society.

These factors impact consumer behaviour, preferences, and buying decisions. Organisations need to consider social and cultural factors when developing marketing strategies to ensure they align with the values and beliefs of their target market.

Environmental Factors: Environmental factors refer to the impact of the natural environment on the organisation. BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment 2023

These factors include natural disasters, climate change, and resource scarcity. Organisations need to consider environmental factors in their marketing opportunities, such as the growing demand for eco-friendly products and services.

Demographic Factors: Demographic factors refer to the characteristics of the population, including age, gender, income, and education level.

These factors impact consumer behaviour and preferences, and organisations need to consider them when developing marketing strategies.

For instance, an ageing population may prefer different products and services than a younger population.

Competitive Factors: Competitive factors refer to the competitive environment in which the organisation operates.

These factors include the number of competitors, market share, and competitive advantage. Understanding the competitive environment is crucial for organisations to identify potential marketing opportunities and threats.

Global Factors: Global factors refer to the impact of globalisation on the organisation’s operations and performance.

These factors include international trade, cultural differences, and geopolitical tensions. Organisations need to understand global factors to identify potential marketing opportunities and threats in the global market.

Organisations need to monitor and analyse the external environment continuously to identify potential changes and adjust their marketing strategies accordingly.

For instance, changes in economic conditions or new technological advancements may create new marketing opportunities or threaten existing ones.

By monitoring the external environment, organisations can identify these changes early and develop effective marketing strategies to capitalise on the opportunities or mitigate the threats. BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Moreover, the impact of external factors may vary depending on the industry or market in which the organisation operates.

For instance, technological advancements may have a more significant impact on the IT industry than the manufacturing industry.

Therefore, organisations need to consider the specific external factors relevant to their industry when analysing marketing opportunities.

Organisations may also need to consider the potential impact of external factors on their stakeholders, including customers, suppliers, employees, and shareholders.

Changes in the external environment may affect the expectations and preferences of these stakeholders, influencing their buying decisions, supply chain, and employee satisfaction.

Organisations need to consider the impact of external factors on their stakeholders when developing marketing strategies.

Furthermore, organisations need to consider the potential interdependence of external factors. For instance, changes in economic conditions may influence consumer behaviour, which, in turn, may impact the competitive environment.

Therefore, organisations need to analyse the external environment holistically to identify potential opportunities and threats comprehensively.

Organisations can use various tools and techniques to analyse the external environment, such as PESTLE analysis, SWOT analysis, and scenario planning.

These tools can help organisations identify potential opportunities and threats, understand the impact of external factors on their operations, and develop effective marketing strategies. BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment 2023

II)

Q 1. Explain why there is a lack of unanimity in the categorisation of text books.

Ans. Textbooks are an essential source of information and knowledge in many fields, including education, science, and technology. However, there is a lack of unanimity in the categorisation of textbooks due to several reasons.

Firstly, textbooks serve different purposes in different fields, and therefore, the categorisation of textbooks may vary accordingly.

For instance, textbooks in science and technology focus on explaining theories, concepts, and practical applications, while textbooks in literature or history focus on providing information about the subject matter.

Secondly, the categorisation of textbooks may depend on the level of education or target audience. BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment 2023

For example, textbooks for primary school students will be different from textbooks for university students, and textbooks for the general public will be different from textbooks for professionals in a particular field.

Thirdly, textbooks may differ in their approach and methodology. Some textbooks may be more theoretical, while others may be more practical.

Some may be more descriptive, while others may be more analytical. Therefore, the categorisation of textbooks may also depend on the approach and methodology used in the textbook.

BLI 222 ASSIGNMENT QUESTION

Fourthly, the categorisation of textbooks may also vary depending on the author’s perspective or the intended purpose of the textbook.

For instance, some textbooks may be written from a particular ideological or theoretical perspective, while others may be written to serve a specific purpose, such as preparing students for exams.

Finally, the categorisation of textbooks may also be influenced by the evolving nature of knowledge and information. BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment 2023

As new discoveries and technologies emerge, new textbooks may need to be developed to keep up with the changing landscape.

Therefore, the categorisation of textbooks may need to be reviewed and updated regularly to ensure that they remain relevant and useful.

Q 2. What criteria will you adopt to evaluate a dictionary?

Ans. A dictionary is a vital tool for language learners, researchers, and writers, providing information about the meaning, spelling, pronunciation, and usage of words.

When evaluating a dictionary, several criteria should be considered to ensure that it is accurate, reliable, and useful. The following are some of the criteria that can be used to evaluate a dictionary.

Accuracy: The primary criterion for evaluating a dictionary is its accuracy. A dictionary should provide accurate and reliable definitions, spellings, and pronunciations of words. BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment 2023

The definitions should be clear, concise, and comprehensive, and the spelling and pronunciation should be consistent with standard usage.

Relevance: The dictionary should be relevant to the user’s needs and interests. For instance, a general-purpose dictionary may not be suitable for technical or specialised terms.

Therefore, the dictionary should be relevant to the user’s field of study or interest.

Authority: A dictionary should be written by qualified and experienced lexicographers, linguists, or language experts who have a thorough understanding of the language and its usage. The dictionary should also be published by a reputable and recognised publisher.

Coverage: A good dictionary should cover a wide range of words and phrases, including idioms, slang, and colloquial expressions.

It should also provide information about the etymology, usage, and regional variations of words. BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Format: The format of the dictionary should be user-friendly and easy to navigate. It should have clear and concise headings, subheadings, and cross-references, and the entries should be organised alphabetically or thematically.

Examples: The dictionary should provide examples of usage to help the user understand the meaning and usage of words in context.

The examples should be clear, relevant, and comprehensive, and should illustrate the different meanings and usages of the word.

Currency: A dictionary should be up-to-date and reflect current usage of the language. It should include new words and expressions that have entered the language and remove outdated or obsolete terms.

Clarity: The dictionary should be easy to read and understand, with clear definitions and explanations. It should also use plain language and avoid jargon, technical terms, or obscure words that may confuse the reader.

Multilingualism: The dictionary should also cater to multilingual users and provide translations of words and phrases in different languages.

It should also provide information about the usage and cultural nuances of the language in different regions and countries.

Supplementary features: Some dictionaries may also provide supplementary features such as pronunciation guides, word origins, usage notes, and appendices.

These features can enhance the usefulness and value of the dictionary to the user.

Q 3. Describe the importance of virtual reference service in present society.

Ans. Virtual reference service is a technology-driven service that allows users to connect with reference librarians in real-time through electronic means such as email, chat, or video conferencing. BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Virtual reference service has become increasingly important in the present society due to several reasons.

Firstly, virtual reference service provides convenience and accessibility to users. With the growth of technology and the internet, users can access reference services from anywhere and at any time.

Virtual reference service is available 24/7, allowing users to get the information they need even when the library is closed.

Users can also connect with reference librarians from the comfort of their homes or offices, avoiding the need to travel to the library.

Secondly, virtual reference service enhances the reach and impact of libraries. Virtual reference service allows libraries to serve users beyond their physical boundaries.

Libraries can now connect with users from different parts of the world and provide them with information and resources that they may not have access to in their local libraries.

Virtual reference service also allows libraries to engage with users who may not be able to visit the library due to physical or mobility limitations.

Thirdly, virtual reference service promotes information literacy and lifelong learning. Reference librarians play a critical role in helping users navigate and evaluate information sources.

Through virtual reference service, reference librarians can teach users the skills and strategies they need to access, evaluate, and use information effectively.

Virtual reference service also provides users with access to a wide range of digital resources and databases that they can use to enhance their learning and research.

Fourthly, virtual reference service enhances collaboration and knowledge-sharing. Virtual reference service allows librarians to work collaboratively with other librarians and institutions to provide users with a more comprehensive and diverse range of resources and services. BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Virtual reference service also allows librarians to share knowledge and expertise with each other, promoting continuous learning and professional development.

Finally, virtual reference service promotes inclusivity and diversity. Virtual reference service allows librarians to serve users from different backgrounds and cultures.

It also allows librarians to provide resources and services that are tailored to the specific needs and interests of different user groups, such as students, researchers, or professionals.

Virtual reference service also promotes the use of multilingual resources and services, helping to bridge language barriers and promote cross-cultural understanding.

Q 4. Explain how information generators and information compilers act as sources of information.

Ans. Information generators and information compilers are two important sources of information that play a critical role in meeting the information needs of individuals and organizations.

Information generators refer to individuals or organizations that create or produce original content or data. BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment 2023

These may include individuals such as researchers, scientists, journalists, or bloggers, as well as organizations such as government agencies, universities, or research institutes.

Information generators create and disseminate new knowledge, ideas, and insights that contribute to the growth and development of different fields.

For example, a researcher may generate new knowledge by conducting a study on the effects of a new drug on a specific disease.

The researcher will collect data through experiments, surveys, or other research methods, and then analyze and interpret the data to generate new knowledge about the drug and its effects.

Similarly, a journalist may generate news stories by conducting interviews, gathering information from various sources, and then presenting the information in a compelling and informative manner.

On the other hand, information compilers refer to individuals or organizations that collect, organize, and present information from different sources in a systematic and structured manner. BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment 2023

These may include individuals such as librarians, archivists, or curators, as well as organizations such as libraries, archives, or museums.

Information compilers play a critical role in making information accessible and discoverable to users by creating catalogs, indexes, databases, and other tools that help users locate and access relevant information.

For example, a librarian may compile a catalog of books and other resources available in a library, making it easier for users to search for and locate relevant materials.

An archivist may compile a database of historical documents, photographs, or artifacts, making them accessible to researchers and the public.

A museum curator may compile an exhibit of artifacts or art pieces, providing an educational and informative experience for visitors.

Information generators and information compilers act as complementary sources of information, with information generators creating new knowledge and information compilers making this information accessible and discoverable to users.

Both sources of information play a critical role in meeting the information needs of individuals and organizations.

It is important to note that information generators and information compilers are not mutually exclusive. BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Many individuals and organizations may engage in both activities, generating new information while also compiling and organizing existing information.

For example, a university researcher may conduct a study and publish a paper, while also serving as a subject specialist and creating a database of relevant resources in their field.

In addition, the distinction between information generators and information compilers can sometimes be blurred, as the activities of one may overlap with the other.

For example, a journalist may not only generate new information through their reporting but may also compile and organize existing information to provide context and background for their stories.

Q 5. What are the negative influences of the information generated by mass media?

Ans. Mass media, including television, radio, newspapers, magazines, and the internet, plays a significant role in shaping our beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors.

While mass media can be a powerful tool for informing and educating the public, it can also have negative influences on individuals and society as a whole.

Some of the negative influences of the information generated by mass media are discussed below.BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Misinformation and Fake News: Mass media can often spread misinformation and fake news, which can lead to confusion and misunderstandings among the public.

In recent years, fake news has become a significant problem, particularly on social media platforms, where false information can spread rapidly.

Sensationalism: Mass media often sensationalizes news stories to attract viewers or readers, which can lead to a distorted perception of reality.

Sensationalized news stories can create fear, anxiety, and panic among the public, which can have a negative impact on mental health.

Bias: Mass media can be biased, either intentionally or unintentionally, in the information it presents.

Media outlets may have their own agendas, or journalists may have personal biases that can influence their reporting. Biased reporting can lead to a lack of objectivity and a distorted view of events.

Stereotyping and Prejudice: Mass media can perpetuate stereotypes and prejudices, particularly in the way it portrays certain groups of people.

The media can reinforce negative attitudes and beliefs about certain groups, which can lead to discrimination and marginalization.

Violence and Aggression: Mass media can contribute to an increase in violence and aggression among individuals, particularly among children and young adults.

to violent content in media can desensitize individuals to violence and make it seem more acceptable.BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Objectification: Mass media can objectify individuals, particularly women, by portraying them as sexual objects or emphasizing their physical appearance over their intelligence or other attributes.

This can lead to a lack of respect for individuals and perpetuate gender inequality.

Addiction: Mass media, particularly social media and other online platforms, can be addictive, leading to excessive use and a lack of productivity.

Addiction to social media and other online platforms can have negative impacts on mental health, including anxiety, depression, and sleep disorders.

Q 6. List the basic information literacy skills necessary for undergraduate and graduate students.

Ans. Information literacy is an essential skill for undergraduate and graduate students as it enables them to locate, evaluate, and effectively use information to achieve their academic goals.

Some of the basic information literacy skills necessary for undergraduate and graduate students are as follows:

Information Retrieval: The ability to locate relevant information from various sources such as books, journals, databases, and the internet is a fundamental skill of information literacy. BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Students must be able to use search engines and databases effectively and efficiently to retrieve information.

Information Evaluation: The ability to evaluate the credibility, relevance, and accuracy of information is critical to academic success.

Students must be able to determine whether the information they have found is reliable and appropriate for their research.

Information Organization: The ability to organize and manage information is essential for effective research.

Students must be able to use citation management tools and develop effective note-taking strategies.

Critical Thinking: The ability to analyze, synthesize, and evaluate information is essential to make informed decisions.

Students must be able to question the information they receive and make logical and evidence-based conclusions.

Ethics: Students must understand the ethical considerations surrounding information use and dissemination, such as copyright laws, plagiarism, and academic integrity.BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Communication: The ability to communicate information effectively is crucial to academic success. Students must be able to present their research findings and ideas in written and oral forms.

Technology: Students must be familiar with various technologies used for research and communication, including word processing, email, online databases, and social media.

Problem Solving: The ability to identify research problems, develop research questions, and select appropriate research methodologies is critical to academic success.

Collaboration: Collaboration is an essential part of academic research. Students must be able to work effectively in groups, communicate ideas, and resolve conflicts.

Lifelong Learning: Students must recognize that information is constantly evolving, and they need to develop a lifelong learning habit to keep up with the changes.

This involves being aware of new developments in their field and seeking out new sources of information. BLI 222 Solved Free Assignment 2023

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