HISTORY OF INDIA FROM C. 300 C.E. TO 1206
BHIC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
BHIC 132 Solved Free Assignment January 2023
Assignment – I
Q 1) Discuss the various sources for the reconstruction of the social history of the period from 700 to 1200 CE.
Ans. The period from 700 to 1200 CE in India was marked by significant social, cultural, and economic changes.
The study of this period relies on various sources, both literary and archaeological, to reconstruct the social history of this time. Here are some of the sources that historians and scholars use:
Inscriptions: Inscriptions are one of the most important sources for the study of the social history of the period from 700 to 1200 CE.
These are typically written on stones, pillars, or metal plates, and provide information on the political, social, and economic life of the period.
They offer insights into the administration, law, religion, and cultural practices of the time.
Literary Sources: Literature is another important source for understanding the social history of the period.
The literature of the period includes religious texts, poetry, and chronicles. These texts provide a glimpse into the beliefs, values, and traditions of the people of the time.BHIC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Archaeological Remains: Archaeological excavations provide a wealth of information about the material culture of the period.
They include structures, pottery, coins, jewelry, and other artifacts that offer insights into the daily life of the people of the time.
Travel Accounts: Accounts of foreign travelers and merchants who visited India during this period can also provide valuable information about the social and economic life of the time.
These accounts provide descriptions of cities, trade routes, and cultural practices of the period.
Folk Traditions: Folk traditions such as folk songs, folk tales, and oral traditions can provide insights into the cultural and social practices of the period.
These traditions offer a glimpse into the beliefs, customs, and values of the people of the time.
By using these various sources, historians and scholars can reconstruct the social history of the period from 700 to 1200 CE.
These sources provide valuable information on the social, cultural, and economic changes that occurred during this time, and offer insights into the lives of the people who lived during this period.
Numismatics: Coins are an important source for understanding the economic and social history of the period. Coins of this period provide valuable information about the ruling dynasties, their titles, and their symbols.
The inscriptions on the coins also provide information about the economic policies of the rulers and the trade relations of the time.
Epigraphic Records: Epigraphic records include copper plates, stone slabs, and inscriptions engraved on rocks, caves, and temples.
These records provide valuable information about the land grants, administrative structure, and legal system of the period.
Genealogies: Genealogies or family trees can provide insights into the social structure and power dynamics of the period. They offer information on the ruling dynasties and their relationships with other powerful families of the time.
Art and Architecture: The art and architecture of the period can provide insights into the cultural and social practices of the time.
The temples, sculptures, and paintings of the period offer information about the religious beliefs, aesthetic preferences, and artistic traditions of the time.
Trade and Commerce: The study of trade and commerce can provide insights into the economic and social life of the period.
The archaeological remains of markets, bazaars, and trade routes can offer information about the products traded, the technologies used, and the role of merchants and traders in the economy.
Manuscripts: Manuscripts of this period provide a wealth of information about the intellectual and cultural life of the time.
The manuscripts include literary works, scientific treatises, and religious texts. They offer insights into the literary and intellectual traditions of the time.
Folklore: Folklore, such as songs, dance, and folk tales, can offer insights into the social and cultural practices of the time.
Folklore can provide information on the beliefs, customs, and values of the people of the time.BHIC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Linguistics: Linguistics can provide insights into the social and cultural practices of the period. The study of languages spoken during this period can reveal information about the migration patterns, cultural exchanges, and social structures of the time.
Ethnography: Ethnography is the study of human societies and cultures. The study of the ethnography of the period can provide insights into the social and cultural practices of the time.
Oral Histories: Oral histories are a valuable source for understanding the social history of the period.
The stories, myths, and legends passed down through generations can provide valuable information about the beliefs, values, and practices of the people of the time.
Q 2) Evaluate the formation and expansion of the Rashtrakuta Empire.
Ans. The Rashtrakuta Empire was one of the most powerful empires in South India that emerged during the eighth century. The empire was established by Dantidurga in 753 CE, who overthrew the Chalukya dynasty and declared himself the ruler of the newly-formed Rashtrakuta Empire.
The empire grew rapidly in size and power under the reign of his successor, Krishna I.
The formation and expansion of the Rashtrakuta Empire can be evaluated in the following ways:BHIC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Military Conquests: The Rashtrakutas expanded their empire through military conquests. They conquered many neighboring kingdoms, including the Chalukyas of Badami, the Pallavas of Kanchi, and the Gangas of Mysore.
The Rashtrakutas also defeated the Gurjara-Pratiharas in the north and expanded their empire up to the Narmada River.
Political Consolidation: The Rashtrakutas were successful in consolidating their political power through diplomacy and alliances.
They formed alliances with the Western Chalukyas and the Kadambas of Banavasi, which helped them to establish a strong political presence in South India.
Religious Tolerance: The Rashtrakutas were known for their religious tolerance and patronage of the arts.
They patronized both Hinduism and Jainism, and several famous temples and sculptures were built during their reign.
Trade and Commerce: The Rashtrakutas played an important role in the trade and commerce of South India.
They controlled important trade routes and ports, such as Kalyan, Chaul, and Goa. The Rashtrakutas also traded with Arab and Chinese merchants and were known for their luxury items, such as perfumes and textiles.
Literary and Intellectual Contributions: The Rashtrakutas made significant contributions to literature and learning.
The famous Jain scholar, Jinasena, wrote the Adipurana, a biography of the first Jain tirthankara, Rishabhadeva, during the Rashtrakuta period.
Architecture and Art: The Rashtrakutas were patrons of art and architecture and built many impressive monuments and temples.
The Kailasa temple in Ellora is considered one of the most impressive rock-cut temples in India and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The Rashtrakutas also built the Navalinga temples in Kuknur and the Jain Narayana temple in Pattadakal.
Administration: The Rashtrakutas had a well-organized administration system. They had a complex system of governance, with a hierarchy of officials responsible for different aspects of administration.
They were also known for their land revenue system, which was based on the measurement of land.BHIC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Language and Literature: The Rashtrakutas were patrons of Sanskrit language and literature. They produced many famous works, including the Kavirajamarga, a treatise on poetry and grammar written by the Rashtrakuta king, Amoghavarsha I.
Military Strength: The Rashtrakutas had a strong army, which helped them to expand their empire.
They had a well-trained cavalry and used elephants and chariots in battle. They also had a navy, which controlled the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal.
Decline: The Rashtrakuta Empire declined during the tenth century due to internal conflicts and external invasions.
The Cholas invaded the Rashtrakuta territories in the south, while the Hoysalas invaded from the west. The Rashtrakutas were also weakened by a series of weak rulers and internal strife.
Legacy: The Rashtrakutas left a lasting legacy on the history of South India. They were instrumental in shaping the political and cultural landscape of the region, and their architectural and artistic achievements continue to inspire awe to this day.
Influence on Later Dynasties: The Rashtrakutas influenced many later dynasties, including the Hoysalas and the Vijayanagara Empire. The Hoysalas adopted the architectural style of the Rashtrakutas and built many temples inspired by their work.
The Vijayanagara Empire, which emerged centuries later, drew on the Rashtrakutas as a source of inspiration for their art, literature, and architecture.
International Relations: The Rashtrakutas had diplomatic relations with other countries, including the Arab world and China. They were known for their trade relations with these countries and traded in commodities such as silk and spices.
Cultural Synthesis: The Rashtrakutas were instrumental in creating a cultural synthesis between the North and South of India.
They integrated elements of the Northern culture into their own, which led to the development of a unique cultural identity in South India.
Governance and Administration: The Rashtrakutas were efficient administrators and had a well-organized system of governance. They introduced a system of land measurement and taxation, which was later adopted by many other dynasties.
The Rashtrakutas also had a strong system of justice and law enforcement, which helped them to maintain law and order in their territories.
Assignment – II
Q 4) Describe the Chola administration in detail.
Ans. The Cholas were one of the most powerful dynasties in South India, known for their efficient and effective administration.
The Chola administration was well-structured and divided into various departments, each responsible for a specific aspect of governance. Here is a detailed description of the Chola administration:BHIC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Monarchy: The Chola dynasty was ruled by a monarchy, with the king at the head of the administration. The king was known as the ‘Uraiyur Kizhavan’ or the ruler of Uraiyur, which was the capital city of the Chola kingdom.
Central Administration: The Chola central administration was divided into several departments, which included the treasury, army, judiciary, and religious administration.
Each department was headed by a minister who was responsible for the smooth functioning of the department.
Revenue Administration: The revenue administration was a crucial aspect of Chola governance. The revenue department was responsible for collecting taxes and maintaining records of land revenue.
The Cholas used a system of land measurement known as ‘ayaram’ to calculate land revenue. The land revenue was collected in kind or cash, depending on the produce of the land.
Local Administration: The Cholas had a decentralized system of governance, with local administration headed by the village headman or ‘karnam’.
The karnam was responsible for maintaining law and order, collecting taxes, and resolving disputes at the village level.
Justice System: The Cholas had a well-developed justice system that was based on the principles of dharma, or righteousness. The king was the ultimate authority in matters of justice, and he was assisted by a council of ministers and judges.
The judiciary was divided into civil and criminal courts, and punishments were meted out based on the severity of the crime.
Military Administration: The Cholas had a powerful army that was well-trained and organized. The army was divided into different units, such as cavalry, infantry, and chariots.BHIC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The Cholas also had a navy, which controlled the Indian Ocean and helped them to maintain trade relations with other countries.
Temple Administration: The Cholas were great patrons of art and architecture and built many impressive temples. The temple administration was responsible for the maintenance and upkeep of the temples.
The Cholas also donated land and money to the temples and appointed priests to perform religious ceremonies.
Diplomatic Relations: The Cholas had diplomatic relations with other countries, including Sri Lanka, China, and Southeast Asia. They maintained trade relations with these countries and exported spices, textiles, and other commodities.
Education: The Cholas were great patrons of learning and established many centers of learning, including universities and schools.
Education was free and open to all, and the Cholas encouraged the study of arts, literature, and sciences.BHIC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Trade and Commerce: The Cholas were great traders and maintained a vast network of trade relations with other countries. They controlled the major trade routes in South India and exported textiles, spices, and other goods.
The Cholas also introduced new technologies, such as shipbuilding and navigation, which helped them to expand their trade networks.
Social Welfare: The Cholas were committed to the welfare of their subjects and implemented various measures to improve their lives.
They provided employment opportunities, built roads, bridges, and canals, and supported agriculture and irrigation. The Cholas also built hospitals and provided free medical care to the poor and needy.
Art and Culture: The Chola dynasty was a period of great artistic and cultural flourishing. The Cholas were patrons of art, literature, and music, and built many impressive temples and monuments.
The Cholas also encouraged the development of Tamil literature, which produced many great works during this period.BHIC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Q 5) Write a note on the post-Gupta economy.
Ans. The post-Gupta period in India witnessed significant changes in the economy. The decline of the Gupta Empire and the rise of regional powers led to the fragmentation of the Indian subcontinent, resulting in changes in the economic structure.
Agriculture remained the backbone of the Indian economy during this period. The land revenue system was prevalent, and the state collected taxes in kind.
The state also provided support for agriculture, such as irrigation facilities and construction of canals.
The trade and commerce of the post-Gupta period were significantly affected by the political fragmentation of the subcontinent. The decline of the Gupta Empire led to a decline in long-distance trade. BHIC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The silk route, which was an important trade route connecting India with China and Central Asia, also suffered a decline during this period.
However, maritime trade flourished during this period, with the Indian Ocean becoming the hub of trade activities.
Ports such as Kaveripattinam, Mamallapuram, and Arikamedu played a significant role in maritime trade.
The post-Gupta period also saw the emergence of new industries such as textiles, metalworking, and pottery.
The textile industry, in particular, witnessed significant growth during this period. The production of cotton textiles increased, and new techniques such as resist-dyeing and block printing were introduced.
The post-Gupta period also witnessed the rise of regional powers, such as the Chalukyas, Pallavas, and Cholas.
These regional powers played a significant role in the economic development of their respective regions. BHIC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The Chalukyas, for instance, introduced new irrigation techniques and promoted the cultivation of sugarcane, which became an important cash crop.
The post-Gupta period also witnessed the growth of banking and finance. Money lending was prevalent, and merchants and traders established guilds to protect their interests.
The state also established its own banking system, which facilitated trade and commerce.
The post-Gupta period also saw the growth of urban centers. Towns such as Ujjain, Pataliputra, and Mathura declined, while new towns such as Kannauj, Thanjavur, and Madurai emerged.
These new towns were centers of trade and commerce and played a significant role in the economic development of their respective regions.
The post-Gupta period also saw the emergence of feudalism. The regional powers that emerged during this period, such as the Chalukyas and Pallavas, established their own feudal systems.
The feudal lords controlled the land and collected taxes, while the state remained the ultimate authority.BHIC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Q 6) Explain the various theories of the Rise of Rajputs.
Ans. The Rajputs were a dominant social group in medieval India, known for their bravery and military prowess.
The rise of the Rajputs has been a subject of much scholarly debate, and several theories have been put forward to explain their rise. Here are some of the most prominent theories:
Migration theory: According to this theory, the Rajputs were originally migrants from Central Asia who came to India and established themselves as a dominant social group. BHIC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
This theory is supported by the similarities between the Rajput and Central Asian cultures, such as the practice of horse riding and archery.
Indigenous theory: This theory argues that the Rajputs were originally an indigenous group who rose to prominence during the medieval period.
This theory is supported by the fact that the Rajputs were primarily concentrated in Rajasthan and the surrounding areas, which have a long history of indigenous culture.
Tribal theory: According to this theory, the Rajputs were originally members of various tribal groups who came together to form a powerful social group. This theory is supported by the fact that many Rajput clans claim tribal origins.
Integration theory: This theory suggests that the Rajputs were a result of the integration of various social groups, including the Kshatriyas, Brahmins, and other groups, during the medieval period.
This theory is supported by the fact that the Rajputs had a complex social structure that incorporated various groups.
Colonial theory: According to this theory, the rise of the Rajputs was a result of the colonial period, during which the British rulers promoted the Rajputs as a symbol of Indian martial glory. BHIC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
This theory is supported by the fact that the Rajputs rose to prominence during the colonial period, and their image as brave warriors was promoted by the British.
Political theory: According to this theory, the rise of the Rajputs was a result of their strategic alliances and military prowess, which allowed them to establish themselves as powerful rulers.
This theory is supported by the fact that many Rajput clans were known for their military skills and were able to establish their own independent kingdoms.
Economic theory: This theory argues that the rise of the Rajputs was a result of their control over trade and commerce, which allowed them to accumulate wealth and power.
This theory is supported by the fact that many Rajput kingdoms were located at strategic trade routes and had thriving trade and commerce.
Social theory: According to this theory, the rise of the Rajputs was a result of their social status as Kshatriyas, or warriors, which gave them a privileged position in the society. BHIC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
This theory is supported by the fact that the Rajputs were seen as the protectors of the Hindu dharma and were held in high regard by the society.
Assignment – III
Q 7) Pallava art and temple architecture
Ans. The Pallavas were a dynasty that ruled over parts of South India from the 3rd century CE to the 9th century CE.
They were known for their contributions to art and architecture, particularly in the form of temple construction. Here are some of the key features of Pallava art and temple architecture:
Dravidian style: The Pallavas were the pioneers of the Dravidian style of temple architecture, which is characterized by a pyramidal tower (vimana) above the sanctum sanctorum (garbhagriha).
The towers are decorated with intricate carvings and sculptures, and are supported by pillared halls (mandapas) and gopurams (entrance gateways).
Monolithic rock-cut temples: The Pallavas also built monolithic rock-cut temples, which were carved out of a single rock face.
These temples are notable for their intricate carvings and sculptures, and are considered to be some of the finest examples of Pallava art.
Iconography: Pallava art is characterized by its rich and intricate iconography, which features gods and goddesses from Hindu mythology.
The sculptures are notable for their detailed and expressive features, and are often accompanied by intricate relief work.
Kanchipuram school of art: Kanchipuram was the capital of the Pallava dynasty, and it became a center of art and culture during their rule.
The Kanchipuram school of art is known for its intricate and detailed sculptures, particularly in the form of bronze idols.
Mandapa architecture: The Pallavas were known for their innovative mandapa architecture, which featured pillared halls with intricate carvings and sculptures.
These mandapas were used for a variety of purposes, including religious ceremonies, dance performances, and social gatherings.
Some of the most notable examples of Pallava art and temple architecture include the Shore Temple at Mamallapuram, the Kailasanatha temple at Kanchipuram, and the Mandagapattu rock-cut temple. BHIC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The legacy of the Pallavas in the field of art and architecture is a testament to their artistic and cultural achievements, and continues to inspire generations of artists and architects to this day.
Q 8) Chalukyas of Badami
Ans. The Chalukyas of Badami were a dynasty that ruled over parts of South India from the 6th century CE to the 8th century CE.
They were known for their military conquests, administrative reforms, and contributions to art and architecture. Here are some of the key features of the Chalukya dynasty:
Capital at Badami: The Chalukyas made Badami their capital, which is located in present-day Karnataka. The city is famous for its rock-cut temples and monuments, which were built during the Chalukya period.
Military conquests: The Chalukyas were known for their military prowess, and they expanded their empire through a series of conquests.
They defeated the Kadambas, the Mauryas, and the Pallavas, among others, and established their dominance over much of South India.
Administrative reforms: The Chalukyas introduced several administrative reforms, including the decentralization of power and the establishment of local councils. They also implemented a system of land grants to reward their loyal supporters.
Contributions to art and architecture: The Chalukyas were patrons of art and architecture, and they built several impressive monuments and temples.
The most famous of these is the Badami cave temples, which are carved out of a sandstone cliff and feature intricate carvings and sculptures.
Cultural exchange: The Chalukyas were known for their cultural exchange with other dynasties, including the Pallavas and the Guptas. This led to the spread of art, literature, and religion across South India.
Some of the most notable rulers of the Chalukya dynasty include Pulakeshin I, who defeated the Kadamba king Mayurasharma and established the Chalukya empire, and Pulakeshin II, who defeated the Pallava king Mahendravarman I and expanded the empire to its greatest extent.BHIC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The legacy of the Chalukyas of Badami continues to be felt in South India, particularly in the field of art and architecture, where their contributions remain an important part of the region’s cultural heritage.
Q 9) Property Rights of women
Ans. Property rights of women refer to the legal rights and entitlements that women have with respect to property ownership, transfer, and inheritance.
Historically, women’s property rights have been limited and often suppressed in many societies, including in India.
However, over time, various legal and social reforms have been introduced to improve the status of women’s property rights.
In ancient India, women’s property rights were generally limited, and women had little or no say in the ownership or transfer of property.
During the medieval period, women’s property rights continued to be restricted, with the practice of dowry becoming more prevalent.
Women were expected to bring dowry to their husband’s family upon marriage, which often included money, jewelry, and other property.
However, dowry was often misused and abused, leading to increased violence against women.BHIC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
During the colonial period, various legal reforms were introduced that aimed to improve women’s property rights. For instance, the Hindu Widow’s Remarriage Act of 1856 allowed widows to remarry and inherit property from their deceased husbands.
The Hindu Succession Act of 1956 also granted women the right to inherit ancestral property, which was previously restricted to male heirs only.
In recent years, there have been further efforts to improve women’s property rights in India. The Hindu Succession (Amendment) Act of 2005 granted daughters the same rights as sons in the inheritance of ancestral property.
The act also gave women the right to be coparceners (joint owners) in their ancestral property. Additionally, several states in India have introduced land reforms that aim to distribute land to women and marginalized communities.
Despite these legal reforms, women’s property rights in India continue to face challenges. Social and cultural attitudes often discriminate against women’s property ownership, and many women are not aware of their legal rights.
In many cases, women are also subjected to violence and harassment when they attempt to assert their property rights.
However, ongoing efforts to improve women’s property rights have the potential to empower women and promote gender equality in India.
Q 10) Bhakti Movement
Ans. The Bhakti Movement was a religious and social movement that emerged in India around the 6th century CE and reached its peak during the medieval period (between the 12th and 16th centuries).
The term “Bhakti” refers to the devotion and love for a personal god or goddess, and the movement emphasized the importance of individual devotion as a means of achieving salvation.BHIC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The Bhakti movement was characterized by its emphasis on individual spiritual experience, which challenged the traditional Brahmanical hierarchy and the authority of the priestly class.
The movement was open to people from all castes and social backgrounds, and it helped to break down the barriers of caste and class that had long defined Indian society.
The Bhakti movement was also notable for its use of vernacular languages in religious poetry and literature.
Poets and writers composed devotional songs, hymns, and stories in regional languages such as Tamil, Telugu, Hindi, and Marathi, making religious ideas accessible to a wider audience.
This helped to promote a sense of regional identity and cultural pride, which further strengthened the movement.
The Bhakti movement also had a significant impact on Indian art, architecture, and music. BHIC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Many of the great temples and monuments of medieval India were constructed during this period, reflecting the religious fervor and devotion of the Bhakti movement.
Music played an important role in the movement, and devotional songs and hymns became an integral part of religious practice.
The Bhakti movement also had social implications. It challenged the traditional hierarchy of caste and gender, and women played an active role in the movement as devotees and poets.
The movement also promoted the idea of social equality and advocated for the rights of marginalized groups, such as the lower castes and the poor.
Overall, the Bhakti movement was a significant development in Indian history, promoting individual devotion, regional identity, and social equality.
The movement had a lasting impact on Indian culture and society, and its influence can still be seen today in religious practice, literature, music, and art.
Q 11) Sculpture
Ans. Sculpture is the art of creating three-dimensional works of art, often by carving, modeling, casting, or assembling materials such as stone, wood, metal, clay, or plastic. BHIC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Sculpture has been a part of human artistic expression for thousands of years and can be found in various forms and styles across cultures and time periods.
The earliest known sculptures date back to the Paleolithic era, with examples such as the Venus of Willendorf and other figurines that were carved from stone, bone, or ivory.
These sculptures often represented fertility, animals, or human figures, and were used for various purposes, including religious and ceremonial practices.
Over time, sculpture evolved and became more complex and sophisticated, with the Ancient Greeks and Romans producing some of the most iconic and influential works of art in Western history.
Sculptures from this period often depicted gods, goddesses, and other mythological figures, and were created using techniques such as bronze casting and marble carving.
During the Middle Ages, sculpture was often used for religious purposes, with ornate sculptures of saints, angels, and other religious figures adorning churches and cathedrals.
The Renaissance saw a revival of classical sculpture techniques and styles, with artists such as Michelangelo and Donatello creating some of the most iconic works of art in history.BHIC 132 Solved Free Assignment 2023
In the modern era, sculpture has continued to evolve and diversify, with artists experimenting with new materials and techniques.
Contemporary sculpture often incorporates a range of materials and styles, from the minimalist and abstract to the hyper-realistic and surreal.