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BEVAE-181

AECC on Environment Studies

Table of Contents

BEVAE 181 Solved Free Assignment 2023

BEVAE 181 Solved Free Assignment January 2023

PART-A

Q 1. Why ecological significance of forest is more important in present day context? Explain

Ans. Forests are one of the most valuable resources on the planet. They are home to millions of species, and they play a vital role in regulating the earth’s climate, preserving soil fertility, maintaining water quality, and providing food, fuel, and other resources to millions of people worldwide.

However, in the present day context, the ecological significance of forests has become even more important due to the growing threats posed by climate change, deforestation, and other human activities.

One of the primary reasons why forests are so important today is their ability to store carbon.

Forests are natural carbon sinks, absorbing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and storing it in their biomass, soils, and litter.

This makes forests a crucial component of global efforts to combat climate change. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), forests currently store around 638 gigatons of carbon, which is roughly equivalent to 20 years’ worth of global greenhouse gas emissions.

However, forests are also under threat from climate change. Rising temperatures, changes in rainfall patterns, and increased frequency and severity of natural disasters such as wildfires and hurricanes are all putting stress on forest ecosystems.

This, in turn, can lead to increased carbon emissions, as forests that are damaged or destroyed are no longer able to absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

Another important reason why forests are ecologically significant in the present day context is their role in preserving biodiversity.

Forests are home to millions of species of plants and animals, many of which are found nowhere else on earth. BEVAE 181 Solved Free Assignment 2023

They provide habitat for a wide range of wildlife, including large mammals such as tigers, elephants, and gorillas, as well as countless species of birds, reptiles, and insects.

However, deforestation and other forms of habitat destruction are threatening this biodiversity. According to the World Wildlife Fund (WWF), around 80% of the world’s terrestrial biodiversity is found in forests.

As forests are destroyed or fragmented, many species are pushed to the brink of extinction.

This, in turn, can have serious ecological and economic consequences, as entire ecosystems can collapse without the presence of key species.

Forests also play a critical role in regulating water resources. They help to maintain water quality by filtering out pollutants and reducing erosion, and they help to regulate water flow by storing and releasing water during dry periods.

Forests are also an important source of freshwater, with around 75% of the world’s accessible freshwater coming from forested watersheds.

However, deforestation and other forms of forest degradation can have serious impacts on water resources. BEVAE 181 Solved Free Assignment 2023

When forests are cleared, soil erosion and sedimentation can increase, leading to decreased water quality and quantity.

In addition, forests that are destroyed or degraded are no longer able to regulate water flow, which can lead to increased flooding and drought.

Finally, forests are an important source of livelihoods and resources for millions of people worldwide.

They provide food, fuel, timber, and other resources to communities, and they play an important role in the cultural and spiritual traditions of many indigenous peoples.

However, unsustainable logging, mining, and other forms of resource extraction can have serious social and environmental impacts, including displacement of local communities, loss of biodiversity, and destruction of important cultural sites.

Q 2. Answer the following questions

a) Explain the characteristics of Western Ghats for inclusion as Biodiversity hotspots.

Ans. (a) The Western Ghats is a mountain range that runs parallel to the western coast of India and is recognized as one of the world’s biodiversity hotspots.

The following are some of the characteristics of the Western Ghats that make it a significant biodiversity hotspot:

High species diversity: The Western Ghats is home to an incredibly diverse range of species, with estimates suggesting that it has over 7,400 species of flowering plants, 330 species of butterflies, 508 species of birds, 179 species of amphibians, and 134 species of mammals. BEVAE 181 Solved Free Assignment 2023

This high species diversity is due to the unique combination of topography, climate, and geology of the region.

Endemic species: The Western Ghats is also home to a large number of endemic species, which means they are found only in this region and nowhere else in the world.

For example, there are more than 325 endemic species of plants, 32 species of amphibians, and 16 species of birds found in the Western Ghats.

Important ecological and biogeographic region: The Western Ghats is a crucial ecological and biogeographic region due to its unique combination of tropical and subtropical ecosystems, including rainforests, grasslands, and montane forests.

The region is also an important watershed for several major rivers in the Indian subcontinent.

Threatened species and habitats: The Western Ghats is facing several threats to its biodiversity, including deforestation, fragmentation of habitats, climate change, and invasive species.

Many of the species in the region are also threatened with extinction, making it a critical area for conservation.BEVAE 181 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Cultural significance: The Western Ghats is also a culturally significant region and is home to several indigenous communities who have been living in harmony with nature for centuries.

These communities have a deep understanding of the ecology of the region and have developed sustainable practices that help preserve the biodiversity of the area.

Overall, the Western Ghats is a unique and important region that is home to a diverse array of species and is critical for maintaining the ecological balance of the Indian subcontinent.

b) Why hydropower is regarded as the best source of energy? Explain it in detail.

Ans (b)Hydropower is the generation of electricity by converting the energy of flowing water into electrical power. It is considered as one of the best sources of energy for several reasons, which are explained in detail below:

Clean and renewable: Hydropower is a clean and renewable source of energy. Unlike fossil fuels, it does not produce harmful pollutants or greenhouse gases that contribute to climate change.

It also relies on the natural water cycle, which is a renewable resource, making it a sustainable and environmentally friendly source of energy.

Reliable and predictable: Hydropower is a reliable and predictable source of energy. It can generate electricity 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, unlike other renewable energy sources such as solar and wind, which depend on weather conditions.

This makes hydropower an important source of baseload power, which is the minimum amount of power needed to meet the constant demands of the grid.

Cost-effective: Hydropower is a cost-effective source of energy. The initial capital cost of building a hydropower plant can be high, but once it is constructed, the operating costs are relatively low. BEVAE 181 Solved Free Assignment 2023

The cost of generating electricity from hydropower is also competitive with other sources of energy, such as fossil fuels and nuclear power.

Flexibility: Hydropower is a flexible source of energy. It can be easily adjusted to meet changes in demand for electricity.

This is because the water flow that drives the turbines can be controlled, allowing for rapid changes in output to match changes in demand.

Multipurpose use: Hydropower has multiple uses, besides electricity generation. It can be used for irrigation, flood control, and water supply, making it a versatile and valuable resource for communities.

Long lifespan: Hydropower plants have a long lifespan, up to 50-100 years or more. This means that once a hydropower plant is constructed, it can continue to generate electricity for decades, making it a reliable and long-term source of energy.

c) The importance of Biomass has been increasing day by day in our surroundings among renewable resources. Explain it with suitable examples.

Ans (c) Biomass is organic material derived from plants and animals that can be used to generate energy.

It is a renewable resource that has gained increasing importance in recent years due to its numerous benefits, such as reducing greenhouse gas emissions and promoting sustainable development. Here are some examples of the importance of biomass:

Energy production: Biomass can be used to produce heat, electricity, and transportation fuels. BEVAE 181 Solved Free Assignment 2023

For example, wood chips and pellets can be burned to produce heat, while biogas from anaerobic digestion of organic waste can be used to generate electricity.

Biofuels such as biodiesel and ethanol can be produced from crops such as corn and sugarcane.

Waste management: Biomass can also be used to manage waste. Organic waste such as food waste, agricultural residues, and yard waste can be converted into biogas through anaerobic digestion.

This not only produces renewable energy but also reduces the amount of waste that would otherwise end up in landfills, which can emit greenhouse gases.

Agriculture: Biomass can also be used in agriculture. Crop residues such as straw and stalks can be used for animal feed, soil amendments, or energy production.

Additionally, using biomass as a fertilizer can improve soil health and increase crop yields.

Forest management: Biomass from forests can be used for energy production, as well as to reduce the risk of wildfires.

Removing dead and diseased trees from forests can reduce the risk of catastrophic wildfires, while also producing renewable energy.

Carbon sequestration: Biomass can be used for carbon sequestration. Growing trees and plants absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, which is stored in their biomass. This helps to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate climate change.BEVAE 181 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Overall, biomass is an important renewable resource that has multiple uses, including energy production, waste management, agriculture, forest management, and carbon sequestration.

As we strive to reduce our dependence on fossil fuels and promote sustainable development, biomass will continue to play a significant role in our energy mix.

d) How does air pollution affect the atmospheric processes?

Ans (d) Air pollution can have significant impacts on atmospheric processes. Here are some of the ways that air pollution affects atmospheric processes:

Climate change: Air pollution contributes to climate change by increasing the concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.

These gases trap heat and cause global temperatures to rise, leading to changes in atmospheric processes such as wind patterns, precipitation, and atmospheric circulation.

Acid rain: Air pollution, particularly from sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, can lead to the formation of acid rain.

Acid rain can alter the pH of soil and water bodies, leading to the depletion of nutrients and the decline of aquatic ecosystems.

Ozone depletion: Air pollution can contribute to the depletion of the ozone layer, which protects the Earth from harmful ultraviolet radiation.

Ozone depletion can lead to changes in atmospheric processes such as wind patterns and temperature gradients.

Atmospheric chemistry: Air pollution can alter atmospheric chemistry, leading to the formation of new compounds and the breakdown of existing ones.

This can lead to changes in atmospheric processes such as cloud formation and precipitation.BEVAE 181 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Health impacts: Air pollution can have significant impacts on human health, which in turn can affect atmospheric processes.

For example, air pollution can lead to respiratory problems and reduce the body’s ability to absorb oxygen, which can affect the body’s metabolism and overall health.

e) What is Disposal of waste? Why segregation of waste is needed?

Ans.) Disposal of waste refers to the process of getting rid of waste materials, either by incineration, landfilling, or other means. Proper disposal of waste is important to protect public health and the environment.

Segregation of waste refers to the process of separating waste materials into different categories based on their composition, such as biodegradable, non-biodegradable, hazardous, or recyclable.

Segregation of waste is necessary for effective waste management, and it has several benefits:

Resource recovery: Segregation of waste allows for the recovery of valuable resources such as metals, plastics, and paper, which can be recycled and reused.

Reduction of waste volume: Segregation of waste can reduce the volume of waste that needs to be disposed of, which can reduce the need for landfill space.

Hazardous waste management: Hazardous waste needs to be segregated and treated separately to prevent contamination of the environment and public health risks.BEVAE 181 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Composting: Segregation of biodegradable waste materials allows for their proper composting, which can be used as a soil amendment or fertilizer.

Efficient waste management: Segregation of waste allows for more efficient and effective waste management practices, such as recycling and composting, which can reduce the environmental impact of waste disposal.

Overall, segregation of waste is important for effective waste management and to protect public health and the environment.

It helps to recover valuable resources, reduce waste volume, manage hazardous waste, and promote efficient waste management practices.

Q 3. Explain the human-environment relationship by taking examples of biotic and abiotic components?

Ans. The human-environment relationship is a complex interplay between humans and their natural surroundings, which includes both biotic and abiotic components.

Biotic components refer to the living organisms, including plants and animals, while abiotic components refer to the non-living elements, such as air, water, soil, and minerals.

The human-environment relationship has been shaped by the interdependence, interactions, and impacts of humans on the natural environment.

Biotic Components:
The biotic components of the environment are essential for human survival, as they provide food, oxygen, and other resources necessary for human well-being.

However, human activities have had a significant impact on the biotic components of the environment, leading to loss of biodiversity, habitat destruction, and other environmental problems. For example:

Deforestation: Human activities such as logging and clearing of forests for agriculture and urbanization have led to the loss of habitats for many species of plants and animals, leading to biodiversity loss and environmental degradation.

Overfishing: Overfishing and destructive fishing practices have led to the depletion of fish populations and damage to marine ecosystems, affecting the livelihoods of many coastal communities.BEVAE 181 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Agriculture: Modern agricultural practices have had significant impacts on the biotic components of the environment, such as loss of soil fertility, water pollution, and pesticide residues.

However, sustainable agriculture practices can help to mitigate these impacts and promote the conservation of biodiversity.

Wildlife trade: The illegal trade in wildlife, such as ivory, rhino horns, and exotic pets, has had a significant impact on the biotic components of the environment, leading to the decline of many species and disruption of ecosystems.

Abiotic Components:
Abiotic components of the environment are also essential for human survival, providing resources such as water, air, and minerals.

However, human activities have also had significant impacts on these components of the environment, leading to environmental problems such as pollution, climate change, and resource depletion. For example:

Water pollution: Human activities such as industrialization, agriculture, and urbanization have led to the contamination of water sources with pollutants such as chemicals, heavy metals, and plastics.

This can lead to health problems and environmental degradation.

Air pollution: Human activities such as burning fossil fuels, transportation, and industrial activities have led to the release of pollutants such as particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur dioxide, leading to air pollution and associated health problems.BEVAE 181 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Climate change: Human activities such as burning fossil fuels and deforestation have led to an increase in greenhouse gas emissions, which trap heat in the atmosphere and lead to climate change.

Climate change can lead to a range of impacts, including sea-level rise, more frequent and severe weather events, and changes in ecosystems.

Resource depletion: Human activities such as mining, extraction of minerals, and overuse of water resources can lead to the depletion of these resources, leading to environmental degradation and impacting human well-being.

Overall, the human-environment relationship is complex, and it is essential to understand the interactions, dependencies, and impacts of human activities on the biotic and abiotic components of the environment.

Sustainable practices can help to mitigate the impacts of human activities and promote a more harmonious relationship between humans and the environment.

Q 4. “As humans civilisation progressed, man started altering the environment in the pursuit of creating an economic, social and cultural environment of his own choice. This slowly resulted in the depletion of natural resources and degradation of environment.” Explain it in context of national legislations of water acts?

Ans. As human civilization progressed, humans started to alter the environment to meet their economic, social, and cultural needs.

However, these activities have led to the depletion of natural resources and the degradation of the environment. BEVAE 181 Solved Free Assignment 2023

In the context of water, this has resulted in the enactment of several national legislations to protect and conserve water resources.

The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974, was enacted to prevent and control water pollution. The act provides for the establishment of central and state pollution control boards to monitor and control water pollution.

The act also empowers the boards to take measures for the prevention and control of water pollution, including the prohibition and regulation of the discharge of pollutants into water bodies.

The Water (Cess) Act, 1977, was enacted to levy and collect a cess on water consumed by industries, urban areas, and other establishments.

The cess collected is used for the prevention and control of water pollution, conservation of water resources, and the improvement of the environment.

The National Water Policy, 2012, was formulated to ensure the sustainable and equitable management of water resources.

BEVAE 181 Assignment question

The policy recognizes that water is a finite and vulnerable resource and stresses the need for its judicious and sustainable use.

The policy also recognizes the importance of conservation and the need to maintain ecological flows in rivers and other water bodies.

The River Boards Act, 1956, was enacted to establish river boards for the regulation and development of inter-state river basins.

The act provides for the establishment of river boards for each inter-state river basin, which is responsible for the regulation and development of the river basin.

The Ground Water (Control and Regulation) Act, 2005, was enacted to regulate the development and management of groundwater resources.

The act provides for the regulation of drilling and construction of wells, the registration of groundwater users, and the prohibition of unauthorized extraction of groundwater.BEVAE 181 Solved Free Assignment 2023

These national legislations reflect the recognition of the importance of water resources for human well-being and the need to protect and conserve them.

The depletion of natural resources and the degradation of the environment have highlighted the need for sustainable and equitable management of these resources.

The national legislations aim to achieve this by regulating and monitoring water use, preventing and controlling water pollution, and promoting the conservation of water resources.

However, the effectiveness of these legislations depends on their implementation and enforcement.

There are several challenges in the effective implementation of these legislations, including the lack of resources, institutional capacity, and public participation.

The monitoring and enforcement of these legislations also require adequate resources and technical expertise.

Moreover, the issue of water scarcity and the unequal distribution of water resources pose significant challenges to the effective management of water resources.

The competition for water resources among different sectors, such as agriculture, industry, and urban areas, can also lead to conflicts and unsustainable use of water resources.BEVAE 181 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Q 5. “Biosphere reserves are internationally recognised areas established to promote and demonstrate a balanced relationship between Humans and the Biosphere.” Elaborate this statement in the context of conservation of nature?

Ans. Biosphere reserves are internationally recognized areas that are established to promote and demonstrate a balanced relationship between humans and the biosphere.

The concept of biosphere reserves originated in the 1970s, and it aims to promote the conservation of nature while ensuring sustainable development.

In this context, biosphere reserves play a crucial role in the conservation of nature by promoting biodiversity conservation, sustainable use of natural resources, and research and education.

Biodiversity conservation is one of the primary objectives of biosphere reserves. These areas are designed to protect representative ecosystems and species, including endangered and endemic species.

The biosphere reserves are also important for the conservation of genetic diversity, which is essential for the adaptation of species to changing environmental conditions. BEVAE 181 Solved Free Assignment 2023

In addition to protecting biodiversity, biosphere reserves also provide ecological services, such as clean air and water, carbon sequestration, and soil conservation.

Sustainable use of natural resources is another critical aspect of biosphere reserves. These areas are designed to promote sustainable development, which ensures that the natural resources are used in a way that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.

The biosphere reserves provide opportunities for sustainable use of natural resources, such as ecotourism, sustainable agriculture, and forestry.

These activities are carried out in a way that minimizes the impact on the environment and promotes the conservation of natural resources.

Research and education are also essential components of biosphere reserves. These areas provide opportunities for scientific research, monitoring, and education.

The research carried out in these areas helps to increase our understanding of the natural world and the complex interactions between living organisms and their environment.

The education programs in biosphere reserves help to raise awareness about the importance of biodiversity conservation and sustainable development.

The conservation of nature through biosphere reserves has several benefits. First, it helps to maintain the ecological integrity of the planet, which is essential for the survival of humans and other living organisms.

Second, it helps to preserve the cultural and traditional values associated with nature, which are often lost in the process of economic development.

Third, it provides opportunities for economic development through sustainable use of natural resources, such as ecotourism, sustainable agriculture, and forestry.

Finally, it helps to mitigate the impacts of climate change by promoting the conservation of natural resources, which are essential for carbon sequestration and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions.

However, the conservation of nature through biosphere reserves is not without its challenges. One of the significant challenges is the conflicting interests of different stakeholders, such as conservationists, local communities, and government agencies. BEVAE 181 Solved Free Assignment 2023

These conflicting interests can lead to conflicts and compromise the effectiveness of conservation efforts.

Another challenge is the lack of resources, both financial and human, for the effective management of biosphere reserves.

The biosphere reserves require adequate resources for monitoring, research, education, and management.

In conclusion, biosphere reserves play a crucial role in the conservation of nature by promoting biodiversity conservation, sustainable use of natural resources, and research and education.

The conservation of nature through biosphere reserves has several benefits, including maintaining the ecological integrity of the planet, preserving cultural and traditional values, providing opportunities for economic development, and mitigating the impacts of climate change.

However, the conservation of nature through biosphere reserves is not without its challenges, including conflicting interests of stakeholders and the lack of resources for effective management. BEVAE 181 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Therefore, the conservation of nature through biosphere reserves requires a concerted effort from all stakeholders to ensure that the natural resources are conserved and used in a sustainable manner.

PART-B

Q 6. Explain the following terms

(a) Seed Bank
(b) Incineration
(c) Biological Oxygen Demand
(d) Public Health

Ans. (a) Seed Bank: A seed bank is a facility or a storage system that preserves seeds of different plant species to ensure their conservation and availability for future generations.

Seed banks play a critical role in maintaining genetic diversity, which is essential for the survival and adaptation of plant species to changing environmental conditions.

Seed banks also provide a valuable resource for researchers, farmers, and plant breeders who use the stored seeds to develop new crop varieties, improve crop yields, and adapt crops to changing climatic conditions.

(b) Incineration: Incineration is the process of burning waste materials at high temperatures until they are reduced to ash.

Incineration is commonly used for the disposal of hazardous waste materials, such as medical waste, chemical waste, and radioactive waste.

The process of incineration destroys the harmful components of the waste materials, reducing their volume and making them less hazardous to the environment.

However, incineration also produces emissions, such as particulate matter, dioxins, and heavy metals, which can be harmful to human health and the environment.

(c) Biological Oxygen Demand: Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) is a measure of the amount of oxygen required by microorganisms to break down organic matter in water. BEVAE 181 Solved Free Assignment 2023

The BOD test is commonly used to assess the quality of water and the level of pollution in a water body.

High BOD levels indicate the presence of high levels of organic matter, which can deplete the oxygen levels in the water and lead to the death of aquatic organisms.

BOD is an important parameter in water treatment and management, as it helps to monitor the efficiency of treatment processes and assess the impact of human activities on water quality.

(d) Public Health: Public health refers to the science and practice of protecting and improving the health of communities through the prevention of disease, promotion of healthy lifestyles, and management of health risks.

Public health is a multidisciplinary field that involves the collaboration of various sectors, such as health, environment, education, and social services, to promote and protect the health of the public.

Public health initiatives include vaccination programs, health education, disease surveillance, environmental monitoring, and disaster preparedness and response.

Public health is a critical component of sustainable development, as it promotes the health and well-being of communities and contributes to the social and economic development of countries.

Q 7. Answer the following questions

(a) What is lentic and lotic ecosystem? Explain these two with suitable examples.

Ans. Lentic and lotic ecosystems are two types of freshwater ecosystems that differ in their physical characteristics and ecological functions.

Lentic ecosystems, also known as still water ecosystems, are characterized by standing water bodies such as ponds, lakes, and wetlands.

These ecosystems have low water flow, which leads to the accumulation of sediment and nutrients.BEVAE 181 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Lentic ecosystems have a range of ecological functions, including providing habitat for aquatic plants and animals, supporting nutrient cycling, and regulating the water cycle.

Examples of lentic ecosystems include:

Ponds: Small, shallow water bodies that are usually less than 4 meters deep. Ponds are often found in parks, gardens, and urban areas, and support a diverse range of aquatic life.

Lakes: Large water bodies that are deeper than ponds and may have a significant impact on their surrounding environment. Lakes are often used for recreation, fishing, and as a source of drinking water.

Wetlands: Areas of land that are saturated with water, such as swamps and marshes. Wetlands are important habitats for a range of plants and animals and play a crucial role in water filtration and purification.

In contrast, lotic ecosystems are characterized by flowing water bodies such as rivers and streams.

These ecosystems have high water flow, which leads to erosion and sediment transport.

Lotic ecosystems have a range of ecological functions, including supporting the growth of aquatic plants and animals, regulating the water cycle, and transporting nutrients and organic matter.

Examples of lotic ecosystems include:

Rivers: Large, flowing water bodies that are a vital source of water and nutrients for the surrounding landscape. BEVAE 181 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Rivers support a diverse range of aquatic life and are often used for recreation, transportation, and as a source of drinking water.

Streams: Smaller, more narrow water bodies that are often found in mountainous or hilly areas.

Streams provide habitat for a range of aquatic plants and animals and are important for nutrient cycling and sediment transport.

In summary, lentic and lotic ecosystems are two types of freshwater ecosystems that differ in their physical characteristics and ecological functions.

While lentic ecosystems are characterized by still water bodies such as ponds, lakes, and wetlands, lotic ecosystems are characterized by flowing water bodies such as rivers and streams.

(b) What is ecological succession? Explain the types of succession with suitable diagrams.

Ans (b) Ecological succession is the process by which an ecosystem changes over time in response to changes in the environment.

The changes in the biotic and abiotic components of the ecosystem occur in a predictable pattern, leading to the development of a stable community.

There are two types of ecological succession: primary succession and secondary succession.

Primary Succession: Primary succession occurs in areas that are completely devoid of life, such as newly formed land or areas that have been disturbed by natural disasters such as volcanic eruptions or glaciers.

In primary succession, pioneer species such as lichens and mosses begin to colonize the area. These pioneer species break down the rock and soil, creating a substrate for other plants to grow.

As the plants grow and die, they contribute organic matter to the soil, creating a more fertile environment for other plants to grow.

Over time, a diverse community of plants and animals will develop, eventually leading to a stable climax community.

Secondary Succession: Secondary succession occurs in areas that have been disturbed but still contain soil and a seed bank.

This can occur after natural disturbances such as wildfires or human disturbances such as clear-cutting of forests.

In secondary succession, the process is much faster than in primary succession, as the soil and seed bank provide a substrate for plants to grow.

The early colonizing species in secondary succession are often annual plants and grasses, followed by shrubs and trees. Eventually, a climax community will develop.

(c) Explain the biocentrism and ecocentrism in context of human’s attitude towards nature?

Ans (c) Biocentrism and ecocentrism are two different philosophical perspectives on the relationship between humans and nature.

Biocentrism is a perspective that places primary value on individual living organisms, rather than on species or ecosystems as a whole.

This approach holds that all living organisms have inherent value, and that humans have a moral responsibility to protect and preserve individual living organisms.

In this view, humans are just one species among many, and should not prioritize their own interests over the interests of other species.

Biocentrism advocates for the protection of individual organisms and their rights to exist and thrive, even if it may not be in the best interest of human beings.

Ecocentrism, on the other hand, places value on the ecosystem as a whole, rather than on individual living organisms.

This perspective holds that the health and well-being of the ecosystem is paramount, and that humans are only one part of a larger system.

Ecocentrism views the natural world as a complex and interconnected web of relationships, and advocates for the preservation of those relationships.

This perspective prioritizes the protection and preservation of entire ecosystems and the natural processes that sustain them.

In practical terms, biocentrism and ecocentrism can lead to different approaches to environmental issues.BEVAE 181 Solved Free Assignment 2023

For example, a biocentric perspective may focus on protecting the rights of individual animals and plants, while an ecocentric perspective may prioritize the health of entire ecosystems.

Both perspectives recognize the intrinsic value of nature and the importance of protecting it, but they approach this goal from different angles.

It’s important to note that these perspectives are not necessarily mutually exclusive, and some individuals and organizations may incorporate elements of both approaches in their environmental philosophy.

Ultimately, the choice between biocentrism and ecocentrism is a matter of personal belief and values, and can influence how humans interact with and treat the natural world.

(d) Define natural calamities and its types with suitable examples.

Ans) Natural calamities are events or disasters that are caused by natural phenomena, such as weather, geological, or other natural processes.

They can cause widespread destruction, loss of life, and significant economic and social impacts.

The types of natural calamities are:

Geological disasters: These are disasters caused by natural geological processes such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, and tsunamis.

These events can cause significant damage to buildings, infrastructure, and natural environments. For example, the 2011 earthquake and tsunami in Japan caused widespread destruction and loss of life.

Meteorological disasters: These are disasters caused by natural weather-related phenomena such as hurricanes, tornadoes, droughts, floods, and heatwaves.

These events can cause significant damage to property, infrastructure, and can also result in loss of life. BEVAE 181 Solved Free Assignment 2023

For example, Hurricane Katrina in 2005 caused widespread flooding and damage in the southeastern United States.

Biological disasters: These are disasters caused by natural biological phenomena such as epidemics, pandemics, and insect infestations.

These events can cause significant harm to human health and the natural environment. For example, the COVID-19 pandemic has had a profound impact on global health and economies.

Space disasters: These are disasters caused by natural events that occur in space such as solar flares, asteroid impacts, and geomagnetic storms.

While these events are rare, they can have significant impacts on Earth’s technology and infrastructure.

For example, a large solar flare in 1859 caused widespread disruptions to telegraph systems across North America and Europe.

Overall, natural calamities are unpredictable and can cause significant harm to people, the environment, and economies. It is important to take steps to prepare for and mitigate their impacts.

Q 8. Explain the causes of ozone depletion? How do ultraviolet rays affects human health, animals, plants, micro-organisms, water and air quality.

Ans. Ozone depletion is the gradual thinning of the ozone layer in the stratosphere, which is caused by the release of man-made chemicals such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), and halons into the atmosphere.

The following are the major causes of ozone depletion:

Human Activities: Human activities such as industrialization, transportation, and the use of certain products like air conditioners, refrigerators, and aerosols have resulted in the release of CFCs and HFCs into the atmosphere.

These chemicals rise into the stratosphere and interact with ozone molecules, leading to their breakdown and eventual depletion of the ozone layer.

Natural Causes: Natural phenomena such as volcanic eruptions and solar flares also contribute to the depletion of the ozone layer.

Volcanic eruptions release chlorine and bromine compounds that can react with ozone molecules, leading to their breakdown.

Solar flares emit high-energy particles that can cause the release of ozone-depleting compounds from the atmosphere.

The depletion of the ozone layer has numerous negative impacts on the environment and human health. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun can penetrate the depleted ozone layer and cause several harmful effects on living organisms and the environment. The following are some of the effects of UV radiation:

Human Health: Exposure to high levels of UV radiation can cause skin cancer, cataracts, and other health problems.

It can also weaken the immune system, making individuals more susceptible to infections.BEVAE 181 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Animals and Plants: UV radiation can also have harmful effects on animals and plants. It can cause skin cancer in animals and damage their eyesight.

For plants, exposure to high levels of UV radiation can cause a decrease in their growth rate, affect their reproductive processes, and reduce crop yields.

Micro-organisms: UV radiation can kill or damage micro-organisms such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi. This can have negative impacts on ecosystems and the food chain.

Water Quality: UV radiation can also affect the quality of water by breaking down organic matter and pollutants. This can result in the release of harmful chemicals and toxins into water bodies, affecting aquatic life and human health.

Air Quality: The depletion of the ozone layer can also contribute to air pollution. When the ozone layer is depleted, more UV radiation enters the lower atmosphere, leading to the production of harmful chemicals such as nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds.

These chemicals can react with sunlight and other pollutants to form smog, which can cause respiratory problems.

Q 9. “Education for environmental awareness is essential for the younger generation as well as for the older generation.” Explain the statement with suitable examples.

Ans. Environmental awareness is the knowledge and understanding of the natural world and its ecosystems, the impact of human activities on the environment, and the ways in which we can protect and preserve the environment for future generations. BEVAE 181 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Education for environmental awareness is essential for both the younger and older generations, as it can help to create a sustainable and healthier future for all.

The following are some of the reasons why education for environmental awareness is important:

Creating Awareness: Education for environmental awareness helps to create awareness among individuals about the importance of protecting the environment.

This can help individuals to understand the impacts of their actions on the environment and take steps to reduce their ecological footprint.

Promoting Sustainability: Education for environmental awareness can help to promote sustainable practices that can protect the environment for future generations.

This can include using renewable energy, reducing waste, and conserving water resources.

Encouraging Stewardship: Education for environmental awareness can also encourage individuals to become good stewards of the environment.

By understanding the interconnectedness of the natural world and the impact of human activities on the environment, individuals can take responsibility for their actions and make informed decisions that protect the environment.

Building Resilience: Education for environmental awareness can also help to build resilience in communities and ecosystems.

By understanding the impacts of climate change, individuals and communities can take steps to adapt to the changing environment and mitigate the impacts of climate change.BEVAE 181 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Protecting Biodiversity: Education for environmental awareness can also help to protect biodiversity by increasing awareness of the importance of preserving ecosystems and the species that inhabit them.

Suitable examples of education for environmental awareness can be seen in various initiatives and programs aimed at promoting sustainable practices and protecting the environment. Some of these initiatives include:

Environmental Education in Schools: Many schools have implemented environmental education programs that teach students about the natural world and the importance of protecting the environment.

These programs can include lessons on recycling, conservation, and renewable energy.

Community-Based Initiatives: Community-based initiatives such as recycling programs, tree planting initiatives, and beach cleanups can help to raise awareness about environmental issues and encourage individuals to take action to protect the environment.

Eco-Tourism: Eco-tourism initiatives that promote sustainable tourism practices can also help to raise awareness about environmental issues and promote the conservation of natural resources.

Corporate Social Responsibility: Many companies have implemented corporate social responsibility programs that promote sustainable practices and reduce their ecological footprint. BEVAE 181 Solved Free Assignment 2023

These programs can include initiatives such as reducing waste, conserving energy, and using renewable resources.

Government Policies: Governments can also play a role in promoting education for environmental awareness through policies and regulations that promote sustainable practices and protect the environment.

Examples of such policies include laws that regulate pollution and emissions, promote renewable energy, and protect endangered species and habitats.

Q 10. “Water Harvesting is one of the effective measures to combat drought.” Explain this statement with suitable arguments.

Ans. Water is an essential resource for life on earth. However, due to climate change and human activities, water scarcity has become a major issue in many regions of the world.

Drought is a natural calamity that can exacerbate water scarcity and negatively impact agriculture, livelihoods, and the environment.

To combat drought, water harvesting has emerged as an effective measure that can help to improve water availability and security.

Water harvesting refers to the process of collecting and storing rainwater and runoff water from various sources, such as rooftops, land surfaces, and watercourses.

Water harvesting can be done at different scales, from household level to community level to regional level.

The harvested water can be used for various purposes, such as irrigation, domestic use, livestock watering, and recharging groundwater aquifers.

Water harvesting has several advantages in combating drought.

First, it helps to increase water availability during dry periods. Rainwater harvesting can provide a reliable source of water during the dry season when surface water and groundwater resources are depleted.

Second, it helps to improve water quality. Rainwater is generally cleaner than surface water and groundwater, as it does not contain many of the pollutants that are commonly found in these sources. BEVAE 181 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Third, water harvesting helps to reduce soil erosion and land degradation by capturing rainwater and reducing surface runoff.

Fourth, it helps to recharge groundwater aquifers, which are essential for sustaining water supplies in many regions.

There are various techniques of water harvesting that can be adopted depending on the region, soil, topography and type of rainfall.

Some of the techniques include rooftop rainwater harvesting, surface runoff harvesting, and groundwater recharge.

Rooftop rainwater harvesting involves collecting rainwater from rooftops and storing it in tanks or underground reservoirs.

This technique is suitable for urban areas where there is limited space for other water harvesting techniques.

In many cities, rooftop rainwater harvesting has become mandatory by law, and incentives are provided to households for adopting this technique.

Surface runoff harvesting involves capturing runoff water from land surfaces and storing it in reservoirs or underground tanks.

This technique is suitable for regions where there is high rainfall and surface runoff is significant.

Surface runoff harvesting can help to reduce soil erosion and improve water quality by capturing runoff water before it enters streams and rivers.

Groundwater recharge involves enhancing the natural process of groundwater replenishment by capturing and storing rainwater in soil and subsurface formations.

This technique is suitable for regions where groundwater is the primary source of water for irrigation and domestic use.

Groundwater recharge can help to sustain groundwater resources, which are essential for sustaining agriculture and human settlements in many regions.

Water harvesting has been successfully implemented in many regions of the world, including India, China, Australia, and Africa.

In India, the government has launched several initiatives to promote water harvesting, such as the National Water Mission and the Jal Shakti Abhiyan.

These initiatives aim to create awareness about water conservation and provide incentives to households and communities for adopting water harvesting techniques.BEVAE 181 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Ultraviolet (UV) rays are a part of the electromagnetic spectrum that is emitted by the sun. UV rays can have both positive and negative effects on living organisms, depending on the intensity and duration of exposure.

Excessive exposure to UV rays can cause several health problems in humans, such as skin cancer, cataracts, and immune system suppression.

Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in many countries, and UV radiation is one of the major risk factors for this disease.

Cataracts are a leading cause of blindness in the world, and UV radiation is a major risk factor for this condition. Immune system suppression can increase the risk of infectious diseases and reduce the effectiveness of vaccines.

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