ACADEMIC WRITING AND COMPOSITION
BEGG 173 Solved Free Assignment 2023
BEGG 173 Solved Free Assignment January 2023
Q 1. How is academic writing different from non-academic writing? Give suitable examples of both.
Ans. Academic writing and non-academic writing differ in their purpose, style, tone, and intended audience. BEGG 173 Solved Free Assignment
Academic writing is formal, objective, and often presents research findings or academic arguments, while non-academic writing is more informal and can include a wide range of styles and purposes.
Examples of academic writing include:
Research papers: These are formal and structured documents that present original research and data, usually written by academics and scholars in various fields of study.
Theses and dissertations: These are in-depth academic works that represent original research and scholarship, and are typically required for advanced degrees such as Master’s or PhDs.
Academic articles: These are formal publications in academic journals that present research findings and academic arguments, usually written by scholars in a particular field. BEGG 173 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Examples of non-academic writing include:
Creative writing: This can include fiction, poetry, and other forms of creative expression that are written for entertainment, artistic expression, or personal fulfillment.
Business writing: This includes emails, reports, memos, and other forms of writing used in the workplace to communicate with colleagues, clients, or customers.
Personal writing: This includes journals, diaries, letters, and other forms of personal writing that are not intended for a wider audience or for academic purposes.
In general, academic writing is more formal, objective, and structured than non-academic writing, which can be more informal and diverse in its styles and purposes.
Q 2. Write a short note on what you understand by the term ‘critical thinking’. What are the three essential components of critical thinking?
Ans. Critical thinking is a cognitive process that involves analyzing, evaluating, and synthesizing information to form well-reasoned judgments or decisions.
It is a process of thinking that involves questioning assumptions, considering multiple perspectives, and weighing evidence in order to arrive at a logical and informed conclusion.BEGG 173 Solved Free Assignment 2023
At its core, critical thinking is a way of thinking that challenges the status quo and demands evidence-based reasoning.
It is a tool for separating fact from fiction and for making informed decisions that are grounded in sound reasoning and objective analysis.
The three essential components of critical thinking are:
Analysis: This involves breaking down complex information into smaller parts in order to understand it better. BEGG 173 Solved Free Assignment
This includes identifying the different components of an argument or problem, examining evidence and assumptions, and considering the strengths and weaknesses of different viewpoints.
By analyzing information in this way, critical thinkers are able to identify underlying patterns, assumptions, and biases that may be hidden in the data.
For example, if a critical thinker is analyzing a scientific study, they might look at the methods used to collect data, the sample size, and the statistical analysis techniques used to draw conclusions. BEGG 173 Solved Free Assignment 2023
They might also consider the funding source for the study and any potential conflicts of interest that could bias the results. By analyzing this information, the critical thinker can assess the credibility and reliability of the study’s findings.
Evaluation: This involves assessing the validity and reliability of information in order to determine its usefulness or relevance. BEGG 173 Solved Free Assignment
This includes considering the credibility of sources, the quality of evidence presented, and the logic of arguments.
By evaluating information in this way, critical thinkers are able to identify flawed arguments and weak evidence, and can avoid making decisions that are based on faulty reasoning.
For example, if a critical thinker is evaluating a political argument, they might consider the credibility of the speaker, the sources of evidence presented, and the logic of the argument.
They might also consider the biases and interests of the speaker and any potential conflicts of interest that could influence their argument.
By evaluating this information, the critical thinker can assess the strength of the argument and make an informed decision about whether or not to accept it.
Synthesis: This involves combining different pieces of information to form a coherent and well-supported conclusion.
This includes using evidence and reasoning to arrive at a logical and well-supported judgment or decision. BEGG 173 Solved Free Assignment 2023
By synthesizing information in this way, critical thinkers are able to make informed decisions that are based on sound reasoning and objective analysis.
For example, if a critical thinker is synthesizing information about a political issue, they might consider multiple sources of information, including news articles, research studies, and policy proposals.
They would then weigh the evidence presented in these sources, consider the potential biases and interests of the speakers, and use their own reasoning and judgment to arrive at a well-supported conclusion.
Q 3. What aspects should be considered while writing the introductory paragraph of an academic essay?
Ans. The introductory paragraph of an academic essay is a crucial element that sets the tone for the entire paper. It serves as the hook to engage the reader’s interest and provide context for the topic being discussed.
There are several aspects that should be considered while writing the introductory paragraph of an academic essay.
Attention-grabbing opening: The first sentence of the introductory paragraph should be attention-grabbing and pique the reader’s interest.
This can be done by using a quote, a startling statistic, a rhetorical question, or an anecdote that is related to the topic of the essay.
The purpose of this opening is to create curiosity and intrigue the reader to continue reading.BEGG 173 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Background information: The next few sentences should provide some background information on the topic of the essay.
This information should be relevant and contextualize the topic for the reader. The background information should be presented in a way that is interesting and engaging, rather than dry and factual.
Thesis statement: The thesis statement is the most important sentence in the entire essay, and it should be presented in the introductory paragraph.
The thesis statement should be clear and concise, and it should express the main argument or point of the essay. The thesis statement should be debatable and provide a roadmap for the rest of the essay.
Scope of the essay: After presenting the thesis statement, the introductory paragraph should provide some indication of the scope of the essay.
This includes the main points that will be covered in the essay, as well as any limitations or boundaries that will be set.
Significance of the topic: The introductory paragraph should also explain why the topic of the essay is significant or important.
This can be done by providing context and explaining how the topic relates to broader issues or debates. The significance of the topic should be presented in a way that is persuasive and compelling.
Transition to the body paragraphs: The final sentence of the introductory paragraph should provide a smooth transition to the body paragraphs of the essay.
This can be done by summarizing the main points that will be covered in the essay or by providing a preview of the next section.
Q 4. With suitable examples, explain the significance of ‘signposts’ and ‘transitions’ in narrative.
Ans. Signposts and transitions are essential elements in narrative writing that help to guide the reader through the story and connect different parts of the narrative together. BEGG 173 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Signposts are clear signals that indicate to the reader what is going to happen next, while transitions are words or phrases that connect different parts of the narrative and create a smooth flow of ideas.
Together, signposts and transitions help to create a coherent and well-structured narrative that is easy for the reader to follow.
Signposts are important because they help to keep the reader engaged and interested in the story.
By indicating what is going to happen next, signposts create a sense of anticipation and excitement that keeps the reader engaged.
For example, in a mystery novel, a signpost might be a clue that is discovered that indicates that the detective is getting closer to solving the crime.
This creates a sense of anticipation and excitement that keeps the reader engaged in the story.
Transitions are also important because they create a smooth flow of ideas and help to connect different parts of the narrative together. Without transitions, the narrative can feel disjointed and confusing.
For example, if a story jumps suddenly from one scene to another without any transition, the reader may feel disoriented and find it difficult to follow the narrative.
However, if a story uses transitions to connect different parts of the narrative, it creates a sense of coherence and makes the story easier to follow.
There are several different types of signposts and transitions that can be used in narrative writing. Here are a few examples:
Signposts: BEGG 173 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Foreshadowing: A hint or clue that suggests what is going to happen later in the story.
For example, in a horror movie, a signpost might be a character hearing strange noises in the attic, which suggests that something scary is going to happen later in the story.
Flashback: A scene that takes the reader back in time to an earlier point in the narrative.
For example, in a coming-of-age novel, a signpost might be a flashback to the protagonist’s childhood, which helps to explain why they are the way they are now.
Q 5. Explain, with examples, how narrative writing differs from expository writing.
Ans. Narrative writing and expository writing are two different types of writing that serve different purposes and have different structures.
Narrative writing is typically used to tell a story or describe a personal experience, while expository writing is used to explain, describe, or inform about a particular topic. Here are some of the key differences between the two types of writing:
Purpose: The main purpose of narrative writing is to entertain and engage the reader by telling a story or describing a personal experience.
The purpose of expository writing is to inform, explain, or describe a topic in a clear and concise manner.BEGG 173 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Structure: Narrative writing often follows a chronological structure that moves from one event to another in a linear fashion.
Expository writing, on the other hand, is structured in a way that presents information logically and often includes headings, bullet points, and other visual aids to help the reader navigate the content.
Point of view: Narrative writing often uses first-person point of view, meaning the author is telling the story from their own perspective. Expository writing can use different points of view depending on the purpose and context of the writing.
Language: Narrative writing often uses descriptive language, figurative language, and dialogue to create vivid images in the reader’s mind. Expository writing uses clear and concise language to explain and inform.
Examples: Narrative writing can include personal anecdotes, short stories, and memoirs, while expository writing can include research papers, informative articles, and technical manuals.
For example, consider the following two paragraphs:
Narrative Writing:BEGG 173 Solved Free Assignment 2023
I woke up to the sound of birds chirping outside my window. It was a beautiful summer day, and I was excited to go on a hike in the mountains.
I packed my backpack with water, snacks, and sunscreen, and set out on the trail. As I hiked, I felt the sun on my face and the wind in my hair. The views were breathtaking, and I felt alive and free.
Hiking is a popular outdoor activity that provides both physical and mental benefits. According to a study conducted by the American Hiking Society, hiking can improve cardiovascular health, lower blood pressure, and reduce stress and anxiety.
Q 1. Discuss the three stages of the process approach to writing.
Ans. The process approach to writing is a method of teaching writing that emphasizes the importance of the writing process, rather than just the final product.
This approach recognizes that writing is a complex and iterative process that involves multiple stages of planning, drafting, revising, and editing.
By breaking down the writing process into these stages, the process approach helps students to develop their writing skills more effectively and produce higher-quality writing. BEGG 173 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Here are the three stages of the process approach to writing:
Pre-writing: The pre-writing stage involves generating ideas, planning, and organizing before actually beginning to write. This stage is crucial for developing a clear and effective writing plan.
During the pre-writing stage, writers might brainstorm ideas, create outlines, or conduct research to gather information and develop a thesis statement.
This stage allows writers to clarify their purpose and audience, and to generate ideas for the content of their writing.
The pre-writing stage may involve freewriting, clustering, or other brainstorming techniques to help generate ideas.
Writing: The writing stage is where the actual composition of the piece takes place. At this stage, the writer puts their ideas into a coherent and structured form. The focus during this stage is on getting the content down on paper or screen.
The writing stage may involve multiple drafts, as the writer refines and clarifies their ideas, and may include experimenting with different sentence structures, vocabulary choices, and writing styles. BEGG 173 Solved Free Assignment 2023
During this stage, writers may use an outline or plan to guide their writing, or they may simply begin with a rough draft and revise later.
Revising and Editing: The final stage of the process approach to writing involves revising and editing the written work.
This stage is where the writer refines and improves the content of the piece, as well as correcting any errors in grammar, punctuation, or spelling.
Revision involves looking at the content of the piece and making changes to improve its clarity, coherence, and effectiveness.
This might involve restructuring paragraphs, adding or deleting sentences, or refining the thesis statement.
Editing involves proofreading the piece to correct any errors in grammar, punctuation, or spelling. This stage is important because it ensures that the final product is polished and error-free.
The process approach to writing emphasizes that writing is an iterative process that involves multiple stages of planning, drafting, revising, and editing.
By breaking down the writing process into these stages, writers can develop their skills more effectively and produce higher-quality writing.
By focusing on the writing process rather than just the final product, the process approach helps students to become more confident and effective writers.
Q 2. What is ‘copyright law’? Why is it important for a writer of academic essays to beaware of copyright law?
Ans. Copyright law is a legal framework that grants exclusive rights to creators of original works, such as writers, artists, and musicians, for a specific period of time.
These rights allow the creator to control how their work is used, reproduced, and distributed. BEGG 173 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Copyright law exists to protect the rights of creators, and to encourage the creation of new works by ensuring that creators can profit from their creations.
For a writer of academic essays, understanding copyright law is essential to avoid infringing on the rights of other creators, and to ensure that their own work is protected.
When writing an academic essay, it is important to be aware of the following aspects of copyright law:
Plagiarism: Plagiarism is the act of using someone else’s work without giving proper credit. This can include copying text, images, or other content from a source without permission.
Plagiarism is not only unethical, but it is also illegal and can result in legal action. Writers of academic essays must be careful to give proper credit to sources they use in their writing, by citing the source of any quotes or ideas.
Fair Use: Fair use is a provision in copyright law that allows for the limited use of copyrighted material without permission, for purposes such as criticism, commentary, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, or research.
However, the use of copyrighted material under fair use must be evaluated on a case-by-case basis, taking into account factors such as the purpose and nature of the use, the amount of material used, and the effect on the market for the original work.
Licensing: Licensing is the process by which copyright holders grant permission for others to use their copyrighted material.
Licensing agreements can include terms such as payment, limitations on the use of the material, and attribution requirements.
Writers of academic essays may need to obtain permission to use copyrighted material in their writing, and must follow the terms of any licensing agreements.
Public Domain: Public domain refers to works that are not protected by copyright and can be used freely by anyone. BEGG 173 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Works enter the public domain when the copyright term expires, or when the copyright holder explicitly waives their copyright.
Writers of academic essays can use works in the public domain without restriction, but must still give proper attribution.
Q 1. What are the defining features of an argumentative essay? With suitable examples, show how argumentative writing differs from persuasive writing.
Ans. An argumentative essay is a type of academic writing that requires the writer to present a claim or argument on a particular topic and provide evidence to support that claim.
The goal of an argumentative essay is to convince the reader to accept the writer’s point of view or to take a specific action. There are several defining features of an argumentative essay, including:
Clear thesis statement: An argumentative essay begins with a clear and concise thesis statement that presents the writer’s main argument or claim. The thesis statement should be specific, debatable, and supported by evidence.
Evidence-based arguments: The writer must provide evidence to support their argument. BEGG 173 Solved Free Assignment 2023
This evidence can come from research, expert opinions, personal experience, or other sources. The writer must also address counterarguments and provide evidence to refute them.
Logical structure: An argumentative essay should be structured logically, with each paragraph supporting the main argument.
The essay should also have a clear introduction and conclusion that summarizes the main points and restates the thesis statement.
Formal tone: Argumentative essays are typically written in a formal tone and avoid the use of emotional language or personal opinions. The focus is on presenting evidence and logical arguments.
Now let’s compare argumentative writing to persuasive writing. While both types of writing aim to convince the reader, there are some key differences in approach.
Persuasive writing may use emotional appeals: In persuasive writing, the writer may use emotional appeals to persuade the reader.
This can include personal anecdotes or appeals to the reader’s values or emotions. Argumentative writing, on the other hand, focuses on logical arguments and evidence.BEGG 173 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Argumentative writing: “Studies have shown that smoking is harmful to one’s health, and therefore smoking should be banned in public places.”
Persuasive writing: “Think about the children who are exposed to secondhand smoke in public places. Don’t you want to protect them and ensure they have a healthy future?”
Evidence requirements may differ: In persuasive writing, the evidence may be less rigorous or more anecdotal. In argumentative writing, the evidence must be rigorous, verifiable, and directly related to the argument being made.
Argumentative writing: “Studies have shown a clear correlation between exposure to violent media and increased aggression in children. Therefore, parents should limit their children’s exposure to violent media.”
Persuasive writing: “I know from personal experience that my child becomes more aggressive after watching violent movies. We need to do something to protect our children from this harmful influence.”
Target audience may differ: In persuasive writing, the target audience may be broader and less informed on the topic, while argumentative writing targets a more specific audience who are well-informed on the topic.
Example: BEGG 173 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Argumentative writing: “The latest research shows that climate change is a serious threat to our planet, and we must take action now to reduce our carbon emissions.”
Persuasive writing: “Did you know that climate change is a serious threat to our planet? It’s up to all of us to take action and do our part to reduce our carbon footprint.”
IV. Write a well structured composition on the topic:
‘Online learning and the higher education scenario in India: issues and possibilities.’
(Your essay should have a clear introductory paragraph, body paragraph and
concluding paragraph. You can take hints from Unit 7 to write this answer).
Ans. Online learning has become a prominent mode of education in recent years, particularly due to the pandemic-induced lockdowns that restricted in-person learning.
The higher education scenario in India has also seen a significant shift towards online learning. While there are several benefits to this mode of education, there are also several issues and possibilities that must be considered.
The first issue is the lack of access to online learning for students from disadvantaged backgrounds.BEGG 173 Solved Free Assignment 2023
This can include students who do not have access to reliable internet or digital devices, or those who live in areas with poor internet connectivity.
Such students may not be able to access online classes or resources, putting them at a disadvantage compared to their peers.
Another issue is the quality of online learning. While many higher education institutions in India have shifted to online learning, the quality of such courses may vary widely.
Some courses may not have adequate resources or support for students, while others may not have qualified faculty to teach online courses. This can lead to a suboptimal learning experience for students.
Moreover, online learning can also have implications for the social and emotional well-being of students.
Online learning can be isolating and may not provide opportunities for social interaction and collaboration that are critical to holistic learning.
This can have implications for students’ mental health and overall well-being.
However, there are also several possibilities that online learning offers for higher education in India. One such possibility is increased access to education.
Online learning can provide access to education for students who may not be able to attend in-person classes due to geographical or financial constraints.
This can help increase the participation of students from diverse backgrounds in higher education.BEGG 173 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Another possibility is the flexibility that online learning offers. Online courses can be taken at a student’s own pace and convenience, allowing them to balance work, personal commitments, and education.
This can be particularly beneficial for non-traditional students who may have other responsibilities, such as family or work.
Furthermore, online learning can also provide opportunities for lifelong learning and upskilling. With the rapid pace of technological change, it is important for individuals to continuously update their skills and knowledge.
Online learning can provide a platform for individuals to access such courses and resources.
In conclusion, the higher education scenario in India has seen a significant shift towards online learning.
While there are several issues that must be considered, such as the lack of access and quality of education, there are also several possibilities that online learning offers.
By addressing the issues and leveraging the possibilities, online learning can play a significant role in expanding access to education and promoting lifelong learning in India.
It is important for institutions and policymakers to work towards ensuring equitable access to online learning and providing quality education that meets the needs of students.BEGG 173 Solved Free Assignment 2023
V. The principal of your college has conducted a meeting to discuss the preparations for the forthcoming College Annual Day. Write a brief report of the meeting.
Ans. Report on Meeting for College Annual Day Preparations
Venue: Raja Nehru Place
A meeting was conducted by the Principal of the college to discuss the preparations for the forthcoming College Annual Day. The meeting was attended by the Heads of Departments, faculty members, and student representatives.
The Principal began the meeting by discussing the importance of the College Annual Day and its significance in showcasing the talents and achievements of the students. He emphasized the need for meticulous planning and coordination to ensure that the event is a success.
The first item on the agenda was the selection of the Chief Guest for the event. It was decided that a prominent personality from the field of education would be invited to grace the occasion.
The Principal requested the Heads of Departments to provide suggestions for potential Chief Guests and informed the attendees that the final decision would be made after careful consideration.
The next item on the agenda was the cultural program. The faculty members were requested to encourage the students to participate in various events such as singing, dancing, and drama. BEGG 173 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The Principal emphasized the need for diversity in the cultural program and suggested that students from different departments should be given the opportunity to showcase their talents. The faculty members were instructed to coordinate with the student representatives to ensure that the events are well-planned and executed.
The third item on the agenda was the sports events. The Principal highlighted the importance of sports in the overall development of students and urged the faculty members to encourage students to participate in various sports events.
He also suggested that events such as athletics, basketball, and volleyball should be included in the sports program. The faculty members were requested to coordinate with the sports department to ensure that the events are conducted smoothly.
The fourth item on the agenda was the decoration of the venue. The Principal instructed the faculty members to ensure that the venue is decorated in an aesthetically pleasing manner.
He suggested that the decoration should reflect the theme of the event and should create a festive atmosphere. The faculty members were requested to coordinate with the student representatives to ensure that the decoration is carried out efficiently.
The final item on the agenda was the logistics for the event. The Principal instructed the faculty members to ensure that all necessary arrangements such as seating, lighting, and sound are made well in advance.
He emphasized the need for coordination among the departments to ensure that there are no last-minute glitches.
In conclusion, the meeting was productive and ensured that all necessary preparations are made for the forthcoming College Annual Day. The Principal thanked all attendees for their participation and urged them to work together to make the event a grand success.
The Heads of Departments and faculty members assured the Principal of their full cooperation and support in ensuring the success of the event.
VI. i. While writing a review, what aspects would you consider, in order to make it most effective?
ii. Write the review of a research article that you read recently in an academic journal.
Ans. When writing a review, there are several aspects that should be considered in order to make it most effective. Some of these aspects include:
Understanding the Purpose of the Review: The first aspect that should be considered is understanding the purpose of the review. The review should be clear about what it aims to achieve, whether it is to provide an evaluation of the product, service, or event being reviewed or to offer an opinion on it. Understanding the purpose of the review will help ensure that the review is focused and effective.
Providing Relevant and Accurate Information: It is important to provide relevant and accurate information in the review. This includes providing details about the product, service, or event being reviewed, as well as any relevant background information. The review should be based on facts, and any opinions expressed should be supported by evidence.BEGG 173 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Maintaining a Neutral Tone: A review should maintain a neutral tone and avoid being overly emotional or biased. It is important to present both the positive and negative aspects of the product, service, or event being reviewed in an objective and fair manner. This helps the reader make an informed decision.
Using Clear and Concise Language: The language used in the review should be clear and concise. This helps the reader understand the review easily and prevents confusion. Complex technical jargon should be avoided, and the language should be appropriate for the intended audience.
Structuring the Review Effectively: The review should be structured effectively, with a clear introduction, body, and conclusion. The introduction should provide an overview of the product, service, or event being reviewed, while the body should provide a detailed evaluation. The conclusion should summarize the main points of the review and provide a final verdict.BEGG 173 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Providing Recommendations: It is useful to provide recommendations in the review, whether it is to suggest improvements to the product or service being reviewed, or to recommend it to the reader. This helps the reader make an informed decision and provides additional value to the review.
Adding Personal Touches: Adding personal touches to the review, such as personal anecdotes or experiences, can help make it more engaging and relatable. However, these should be used sparingly and only when they add value to the review.
Ans (ii) Title: “The Impact of COVID-19 on Mental Health: A Systematic Review of the Literature”
I recently read a research article titled “The Impact of COVID-19 on Mental Health: A Systematic Review of the Literature” published in the Journal of Mental Health Counseling.
The study aimed to provide an overview of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health and well-being based on a systematic review of the literature.
The article provides a comprehensive review of the literature on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health, covering a range of mental health issues, including anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and substance abuse.
The authors used a systematic approach to identify and analyze relevant studies, and the review includes both qualitative and quantitative research studies.
The authors have presented the findings in a clear and concise manner, with an excellent summary of the key themes that emerged from the literature review. The study found that the COVID-19 pandemic had a significant impact on mental health and well-being, with increased levels of anxiety, depression, and other mental health problems reported among the general population, healthcare workers, and other high-risk groups.BEGG 173 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The article also provides valuable insights into the factors that contribute to the impact of COVID-19 on mental health, including social isolation, fear of infection, economic stress, and changes in daily routine.
The authors have discussed the implications of the findings for mental health professionals, policymakers, and healthcare providers, highlighting the importance of addressing the mental health needs of individuals affected by the pandemic.
One of the strengths of this study is the rigor of the methodology used to identify and analyze the relevant literature. The authors have used a comprehensive search strategy, including both electronic and manual searches, to identify relevant studies.
The inclusion criteria were clearly defined, and the quality of the studies was assessed using a standardized tool, ensuring that only high-quality studies were included in the review.
Overall, I found this article to be a valuable contribution to the literature on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health. The authors have provided a comprehensive overview of the literature, highlighting the key themes and factors that contribute to the impact of the pandemic on mental health.
The findings have important implications for mental health professionals, policymakers, and healthcare providers, and the article provides a solid foundation for future research in this area. I would highly recommend this article to anyone interested in the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health and well-being.