IGNOU BEGE 142 Solved Free Assignment 2023

BEGE-142

Understanding Drama

BEGE 142 Solved Free Assignment 2023

BEGE 142 Solved Free Assignment January 2023

Section A

Write short notes

(i) Greek Theatre

Ans (i) Greek theatre is one of the most significant and influential forms of theatre in history. It emerged in ancient Greece during the 5th and 4th centuries BCE and played a crucial role in the religious and cultural life of the Greeks.

The performances were held in outdoor theaters and were part of religious festivals honoring the god Dionysus, the god of wine and fertility.

Greek theatre is divided into two main genres: tragedy and comedy. Tragedies were serious plays that typically dealt with themes such as fate, hubris, and the struggle between human beings and the gods.

BEGE 142 Assignment Question

These plays were meant to inspire and educate the audience and were often seen as a form of moral instruction.

The tragedies often revolved around characters from Greek mythology or historical figures, and the plays were written in verse.

Some of the most famous Greek tragedies include “Oedipus Rex” by Sophocles, “Antigone” by Sophocles, and “Medea” by Euripides.

These plays explored complex themes and were known for their emotional intensity and powerful performances. BEGE 142 Solved Free Assignment 2023

The actors in these plays wore masks and used exaggerated gestures and movements to convey their emotions.

Comedies, on the other hand, were light-hearted plays that typically focused on everyday life and social satire.

They were often seen as a form of entertainment and were meant to make the audience laugh. Some of the most famous Greek comedies include “Lysistrata” by Aristophanes, “The Clouds” by Aristophanes, and “The Frogs” by Aristophanes.

These plays were known for their wit and humor and often featured outrageous characters and situations.

The chorus was an important part of Greek theatre and played a significant role in the performance.

The chorus was made up of a group of performers who sang and danced, providing commentary on the action of the play.

They also helped to create the mood and atmosphere of the performance, adding to the emotional impact of the play.

Greek theatre had a significant impact on the development of Western theatre and continues to influence contemporary theatre today.

The use of masks, the importance of the chorus, and the focus on complex themes and emotional intensity all continue to be important elements of theatre today.

The influence of Greek theatre can be seen in the works of playwrights such as William Shakespeare, who was heavily influenced by Greek tragedy, and in contemporary theatre, which continues to draw on the techniques and themes of ancient Greek theatre.BEGE 142 Solved Free Assignment 2023

(ii) Three Unities

Ans (ii) The Three Unities is a dramatic principle that originated in ancient Greek theatre and was later adopted by French neoclassical playwrights. The Three Unities are unity of time, unity of place, and unity of action.

These principles were seen as essential to creating a successful and effective play.

Unity of time refers to the idea that the action of a play should take place over a period of time that is consistent and limited. In ancient Greek theatre, this meant that the action of the play should take place within 24 hours.

In French neoclassical theatre, the time limit was expanded to 24 hours or less. This principle was seen as important because it allowed the audience to follow the action of the play without becoming confused or losing interest.

Unity of place refers to the idea that the action of a play should take place in a single location. In ancient Greek theatre, this meant that the action of the play should take place in a single outdoor setting, such as a courtyard or public square.

In French neoclassical theatre, the setting was often limited to a single interior location. BEGE 142 Solved Free Assignment 2023

This principle was seen as important because it allowed the audience to focus on the action of the play without being distracted by changes in location.

Unity of action refers to the idea that the plot of a play should be focused on a single, central conflict or issue.

In ancient Greek theatre, this meant that the plot of the play should revolve around a single mythological or historical event.

In French neoclassical theatre, the focus was often on a single individual or group of characters and their struggles.

This principle was seen as important because it allowed the audience to understand and relate to the central conflict of the play.

The Three Unities were seen as essential to creating a successful and effective play because they allowed for a focused and clear presentation of the plot and action.

They also allowed for the development of character and theme within a limited and controlled framework.

However, in modern theatre, these principles are often seen as limiting and have been challenged and expanded upon by many playwrights.

Despite this, the Three Unities continue to be an important part of the history and tradition of Western theatre.BEGE 142 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Section B

(i) ‘Chris…Chris, I did it for you, it was chance
And I took it for you. I’m sixty one years
old, when would I have another chance to make
something for you?

Ans. The lines “Chris…Chris, I did it for you, it was chance
And I took it for you. I’m sixty one years
old, when would I have another chance to make
something for you?” suggest that the speaker is attempting to justify their actions to Chris, likely in response to a question or accusation. The speaker seems to be implying that they did something risky or unexpected for Chris, perhaps without consulting them first, and that they did so out of a desire to help or benefit Chris.

The phrase “it was chance” suggests that the speaker took a risk, possibly in the hope of achieving a certain outcome or goal.

The fact that the speaker is 61 years old and implies that they may not have another chance to make something for Chris suggests that the opportunity they took was rare or unlikely to come again.

The speaker may be attempting to communicate the importance of the action they took and the sacrifices they made in order to carry it out.

The lines may also reflect a sense of guilt or remorse on the part of the speaker, particularly if their actions had unintended consequences or negative outcomes.

By stating that they did it for Chris, the speaker may be attempting to justify their behavior or deflect blame away from themselves.

At the same time, the lines also suggest a sense of pride or satisfaction on the part of the speaker for having taken the risk and made something for Chris.

Overall, the lines reflect the complex dynamics that can exist between individuals who are close to one another, particularly within families or other intimate relationships. BEGE 142 Solved Free Assignment 2023

The desire to help or support a loved one can sometimes lead to actions that are well-intentioned but ultimately misguided or harmful.

At the same time, the lines also reflect the power of love and the lengths that people will go to in order to support and care for one another.

(ii) the object of his existence is ….. as if ……. he were
there only to fill in the gaps in the lives of
others …… whatever other people expect of him….. or
in whichever way they think they can use him.”

Ans. The phrase “the object of his existence is…as if…he were there only to fill in the gaps in the lives of others…whatever other people expect of him…or in whichever way they think they can use him” suggests that the person being described is living solely to fulfill the needs and desires of others, rather than pursuing their own goals or ambitions.

The use of the word “object” implies that this person is being treated as a thing or tool rather than a human being with their own thoughts, feelings, and desires.

The phrase “fill in the gaps in the lives of others” suggests that this person is seen as a supporting character in the lives of others, rather than the protagonist of their own story. BEGE 142 Solved Free Assignment 2023

They exist to help others achieve their goals or fill a need, rather than pursuing their own dreams or aspirations. The phrase “whatever other people expect of him” implies that this person is willing to do whatever it takes to please others, even if it means sacrificing their own needs and desires.

The phrase “in whichever way they think they can use him” suggests that this person is seen as a resource or tool to be utilized by others, rather than a person with their own agency and autonomy.

They may be willing to take on any role or task that is asked of them, even if it is not something they enjoy or are passionate about.

Overall, the phrase reflects the dangers of living solely to please others, rather than pursuing one’s own passions and desires.

It suggests that people who prioritize the needs and desires of others over their own may be at risk of losing their sense of self and becoming objects to be used by others.

It also highlights the importance of individuality and self-discovery, and the need to prioritize one’s own goals and aspirations in order to lead a fulfilling and meaningful life.BEGE 142 Solved Free Assignment 2023

(iii) ‘With the British, we have been losers all the way –
yes – but this is a new era. This is a new war. We
have bled for you. We have fought your wars for
you, against the Germans, Japanese, Italians.

Ans. The lines “With the British, we have been losers all the way – yes – but this is a new era. This is a new war. We have bled for you.

We have fought your wars for you, against the Germans, Japanese, Italians,” suggest a sense of frustration and resentment towards the British on the part of the speaker.

The use of the phrase “losers all the way” implies that the speaker feels that their country has been consistently disadvantaged in its dealings with the British, and that they have been on the losing side of previous conflicts.

Despite this frustration, the lines also suggest a willingness on the part of the speaker to fight alongside the British in a new conflict.

By referring to the current situation as a “new era” and a “new war,” the speaker implies that they see this conflict as a chance for a fresh start, and perhaps an opportunity for their country to gain some measure of respect or recognition.

The phrase “we have bled for you” implies a sense of sacrifice and loyalty to the British cause, despite past grievances.

At the same time, the lines also suggest a sense of obligation or indebtedness on the part of the speaker. BEGE 142 Solved Free Assignment 2023

By stating that they have “fought your wars for you, against the Germans, Japanese, Italians,” the speaker implies that they have been acting on behalf of the British, rather than pursuing their own interests.

This may reflect a sense of frustration or disillusionment with the sacrifices that their country has made on behalf of others, and a desire to see those sacrifices recognized and rewarded.

Overall, the lines reflect the complex dynamics that can exist between nations and individuals within those nations.

The speaker’s frustration and resentment towards the British may reflect a history of unequal treatment or exploitation, but the willingness to fight alongside them in a new conflict suggests a recognition of the importance of cooperation and mutual support in times of crisis.

The sense of obligation and sacrifice implied by the lines also underscores the costs and consequences of war, and the need for individuals and nations to carefully consider their decisions and actions in times of conflict.

Section C

Q 1. Discuss the theme of social responsibility in the play All My Sons.

Ans. The theme of social responsibility is central to Arthur Miller’s play “All My Sons.” The play explores the ways in which individuals are connected to and responsible for the larger society around them, and the ways in which individuals can be complicit in larger social injustices. BEGE 142 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Through the characters of Joe Keller and Chris Keller, the play raises questions about the responsibilities of individuals in a capitalist society, the role of business in shaping society, and the moral obligations that individuals have towards their fellow citizens.

At the heart of the play is the character of Joe Keller, a businessman who has made his fortune manufacturing airplane parts during World War II.

Keller is a self-made man who has worked hard to provide for his family, but his success is marred by a tragic mistake that he made during the war.

To meet a tight deadline, Keller allowed faulty airplane parts to be shipped out, resulting in the deaths of 21 pilots.

Despite knowing that he was responsible for the deaths, Keller has convinced himself that he is blameless and that he was simply following orders.

The play raises questions about the responsibilities of individuals in a capitalist society. Joe Keller is a self-made man who has worked hard to provide for his family, but his success is built on the backs of others.

He has cut corners and sacrificed safety to maximize his profits, and he is willing to put the lives of others at risk in order to meet his own needs.

At the same time, the play raises questions about the role of business in shaping society. BEGE 142 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Keller’s actions have far-reaching consequences, and his disregard for the safety of others has contributed to a larger social injustice.

The play also explores the moral obligations that individuals have towards their fellow citizens. Joe Keller is a father and a husband, and he is responsible for the well-being of his family.

However, his actions have also put the lives of other families at risk. Chris Keller, Joe’s son, is torn between his loyalty to his father and his sense of moral responsibility towards the families who were affected by the faulty airplane parts.

Ultimately, Chris comes to the realization that he cannot remain loyal to his father without betraying his own moral principles.

The play also raises questions about the ways in which individuals can be complicit in larger social injustices.

Joe Keller’s actions have contributed to a larger system of greed and corruption, and he is not alone in his culpability.

The play suggests that individuals have a responsibility to question the larger systems and institutions that shape their lives, and that they have a moral obligation to work towards a more just and equitable society.

In the end, the theme of social responsibility is central to the play’s message. Miller suggests that individuals have a responsibility to their fellow citizens, and that they cannot simply prioritize their own needs and desires at the expense of others.

The play raises difficult questions about the role of business in society, the responsibilities of individuals in a capitalist system, and the moral obligations that we have towards each other as members of a larger community.

Ultimately, Miller suggests that social responsibility is not just an abstract concept, but a tangible and pressing reality that requires our attention and action.

Q 2. How does the Mau Mau struggle get reflected in the play The Trial of Dedan Kimathi? Discuss.

Ans. “The Trial of Dedan Kimathi” is a play by Ngugi wa Thiong’o and Micere Githae Mugo, based on the real-life trial and execution of Dedan Kimathi, a leader of the Mau Mau movement in Kenya. BEGE 142 Solved Free Assignment 2023

The play explores the themes of colonialism, resistance, and the struggle for independence, and it vividly reflects the experience of the Mau Mau struggle.

The Mau Mau movement was a nationalist rebellion against British colonial rule in Kenya, which lasted from 1952 to 1960.

The Mau Mau fighters, mostly drawn from the Kikuyu ethnic group, used guerrilla tactics to challenge the British authorities, and they were brutally suppressed by the colonial forces.

The play reflects the experience of the Mau Mau struggle through its portrayal of the character of Dedan Kimathi and the events surrounding his trial.

At the heart of the play is the character of Dedan Kimathi, a charismatic leader of the Mau Mau movement who has been captured by the colonial authorities and is being held on trial.

Through his interactions with the other characters in the play, including his fellow prisoners, his wife, and his lawyer, the play explores the motivations and ideals of the Mau Mau fighters, and the brutal tactics used by the colonial forces to suppress their rebellion.

One way in which the Mau Mau struggle is reflected in the play is through its portrayal of the violence and brutality of the colonial forces.

The play vividly depicts the torture and abuse inflicted on the Mau Mau fighters by the colonial authorities, and it shows the impact that this violence had on the individuals involved.

Through the character of Kimathi, the play also explores the psychological toll of the struggle, and the sacrifices that were made by those who fought for independence.

Another way in which the Mau Mau struggle is reflected in the play is through its exploration of the political and ideological motivations of the movement.

The play suggests that the Mau Mau fighters were not simply rebels fighting against colonial rule, but were part of a larger struggle for social justice and liberation.

Through the character of Kimathi, the play explores the ideas of Pan-Africanism and anti-colonialism, and it suggests that the Mau Mau movement was part of a broader global struggle for independence.BEGE 142 Solved Free Assignment 2023

The play also reflects the Mau Mau struggle through its exploration of the themes of identity and cultural heritage.

The play suggests that the Mau Mau fighters were not simply rebelling against British colonial rule, but were fighting to preserve their own cultural identity and heritage.

Through the character of Kimathi and his interactions with other prisoners, the play explores the role of tradition and ritual in the Mau Mau movement, and it suggests that these cultural practices were an important part of the struggle for independence.

Overall, “The Trial of Dedan Kimathi” vividly reflects the experience of the Mau Mau struggle, and it explores the complex political, ideological, and cultural motivations of the movement.

Through its portrayal of the violence and brutality of the colonial forces, and the sacrifices made by those who fought for independence, the play offers a powerful tribute to the Mau Mau fighters and their struggle for freedom.

Q 3. How is the character of Chris contrary to that of his father in All My Sons?

Ans. In the play “All My Sons” by Arthur Miller, the character of Chris Keller is portrayed as being contrary to that of his father, Joe Keller.

While Joe represents the corrupt and selfish values of the post-World War II society, Chris represents the ideals of honesty, responsibility, and social justice.

Chris is portrayed as a man who has a strong sense of morality and social responsibility. He is a former soldier who fought in World War II and witnessed the atrocities of war. BEGE 142 Solved Free Assignment 2023

As a result, he has a deep sense of guilt and responsibility towards his fellow soldiers and the world at large.

This is in stark contrast to Joe, who is willing to put his own interests ahead of those of his fellow soldiers and society as a whole.

One of the main differences between Chris and his father is their approach to business.

Joe is portrayed as a greedy businessman who is willing to cut corners and sacrifice the lives of others in order to make a profit.

In contrast, Chris is an idealistic businessman who wants to use his skills and resources to make a positive impact on society. He is willing to take risks and make sacrifices in order to achieve this goal.

Another way in which Chris is contrary to his father is in his relationships with women. Joe is portrayed as a womanizer who is willing to cheat on his wife and manipulate other women in order to get what he wants.

In contrast, Chris is depicted as a loyal and devoted partner who is willing to stand up for his beliefs and defend the women he cares about.

He is deeply committed to his fiancee, Ann, and is willing to risk his relationship with his family in order to defend her honor.

Chris also represents the ideals of social justice and responsibility. He is deeply troubled by the fact that his father’s business has caused the deaths of innocent soldiers, and he is willing to confront his father and demand that he take responsibility for his actions.

In contrast, Joe is willing to deny his guilt and shift the blame onto others in order to protect his own interests.BEGE 142 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Finally, Chris represents the ideal of honesty and transparency. He is willing to confront uncomfortable truths and acknowledge the mistakes of the past, even if it means confronting his own family members.

In contrast, Joe is willing to hide the truth and manipulate others in order to protect his own interests.

In conclusion, the character of Chris Keller in “All My Sons” is portrayed as being contrary to that of his father, Joe Keller.

While Joe represents the corrupt and selfish values of the post-World War II society, Chris represents the ideals of honesty, responsibility, and social justice.

He is a moral and idealistic businessman who is willing to take risks and make sacrifices in order to make a positive impact on society.

He is also deeply committed to his relationships with women and is willing to defend the honor of those he cares about.

Q 4. Comment on the clash of different perspectives in Halfway House.

Ans. Halfway House is a novel by Mohan Rakesh that was originally written in Hindi and later translated into English.

The novel revolves around the lives of three individuals who come from different social and economic backgrounds and are brought together in a halfway house in a big city.

The novel highlights the clash of different perspectives and the struggle of the characters to understand and come to terms with each other’s beliefs and lifestyles.

The novel Halfway House presents a vivid contrast between the lives of the three main characters, Sajjad, Shaukat, and Jamila. Sajjad is a retired government servant who comes from a traditional Muslim family.

He is a devout Muslim who lives a simple life and values his culture and traditions. Shaukat, on the other hand, is a young man who comes from a poor background and has a progressive outlook on life.BEGE 142 Solved Free Assignment 2023

He is an atheist and a socialist who believes in the power of education and hard work. Jamila is a young, educated woman who comes from a wealthy family.

She is a feminist and an artist who challenges the traditional roles assigned to women in society.

These three characters are brought together in a halfway house, where they must learn to coexist and understand each other’s perspectives.

One of the main themes of the novel is the clash between tradition and modernity. Sajjad represents the traditional way of life, where religion and culture play a significant role in people’s lives.

He believes in the strict adherence to religious customs and practices, and he is critical of Shaukat’s atheist beliefs.

Sajjad sees Shaukat’s atheism as a threat to his religious beliefs and the traditional way of life.

He is also critical of Jamila’s feminist views, which he sees as a challenge to the traditional roles assigned to women in society.

Sajjad’s traditional views are challenged by the modern and progressive outlook of Shaukat and Jamila.

Shaukat, on the other hand, represents the modern and progressive outlook on life. He believes in the power of education and hard work and sees religion and culture as hindrances to progress.

Shaukat is critical of Sajjad’s traditional beliefs and sees them as a barrier to social and economic progress.

He also challenges Jamila’s feminist views, arguing that women should focus on education and careers rather than challenging traditional gender roles.

Shaukat’s modern and progressive views are challenged by the traditional and conservative outlook of Sajjad.BEGE 142 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Jamila represents the feminist perspective, which challenges traditional gender roles and advocates for gender equality.

She challenges the traditional views of Sajjad and argues that women should have the same rights and opportunities as men.

She also challenges Shaukat’s views on education and hard work, arguing that women face unique challenges and barriers that must be addressed to achieve gender equality.

Jamila’s feminist views are challenged by the traditional and conservative outlook of Sajjad and the modern and progressive views of Shaukat.

The clash of different perspectives in Halfway House creates tension and conflict between the characters. They struggle to understand and come to terms with each other’s beliefs and lifestyles.

Sajjad sees Shaukat and Jamila as threats to his traditional way of life, while Shaukat sees Sajjad as a hindrance to progress.

Jamila tries to bridge the gap between the two perspectives, but she faces resistance from both Sajjad and Shaukat.

The clash of different perspectives also highlights the complex nature of identity and the multiple factors that shape an individual’s worldview.

The characters’ perspectives are shaped by their social and economic backgrounds, religious beliefs, and personal experiences.

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