BEGE 141 Solved Free Assignment 2023
BEGE 141 Solved Free Assignment January 2023
Q.I Write short notes on the following :
(i) Simile and metaphor as figures of speech
Ans. Simile and metaphor are two of the most commonly used figures of speech in English language. Both are used to make comparisons between two things, but they do so in different ways. .
A simile is a figure of speech that compares two things using the words “like” or “as”. It is a direct comparison between two things that may have different characteristics but share a common trait.
Similes are used to create vivid images in the reader’s mind and to help convey complex ideas in a more accessible way.
Examples of similes:
✦ Her hair was like a golden waterfall.
✦ The moon hung in the sky like a silver coin.
✦ The leaves rustled like a whispered secret.
✦ He was as fast as a cheetah.
✦The clouds drifted across the sky like fluffy cotton balls.
A metaphor is a figure of speech that compares two things without using the words “like” or “as”. Unlike similes, metaphors create a direct comparison between two things by stating that one thing is another thing.
Metaphors are used to add depth and richness to language and to create powerful images in the reader’s mind.
Examples of metaphors:
✦ Her eyes were sparkling diamonds.
✦ The world is a stage.
✦ He has a heart of stone.
✦ Life is a journey.
✦ The sun was a fiery ball in the sky.
Function of Simile and Metaphor
Both simile and metaphor are used in literature, poetry, and everyday language to add richness and depth to the written or spoken word.
They allow writers and speakers to convey complex ideas in a more accessible way by using familiar comparisons.
Similes and metaphors also add vividness and imagery to writing, which can make it more engaging and memorable for the reader or listener.
Examples in Literature
Similes and metaphors are commonly used in literature to create vivid images and to add depth and meaning to the text. Some of the most famous examples of similes and metaphors in literature include: BEGE 141 Solved Free Assignment 2023
“Life’s but a walking shadow, a poor player
That struts and frets his hour upon the stage,
And then is heard no more. It is a tale
Told by an idiot, full of sound and fury,
Signifying nothing.” – William Shakespeare, Macbeth (Metaphor)
“O my Luve’s like a red, red rose
That’s newly sprung in June;
O my Luve’s like the melodie
That’s sweetly played in tune.” – Robert Burns, A Red, Red Rose (Simile)
(ii) Descriptive Prose
Ans. The sun had just set, leaving behind a sky painted with shades of pink, orange and purple. The air was cool and crisp, with a slight breeze that carried the scent of freshly cut grass.
As I walked along the winding path, my feet crunching on the gravel beneath me, I couldn’t help but feel at peace.
Tall trees towered over me on either side, their branches swaying gently in the wind. The leaves rustled softly, creating a symphony of sound that seemed to soothe my soul. The occasional bird chirped, adding its own melody to the mix.
As I turned a corner, I came upon a small pond, its surface still and glassy. The water was a deep shade of blue, reflecting the colors of the sky above.
A family of ducks paddled lazily in the center, their feathers ruffling as they moved. I watched them for a moment, feeling a sense of calm wash over me.
Continuing on, I passed by a group of tall grasses, their blades swaying gracefully in the breeze. BEGE 141 Solved Free Assignment 2023
A small rabbit darted out from between them, its fluffy tail bobbing as it hopped away. I smiled to myself, happy to have caught a glimpse of the tiny creature.
Further down the path, I came upon a small clearing. In the center stood a towering oak tree, its branches reaching up towards the sky.
A bench sat beneath it, offering a perfect spot to sit and take in the beauty around me. I approached it, feeling the rough bark of the tree under my fingers.
As I sat down, I felt the coolness of the wood seep through my jeans. I closed my eyes, taking in a deep breath of the fresh air.
The sound of the wind rustling through the leaves above me was like a lullaby, and I felt myself relaxing into the moment.
Minutes or hours may have passed, I couldn’t tell. When I opened my eyes, the sky had darkened, and the stars were twinkling above. I stood up, stretching my legs, feeling both refreshed and calm.
As I made my way back along the path, the wind at my back, I knew that I would return to this place again and again. The beauty of nature had once again reminded me of the importance of taking time to simply be.
(iii) Speech as a form of literary expression
Ans. Speech is one of the most powerful forms of literary expression. It has the ability to move, inspire, and motivate people to action.
Throughout history, great speeches have been used to sway opinions, change hearts and minds, and inspire people to stand up for what they believe in.
One of the most famous speeches of all time is Martin Luther King Jr.’s “I Have a Dream” speech, delivered during the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom in 1963. BEGE 141 Solved Free Assignment 2023
In this speech, King used powerful imagery and repetition to express his vision of a world where all people are treated equally, regardless of their race. His words inspired a generation of civil rights activists and continue to inspire people today.
Another example of the power of speech is Winston Churchill’s “We Shall Fight on the Beaches” speech, delivered in 1940 during World War II.
In this speech, Churchill rallied the British people to stand firm against the Nazi threat, inspiring them to continue the fight even in the face of overwhelming odds.
His words helped to lift the spirits of a nation and played a crucial role in the eventual Allied victory.
Speech can also be used to express deeply personal experiences and emotions. In Maya Angelou’s poem “Still I Rise,” she uses the power of her voice to express her resilience and strength in the face of adversity.
Her words remind us of the power of the human spirit to overcome even the most difficult challenges.
In addition to its power to inspire and motivate, speech can also be used to educate and inform.
In Barack Obama’s 2009 speech to students, he encouraged young people to take responsibility for their education and to work hard to achieve their goals.
His words served as a reminder of the importance of education in shaping the future of our society.
Speech can also be used to express dissent and challenge the status quo. In Greta Thunberg’s speech to the United Nations Climate Action Summit in 2019, she passionately expressed her frustration with the lack of action on climate change and called on world leaders to take immediate action to protect the planet.
Her words served as a powerful reminder that the voices of young people can and should be heard in the fight for a better future.
Final speech is a powerful form of literary expression that has the ability to inspire, motivate, educate, inform, and challenge.
Whether delivered on a grand stage or in an intimate setting, the spoken word has the power to move people to action and make a lasting impact on the world.
As writers, we should strive to use the power of speech to express our ideas, share our experiences, and inspire positive change in the world around us.
(iv) Biography as a literary form.
Ans. Biography is a unique literary form that allows writers to delve into the lives of real people and explore their accomplishments, struggles, and contributions to society. BEGE 141 Solved Free Assignment 2023
By examining the lives of others, biographers are able to shed light on the complexities of human experience and offer insights into the ways in which people navigate the challenges of life.
One of the most famous biographies is “The Autobiography of Malcolm X,” as told to Alex Haley. In this book, Malcolm X tells the story of his life, from his troubled childhood to his rise as a powerful civil rights activist.
Through his words, we gain a deeper understanding of the experiences that shaped his beliefs and the struggles he faced as a black man in America.
Another example of the power of biography is “Steve Jobs” by Walter Isaacson. In this book, Isaacson chronicles the life of the co-founder of Apple, from his early years as a rebellious teenager to his groundbreaking contributions to the tech industry.
Through his meticulous research and interviews with those who knew Jobs, Isaacson offers a compelling portrait of a man who changed the world through his innovative ideas and unwavering vision.
Biography can also be used to shine a light on lesser-known figures who have made significant contributions to society.
In “Hidden Figures” by Margot Lee Shetterly, we learn about the lives of the African American women who worked as mathematicians for NASA during the Space Race.
Through her research, Shetterly reveals the challenges these women faced in a segregated society and the important role they played in the success of the space program.BEGE 141 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Biography can also be used to explore the lives of people who have been marginalized or oppressed by society.
In “Just Mercy” by Bryan Stevenson, we learn about Stevenson’s work as a lawyer defending those on death row in the American South.
Through his stories, we gain a deeper understanding of the ways in which race and poverty intersect with the criminal justice system and the impact this has on the lives of real people.
Finally, biography is a powerful literary form that allows writers to tell the stories of real people and explore the complexities of human experience.
By examining the lives of others, biographers are able to offer insights into the ways in which people navigate the challenges of life and contribute to the world around them.
Whether exploring the lives of famous figures or shining a light on lesser-known individuals, biography has the power to inspire and enlighten readers, and to offer a deeper understanding of the world we live in.
Q 1. Write a character sketch of the mother from the story ‘Mother’.
Ans. The character of the mother in the story “Mother” by Grace Paley is a complex and multifaceted one.
While she is not the main protagonist of the story, her presence looms large over the narrative, and her actions and decisions have a profound impact on the lives of those around her.
At the beginning of the story, the mother is introduced as a strong and resilient woman who has raised three children on her own.
She is described as having a “big heart” and a fierce determination to provide for her family in the face of difficult circumstances.
Despite her struggles, she remains optimistic and hopeful, believing that things will eventually work out for the best.BEGE 141 Solved Free Assignment 2023
As the story progresses, we see the mother’s character begin to evolve and become more nuanced.
When her son, Carlos, is arrested for participating in a protest against the government, the mother is initially outraged and determined to fight for his release.
She joins a group of other mothers who are protesting outside the prison, and she becomes a vocal advocate for their cause.
However, as time goes on, the mother’s resolve begins to falter. She becomes increasingly discouraged by the lack of progress in Carlos’ case and begins to doubt whether their efforts are making a difference.
Her frustration and despair begin to take a toll on her health, and she begins to suffer from headaches and other physical symptoms.
Despite her doubts and fears, the mother remains committed to her son’s cause, and she continues to fight for his release even when others have given up hope.
Her determination and resilience are admirable, and they serve as a testament to her strength of character.
At the same time, however, the mother’s character is also marked by her flaws and weaknesses. She can be impulsive and reckless at times, making decisions that are not always in her best interests or those of her family.
For example, she decides to take a job as a maid for a wealthy family, even though it means leaving her children behind and putting herself in a vulnerable position.
Her decision to take the job is motivated by a desire to help Carlos and the other prisoners, as she believes that the money she earns will be instrumental in funding their legal defense.
However, her decision also puts her at risk of being exploited and mistreated by her employers, who treat her with disdain and disrespect.
Despite these challenges, the mother remains committed to her cause, and she continues to fight for justice even when it seems hopeless.
Her character is marked by a fierce determination to do what is right, even in the face of overwhelming odds.BEGE 141 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Q 2. What are the main features of Margaret Laurence’s speech?
Ans. Margaret Laurence was a Canadian novelist and short story writer known for her powerful and insightful works of literature.
In addition to her written work, Laurence was also an accomplished public speaker, delivering speeches on a wide range of topics throughout her career.
Here are some of the main features of Margaret Laurence’s speech:
Clarity and Directness: One of the most striking features of Margaret Laurence’s speech is her clarity and directness.
Whether she was speaking about the role of literature in society or the need for social justice, Laurence was always straightforward and to the point.
She had a gift for expressing complex ideas in simple and accessible language, making her speeches accessible to a wide audience.
Emotional Intensity: Another key feature of Margaret Laurence’s speech was its emotional intensity.
She was deeply passionate about the issues she spoke about, and her speeches were marked by a sense of urgency and conviction.
She had a talent for conveying her emotions through her words, and her speeches often left a lasting impact on her listeners.
Intellectual Rigor: Despite her emotional intensity, Margaret Laurence was also known for her intellectual rigor.
She was a thoughtful and insightful speaker, and her speeches were often marked by a deep engagement with ideas and intellectual debates.
She was not afraid to challenge conventional wisdom or to take controversial positions, and her speeches were always informed by a deep understanding of the issues at hand.BEGE 141 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Literary Allusions: As a writer, Margaret Laurence had a deep love of literature, and her speeches often included references to other writers and works of literature.
She was particularly drawn to the works of William Shakespeare and often quoted from his plays in her speeches. These allusions served to deepen the intellectual and cultural context of her speeches, and they also demonstrated her deep appreciation for the power of language.
Humor and Wit: Although Margaret Laurence was known for her serious and passionate speeches, she also had a great sense of humor and a sharp wit.
She was able to use humor to lighten the mood and to make her points more effectively.
Her speeches were often punctuated by wry observations and humorous anecdotes, which helped to keep her audiences engaged and entertained.
Empathy and Compassion: Another key feature of Margaret Laurence’s speech was her deep sense of empathy and compassion.
She was deeply committed to social justice and was often a vocal advocate for marginalized groups.
Her speeches were marked by a deep concern for the well-being of others, and she was always willing to speak out against injustice and oppression.
Authenticity: Finally, Margaret Laurence’s speeches were marked by a deep sense of authenticity. She was always true to herself and her beliefs, and she never shied away from speaking her mind.
Her speeches were not calculated attempts to win over audiences or to score political points; rather, they were genuine expressions of her beliefs and convictions.
In conclusion, Margaret Laurence’s speeches were marked by a combination of clarity, emotional intensity, intellectual rigor, literary allusions, humor, empathy, and authenticity.
She was a gifted speaker who had a talent for engaging her audiences and for making complex ideas accessible to a wide range of listeners.
Her speeches continue to inspire and challenge us today, reminding us of the power of language to effect change in the world.
Q 3. What is the theme of Nehru’s ‘Quest of Man’?
Ans. “Quest of Man” is a collection of speeches delivered by Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of India, between 1936 and 1963.
The speeches deal with a wide range of topics, including politics, economics, culture, and history. However, the overarching theme of “Quest of Man” is the search for human freedom and dignity.
Throughout the book, Nehru argues that the pursuit of human freedom is the defining quest of our time. BEGE 141 Solved Free Assignment 2023
He believes that humanity has been struggling for centuries to free itself from the shackles of oppression and to establish a just and equitable society.
Nehru sees the quest for freedom as a fundamental human right, and he argues that it is the duty of all people to work towards this goal.
In his speeches, Nehru often emphasizes the importance of education and culture in the pursuit of human freedom.
He argues that education is the key to breaking down the barriers of ignorance and superstition that have kept people in bondage for centuries.
He also believes that culture is an essential part of the human experience, and that it is through the arts and literature that we can gain a deeper understanding of ourselves and the world around us.
Nehru is particularly critical of colonialism and imperialism, which he sees as major obstacles to the quest for human freedom.
He argues that colonialism and imperialism have imposed a system of economic and political domination that has deprived people of their rights and dignity.
He believes that the struggle against colonialism and imperialism is not just a political struggle, but a struggle for human freedom and dignity.
At the same time, Nehru recognizes that the quest for human freedom is a complex and difficult process.
He acknowledges that there are many forces that work against this goal, including poverty, disease, and ignorance.
He also acknowledges that there are many different paths to freedom, and that people must be free to choose their own path.
One of the key themes that runs throughout “Quest of Man” is Nehru’s belief in the importance of democracy as a means of achieving human freedom.
He argues that democracy is not just a political system, but a way of life that is rooted in the principles of liberty, equality, and fraternity.
He believes that democracy is the best means of ensuring that people are able to participate in the decisions that affect their lives, and that it is the best means of protecting individual rights and freedoms.
Nehru also recognizes the importance of economic development in the pursuit of human freedom. BEGE 141 Solved Free Assignment 2023
He argues that economic development is essential for improving the living standards of people and for creating the conditions for political and social freedom.
However, he is critical of the kind of economic development that is based on the exploitation of natural resources and the exploitation of labor.
He believes that economic development must be based on principles of equity and social justice, and that it must be sustainable and environmentally responsible.
Finally, Nehru’s “Quest of Man” is also a celebration of the human spirit and the power of human creativity.
Throughout his speeches, Nehru expresses his deep admiration for the achievements of human civilization, from the great works of literature and art to the technological advances that have transformed the world.
He believes that the human spirit is capable of great things, and that it is through the pursuit of human freedom and dignity that we can unleash this potential.
the theme of Nehru’s “Quest of Man” is the search for human freedom and dignity. Nehru believes that the pursuit of human freedom is the defining quest of our time, and that it is the duty of all people to work towards this goal.
He emphasizes the importance of education, culture, and democracy in the pursuit of human freedom, and he is critical of the forces that work against this goal, including colonialism, imperialism, and poverty. Ultimately, Nehru’s “Quest
Q 4. Write a detailed note on Aitken’s prose style as seen in the two extracts from Travels by a Lesser line.
Ans. James Aitken, better known by his pen name John Wain, was an English poet, novelist, and literary critic. BEGE 141 Solved Free Assignment 2023
In his travelogue, “Travels by a Lesser Line,” Aitken demonstrates a unique and distinct prose style that is characterized by a combination of simplicity, clarity, and vividness.
The first extract reads:
“On the walls of the tunnels, bats cling in thousands, hanging upside down like bags of black jelly.
They are sleeping, these batty bags; but they are still, somehow, watchful. They will not fly in your face as you pass, but will withdraw and tremble in the darkness, and their flutterings are like the sound of leaves in the wind.”
In this passage, Aitken’s prose style is characterized by a vivid and sensory description of the environment.
He creates a visual image of the bats clinging to the walls of the tunnel, describing them as bags of black jelly.
This simile is effective because it not only provides a visual image of the bats, but also creates a sense of their texture and weight.
Aitken’s description of the bats as “watchful” and “trembling” in the darkness creates a sense of foreboding, suggesting that the tunnel is a dark and ominous place.
The use of the simile “like the sound of leaves in the wind” creates an auditory image of the bats’ fluttering, which helps to reinforce the sense of atmosphere that Aitken is trying to create.
The second extract reads:
“The town of Cognac was quiet and still in the hot afternoon. There were almost no people to be seen in the streets, and the buildings were of a dusky, honey-coloured stone that seemed to absorb the heat and give off a dry, fragrant smell.
In the window of one house, a pot of geraniums bloomed with a fierce, artificial redness; but the rest of the town seemed to be sleeping in the sun, a deep, dozy sleep, like the sleep of the cat that I saw stretched out on a doorstep.”
In this passage, Aitken’s prose style is characterized by a vivid and sensory description of the town of Cognac.BEGE 141 Solved Free Assignment 2023
His use of the adjectives “quiet” and “still” create a sense of calmness and peacefulness, which is reinforced by his description of the buildings as being of a “dusky, honey-colored stone.”
The use of the simile “that seemed to absorb the heat and give off a dry, fragrant smell” creates a sensory image of the town’s atmosphere, and suggests that the town is a hot and dry place.
The description of the pot of geraniums as blooming with a “fierce, artificial redness” creates a sense of contrast with the natural surroundings, suggesting that the flowers are out of place.
Aitken’s use of the simile “like the sleep of the cat” creates a sense of relaxation and peacefulness, which reinforces the sense of calmness and stillness that he is trying to create.
Overall, Aitken’s prose style in “Travels by a Lesser Line” is characterized by a combination of simplicity, clarity, and vividness.
His descriptions are often sensory and vivid, creating a clear and precise picture of the environment.
He uses similes and metaphors effectively to create a sense of atmosphere and to reinforce the mood that he is trying to create.
His use of adjectives is precise and calculated, creating a sense of clarity and simplicity in his writing.
Aitken’s prose style is a testament to his skill as a writer and his ability to capture the essence of a place or a moment in time through his writing.
In addition to his vivid descriptions, Aitken’s prose style is also characterized by a conversational tone.
He writes in a way that feels approachable and friendly, as if he is speaking directly to the reader.
This conversational tone helps to engage the reader and to draw them into the story, making them feel like they are a part of the journey.
Aitken’s use of repetition is another notable feature of his prose style. In both extracts, he repeats certain words or phrases to create emphasis and to reinforce the mood that he is trying to create. BEGE 141 Solved Free Assignment 2023
For example, in the first extract, he repeats the word “batty” twice in quick succession, creating a sense of playfulness and humor.
In the second extract, he repeats the words “quiet” and “still” to reinforce the sense of calmness and peacefulness that he is trying to create.
One final feature of Aitken’s prose style is his use of descriptive details. He pays close attention to the small details that make a place or a moment unique, and he uses these details to create a sense of authenticity in his writing.
For example, in the second extract, he describes the pot of geraniums as blooming with a “fierce, artificial redness.”
This small detail adds depth and nuance to the description of the town, making it feel more real and alive.
Q 1. Write an appreciation of Gandhi’s art and craft of autobiography.
Ans. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, popularly known as Mahatma Gandhi, was an Indian nationalist leader and social reformer.
He is widely recognized as one of the most important figures in the history of India and the world.
Gandhi’s legacy is complex and multifaceted, encompassing his political activism, his philosophy of nonviolent resistance, and his commitment to social justice and human rights. BEGE 141 Solved Free Assignment 2023
However, one of his most enduring legacies is his art and craft of autobiography, which has inspired generations of readers and writers around the world.
Gandhi’s autobiography, “The Story of My Experiments with Truth,” was first published in 1927. It is an extraordinary document that chronicles Gandhi’s life and his struggle for Indian independence.
The book is divided into several chapters, each of which focuses on a different period in Gandhi’s life, from his childhood in Porbandar to his years in South Africa, his return to India, and his eventual role in the Indian independence movement.
One of the most striking features of Gandhi’s autobiography is his honesty and self-reflection.
Throughout the book, Gandhi is brutally honest about his failures, his doubts, and his mistakes.
He does not shy away from admitting his own shortcomings, and he is always willing to question his own beliefs and assumptions.
This honesty and self-reflection are at the heart of Gandhi’s art and craft of autobiography.
Gandhi’s autobiography is also a powerful demonstration of his mastery of the art of storytelling.
Gandhi was a skilled writer and orator, and he used his talents to great effect in his autobiography. BEGE 141 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The book is filled with vivid descriptions of people and places, and Gandhi’s writing is infused with a deep sense of empathy and compassion for his fellow human beings.
He has a remarkable ability to convey complex ideas and emotions in simple, clear language, and his storytelling is always engaging and compelling.
Another key element of Gandhi’s art and craft of autobiography is his use of symbolism and metaphor.
Throughout the book, Gandhi uses a wide range of symbols and metaphors to convey his ideas and beliefs.
For example, he often uses the metaphor of a ship to describe his life journey, and he frequently employs religious and spiritual symbols to illustrate his philosophy of nonviolent resistance.
This use of symbolism and metaphor adds a richness and depth to Gandhi’s writing, and it helps to make his autobiography a work of art as well as a historical document.
Perhaps the most significant aspect of Gandhi’s art and craft of autobiography is his use of the form itself.
Gandhi recognized that autobiography was not just a means of telling his own story, but also a way of connecting with others and inspiring social change.
He believed that by sharing his own experiences and struggles, he could help others to see their own lives in a new light and inspire them to take action for social justice and human rights.BEGE 141 Solved Free Assignment 2023
This belief is evident throughout Gandhi’s autobiography, as he uses his own story to illustrate broader themes and issues.
For example, he uses his experiences in South Africa to illustrate the injustice of racial discrimination, and he uses his role in the Indian independence movement to explore the importance of nonviolent resistance and civil disobedience.
In this way, Gandhi’s autobiography is not just a personal memoir, but also a powerful political and social manifesto.
Gandhi’s art and craft of autobiography has had a profound impact on literature and culture around the world.
His emphasis on honesty, self-reflection, storytelling, symbolism, and the use of the form itself has inspired countless writers and artists, from James Baldwin to Nelson Mandela.
His autobiography has become a classic of world literature, and it has been translated into dozens of languages.
In addition to its literary and cultural significance, Gandhi’s autobiography also has important lessons for our own time.
In an age of political polarization and social unrest, Gandhi ‘s emphasis on nonviolence, empathy, and compassion is more relevant than ever.
His philosophy of nonviolent resistance has inspired social movements around the world, from the Civil Rights movement in the United States to the Arab Spring in the Middle East.
Gandhi’s belief in the power of individual action and his commitment to social justice and human rights continue to inspire millions of people around the world to this day.
Gandhi’s autobiography is also a unique historical document that provides valuable insights into the political and social context of his time.
Through his personal experiences and reflections, Gandhi offers a firsthand account of the struggle for Indian independence and the broader political and social issues of the early 20th century.
His portrayal of the British colonial regime, the Indian independence movement, and the various leaders and activists involved in these movements provides a rich and nuanced perspective on a critical period in Indian history.
Moreover, Gandhi’s autobiography offers important lessons for anyone seeking to live a meaningful and fulfilling life. BEGE 141 Solved Free Assignment 2023
His emphasis on simplicity, self-discipline, and spiritual values is a powerful reminder of the importance of living a life that is grounded in ethical and moral principles.
His commitment to nonviolence, empathy, and compassion provides a model for how we can work towards social justice and human rights in our own lives and communities.
Finally, Gandhi’s autobiography is a testament to the power of individual action and the importance of personal responsibility.
Through his own struggles and achievements, Gandhi shows us that each of us has the power to make a difference in the world, and that we all have a responsibility to work towards a better future for ourselves and for others.
His autobiography is a call to action for all of us to live our lives with purpose and meaning, and to work towards creating a more just and equitable world for all.
Q 2. Give a detailed account of Russell’s childhood as seen from his Autobiography.
Ans. Bertrand Russell’s autobiography, “The Autobiography of Bertrand Russell,” provides a fascinating insight into the childhood of one of the most influential philosophers and intellectuals of the 20th century.
Russell was born in 1872 in Trelleck, Monmouthshire, England. His father, John Russell, was a prominent philosopher and politician, and his mother, Katherine, was the daughter of a wealthy family.
Despite their social status, Russell’s childhood was far from idyllic. His mother suffered from mental illness, and his father was often absent due to his political commitments.
As a result, Russell was raised primarily by his grandparents and a series of governesses.BEGE 141 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Russell’s early years were marked by a sense of isolation and loneliness. He was a shy and introverted child who found it difficult to make friends.
He also struggled with his academic studies, particularly mathematics, which he found to be both challenging and uninteresting.
Nevertheless, Russell was a curious and inquisitive child, with a strong desire to understand the world around him.
One of the most significant influences on Russell’s childhood was his grandfather, Lord John Russell.
Lord Russell was a liberal politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom on two separate occasions.
He was also a committed advocate of social reform and a passionate defender of individual rights and freedoms.
Russell was deeply inspired by his grandfather’s ideas and principles, and he often spoke of him as a role model and mentor.
Despite his difficulties with mathematics, Russell excelled in other areas of study. He was particularly interested in literature and the arts, and he developed a keen appreciation for music and poetry.
He also showed a remarkable aptitude for languages, mastering French and German at a young age.
Russell’s childhood was also marked by a series of traumatic events. His mother’s mental illness caused her to act erratically, and she often subjected Russell to physical and emotional abuse.
In one particularly disturbing incident, she threatened to kill him with a knife. Russell’s father was often absent, and when he was home, he was emotionally distant and uninvolved in his son’s life.
Russell later described his childhood as “cold, loveless, and intellectual.”
Despite these difficulties, Russell found solace in his studies and his relationships with his grandparents and governesses.
He also developed a strong sense of social responsibility, inspired by his grandfather’s commitment to social reform.
At the age of 16, he wrote an essay on the topic of socialism, which he presented to a local socialist group. This was the beginning of his lifelong commitment to political activism and social justice.BEGE 141 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Russell’s autobiography provides a vivid and poignant account of his childhood, marked by loneliness, isolation, and trauma, but also by intellectual curiosity, artistic sensitivity, and a strong sense of social responsibility.
His experiences in childhood would shape his worldview and his philosophy, inspiring him to become one of the most important and influential thinkers of the 20th century.
One of the most striking aspects of Russell’s childhood, as described in his autobiography, is the influence of his grandfather, Lord John Russell.
Lord Russell was a prominent liberal politician and a champion of social reform, and his ideas and principles had a profound impact on the young Bertrand.
Russell described his grandfather as “a great man, who fought for what he believed in with passion and conviction.”
Lord Russell’s influence can be seen in many aspects of Russell’s later life, particularly his political and social activism.
Throughout his career, Russell was a committed advocate for peace, social justice, and individual rights and freedoms.
He was a vocal critic of war, imperialism, and authoritarianism, and he used his platform as a philosopher and public intellectual to speak out against injustice and inequality.
Another important aspect of Russell’s childhood was his intellectual curiosity and love of learning. Despite struggling with mathematics, he excelled in other areas of study, particularly literature and the arts.
He was an avid reader and a skilled writer, and he developed a deep appreciation for poetry, music, and philosophy.
These intellectual interests would remain central to his life’s work, shaping his ideas and his philosophy throughout his career.
Russell’s childhood was also marked by a series of traumatic events, including his mother’s mental illness and his father’s emotional distance.
These experiences left a lasting impression on him, shaping his emotional development and influencing his relationships throughout his life.
Russell was never able to develop a close relationship with his father, and he remained estranged from his mother for many years.
These experiences of emotional trauma and abandonment would later inform his work in psychology and philosophy, particularly his theories about human relationships and the nature of love.
Overall, Russell’s autobiography provides a vivid and compelling portrait of a complex and multifaceted individual. BEGE 141 Solved Free Assignment 2023
His childhood was marked by both adversity and opportunity, shaped by trauma and intellectual curiosity, and influenced by his family, his mentors, and his social and political context.
These experiences would inform his worldview and his philosophy throughout his life, inspiring him to become one of the most important and influential thinkers of the 20th century.
Q 3. Attempt pen portraits of both Albert and Victoria as seen in Strachey’s biography Queen Victoria.
Ans. Lyton Strachey’s “Queen Victoria” is a remarkable biography of the British monarch who ruled the country for more than sixty years.
In this book, Strachey offers a penetrating and insightful analysis of Victoria’s character and personality, as well as the people and events that shaped her life.
One of the most compelling aspects of the book is Strachey’s portrayal of Victoria and her husband, Prince Albert.
Strachey’s portrayal of Prince Albert is nuanced and complex. He is portrayed as a man of great intellect, with a passion for the arts, sciences, and culture.
Albert is depicted as a person with an unwavering commitment to duty, who believed that it was his responsibility to serve the British people, even at great personal cost.
He is shown to be a tireless worker, dedicating himself to numerous charitable causes and public projects.
Despite his many admirable qualities, Strachey also reveals some of Albert’s flaws. The Prince is portrayed as an aloof and austere figure, who had difficulty connecting with others on an emotional level.
He is depicted as a person who struggled with depression and loneliness, particularly in the later years of his life.
Strachey suggests that Albert’s coldness and detachment may have been a coping mechanism, as he tried to reconcile his public duties with his personal feelings of isolation.BEGE 141 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Despite his complex and sometimes contradictory nature, Strachey’s portrayal of Prince Albert is ultimately sympathetic and deeply human.
Albert is shown to be a person of great integrity and moral courage, who believed in the power of education and progress to transform society.
His commitment to public service and his devotion to Victoria are portrayed as genuine and admirable, even if his emotional distance and cool demeanor sometimes made him difficult to understand.
Strachey’s portrait of Queen Victoria is equally complex and multifaceted. She is portrayed as a woman of great intelligence, who was deeply interested in politics, culture, and intellectual pursuits.
Victoria is shown to be a woman of strong opinions, who was not afraid to express her views, even when they were unpopular.
She is depicted as a person who was deeply committed to her duties as queen, and who saw her role as a public servant as central to her identity.
Despite her many admirable qualities, Victoria is also shown to have had some significant flaws. Strachey portrays her as an emotional and temperamental person, prone to fits of rage and depression.
She is shown to have had a difficult relationship with her children, particularly her eldest son, Edward VII.
Victoria is also portrayed as a person who was deeply attached to Prince Albert, to the point of obsession, and who struggled to cope with his death.
Despite these flaws, Strachey’s portrayal of Victoria is ultimately sympathetic and empathetic.
He depicts her as a person who faced significant challenges and obstacles, both in her personal life and in her public role as queen.
He suggests that her emotional volatility and her attachment to Albert were natural responses to the pressures and stresses of her position.
He also acknowledges Victoria’s contributions to British society, particularly her role in shaping the country’s political and cultural landscape during her long reign.
Strachey’s portrayal of Victoria and Albert in “Queen Victoria” offers a valuable perspective on the nature of power and authority, as well as on the challenges of leadership in a rapidly changing world.
Victoria and Albert’s reign coincided with a period of significant social and technological transformation, as Britain underwent a rapid process of industrialization and modernization.BEGE 141 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Strachey suggests that Victoria and Albert both recognized the need for Britain to adapt to these changes and to embrace progress and innovation.
They saw their role as monarchs as central to this process of transformation, and they worked tirelessly to promote education, science, and culture, as well as to support public works and charitable causes.
At the same time, Strachey also highlights the difficulties that Victoria and Albert faced as they tried to navigate the complex and often contradictory demands of their role.
They had to balance their responsibilities as public figures with their personal desires and needs, and they had to negotiate the shifting power dynamics of a rapidly changing society.
Victoria and Albert’s relationship with each other also offers insight into the nature of power and authority.
Strachey suggests that Victoria was deeply dependent on Albert, both emotionally and intellectually, and that his death had a profound impact on her.
He also suggests that Albert’s role as advisor and confidant to Victoria was central to their success as a couple and to their effectiveness as rulers.
Despite their many challenges and struggles, Strachey’s portrayal of Victoria and Albert is ultimately one of admiration and respect.
He recognizes their contributions to British society, and he acknowledges their role in shaping the country’s political and cultural landscape during a period of significant transformation.
At the same time, he also recognizes their humanity and their fallibility, and he portrays them as complex and multifaceted figures, rather than as one-dimensional heroes or villains.
Overall, Strachey’s “Queen Victoria” offers a valuable and insightful perspective on the nature of power, authority, and leadership in a rapidly changing world.
His portrayal of Victoria and Albert as complex and contradictory figures provides a nuanced and empathetic understanding of their personalities and their relationships, and his analysis of their reign offers important insights into the challenges and opportunities of leadership in the modern world.
Q 4. ‘On Seeing England for the First Time’ is laced with sarcasm and irony with a thread of pathos running through it. Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer quoting examples from the text.
Ans. “On Seeing England for the First Time” by Jamaica Kincaid is a powerful essay that explores the author’s complex relationship with England and the legacy of colonialism. BEGE 141 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The use of sarcasm is evident throughout the essay. Kincaid uses this literary device to highlight the absurdity of the British colonial project, as well as the hypocrisy of English society.
For example, she writes, “The English, who don’t have anything, not even a decent climate, have stolen everything from people who have had the bad luck of being born in the wrong place.”
This statement is a clear example of sarcasm, as it takes a cynical view of British society and mocks its sense of superiority.
Similarly, Kincaid uses irony to underscore the contradictions inherent in the colonial project.
She points out the irony of England’s claim to bring civilization to the colonized world, while at the same time perpetrating violence and exploitation.
She writes, “This was supposed to be the wonder of the world, the place where the sun never set, but it was also the place where the blood never dried.”
This statement is a powerful indictment of British colonialism, and the irony of the situation is clear.
Despite the use of sarcasm and irony, however, the essay is also marked by a thread of pathos.
Kincaid’s personal experiences with colonialism and her complicated relationship with England are evident throughout the essay, and this emotional resonance adds to its power.
For example, she writes about her first visit to England, saying, “I thought I would feel a sense of triumph or at least relief, but all I felt was a great sense of sadness, and I could not understand why.”
This statement reveals the emotional complexity of Kincaid’s relationship with England and highlights the sense of loss that she feels.
The essay’s pathos is also evident in its description of the impact of colonialism on the colonized people.
Kincaid describes the way in which the British colonial project has disrupted and destroyed indigenous cultures, saying, “They have taken away our history and our dignity, and in return they have given us their diseases and their religion.”
This statement is a powerful indictment of colonialism and highlights the devastating impact it has had on colonized peoples.
Overall, the combination of sarcasm, irony, and pathos in Kincaid’s essay is highly effective. BEGE 141 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The use of sarcasm and irony allows her to critique the British colonial project and expose its contradictions and hypocrisies.
At the same time, the thread of pathos running through the essay adds an emotional dimension that makes the essay more impactful and helps to underscore the devastating impact of colonialism on indigenous cultures.
In addition to sarcasm, irony, and pathos, “On Seeing England for the First Time” also employs vivid imagery to bring to life the author’s experiences and observations.
Kincaid uses imagery to paint a picture of England and the legacy of colonialism that she sees in the country.
For example, she writes about the English countryside, saying, “The countryside was green, but it was a terrible green, a sickly green, a dying green.”
This description uses vivid imagery to convey the sense of decay that Kincaid sees in England, and the use of negative adjectives adds to the sense of foreboding.
Kincaid also uses imagery to describe the impact of colonialism on the colonized peoples.
She writes about the way in which colonialism has disrupted traditional ways of life, saying, “We have lost our language, our gods, our music, our dances, our dress, and our food.”
This description uses vivid imagery to convey the depth of the loss experienced by colonized peoples, and it underscores the devastating impact of colonialism on indigenous cultures.
Finally, Kincaid uses imagery to describe her own feelings and emotions. She writes about the sadness she feels upon visiting England, saying, “I felt like an orphan, like a tree that had lost all its leaves.”
This description uses vivid imagery to convey the sense of loss and disorientation that Kincaid feels upon encountering the legacy of colonialism in England.
Overall, the use of imagery in “On Seeing England for the First Time” is highly effective.
It allows Kincaid to create a powerful sensory experience for the reader, bringing to life the landscapes, cultures, and emotions that she describes.
By using vivid imagery, Kincaid is able to convey complex ideas and emotions in a way that is both accessible and impactful.
In conclusion, “On Seeing England for the First Time” is a powerful essay that uses a range of literary devices to critique the legacy of colonialism and the contradictions of British society. BEGE 141 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The use of sarcasm, irony, and pathos allows Kincaid to expose the absurdity and hypocrisy of the colonial project, while the use of vivid imagery brings her experiences and observations to life for the reader.
Overall, the essay is a powerful and insightful critique of colonialism that continues to resonate today.
Q 5. Describe Orwell’s experience of shooting an elephant in Burma in detail.
Ans. In “Shooting an Elephant,” George Orwell recounts an experience he had as a British police officer in colonial Burma, where he was tasked with the difficult and morally ambiguous job of shooting an elephant that had gone rogue and was causing destruction in a local village.
Orwell’s description of the event is detailed and evocative, conveying the complicated emotions and ethical dilemmas he faced in the moment.
Orwell begins by describing the setting of the incident: a small village in Burma, where he was stationed as a police officer.
He notes that he was hated by the local people, who resented the British colonial presence in their country.
Despite this, he had to maintain a veneer of authority and control, which he admits was often difficult and exhausting.
The action begins when Orwell receives a call from a fellow officer about an elephant that has gone rogue and is causing destruction in a nearby village.
Orwell, knowing that he is expected to take charge of the situation, reluctantly agrees to investigate. BEGE 141 Solved Free Assignment 2023
As he approaches the village, he is surrounded by a curious crowd of locals, who are eager to see what he will do.
Orwell describes the elephant as a massive and powerful creature, capable of wreaking havoc with ease.
He notes that the animal had already killed one man and destroyed several buildings, and that it was likely to cause more damage if left unchecked.
At the same time, however, he realizes that shooting the elephant would be a difficult and morally fraught task, one that would likely cause him even more trouble with the local people.
Orwell’s internal conflict comes to a head when he comes face to face with the elephant, which is standing still in a field, peacefully eating.
He raises his gun, knowing that he is expected to shoot the animal, but at the same time feeling a sense of horror and guilt at what he is about to do.
He writes, “I had no intention of shooting the elephant—I had merely sent for the rifle to defend myself if necessary—but I did not want to shoot the elephant.”
Despite his misgivings, Orwell eventually shoots the elephant, knowing that he has no choice but to do so.
He notes that the animal takes a long time to die, and that he is filled with a sense of guilt and shame as he watches it suffer.
He also notes that he feels a sense of triumph at having asserted his authority over the local people, who now see him as a hero for having killed the elephant.
Throughout the essay, Orwell grapples with a number of complex ethical and emotional issues. BEGE 141 Solved Free Assignment 2023
On the one hand, he is aware of the brutality and injustice of colonialism, and he knows that the local people resent him and his fellow officers for their presence in their country.
On the other hand, he is tasked with maintaining order and control, which often requires him to use force and violence.
The shooting of the elephant is a perfect example of this tension, as Orwell is forced to make a difficult and morally ambiguous decision in the heat of the moment.
Orwell’s experience of shooting an elephant in Burma is a powerful and thought-provoking example of the complex moral and ethical issues that arise in colonial contexts.
Through his vivid and detailed description of the event, Orwell is able to convey the complicated emotions and conflicting obligations that he faced as a British police officer in Burma.
Ultimately, “Shooting an Elephant” is a powerful critique of the injustices and contradictions of colonialism, as well as a powerful meditation on the difficulties of making ethical choices in complex and difficult situations.
In addition to its critique of colonialism, “Shooting an Elephant” also serves as a commentary on the nature of power and authority.
Orwell is acutely aware of the ways in which his position as a British police officer grants him immense power over the local people, even as he is also aware of the ways in which that power is ultimately illusory.
Throughout the essay, Orwell describes the ways in which he is forced to maintain a façade of authority and control, even as he knows that he is despised by the local people.
He notes, for example, that “every white man’s life in the East, was one long struggle not to be laughed at.” BEGE 141 Solved Free Assignment 2023
He also notes that he is acutely aware of the ways in which his power is ultimately derived from the threat of violence, rather than any intrinsic moral or ethical authority.
At the same time, Orwell is also aware of the ways in which power can be both corrupting and dehumanizing.
He notes that the act of shooting the elephant is deeply degrading, both for the animal and for himself.
He also notes that the adulation he receives from the local people after killing the elephant is ultimately hollow and meaningless, a reflection of their own powerlessness and desperation.
Ultimately, “Shooting an Elephant” is a powerful and complex meditation on the moral and ethical challenges of colonialism, as well as a powerful critique of the nature of power and authority.
Through his vivid and evocative description of the event, Orwell is able to convey the complex emotions and ethical dilemmas that he faced as a colonial police officer in Burma, while also highlighting the ways in which power can be both seductive and ultimately corrosive.