BEGC 105 Solved Free Assignment 2023
BEGC 105 Solved Free Assignment January 2023
Q 1. Answer with reference to the context:
(i) The white man, disguised
as a falcon, swoops in
and yet again steals a salmon
from Crow’s talon.
Ans. This appears to be a short poem or haiku with an imagery of a white man in the form of a falcon stealing a salmon from a crow’s talon.
The poem seems to suggest a power dynamic or a history of colonization where the white man, represented by the falcon, takes from the indigenous people, represented by the crow.
The use of nature imagery, specifically the falcon and the crow, also adds to the theme of power and hierarchy.
Falcons are known for their speed and agility in the air, while crows are often seen as scavengers or lesser birds. The act of the falcon stealing from the crow emphasizes this power dynamic. BEGC 105 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Overall, this poem can be interpreted as a commentary on the history of colonization and the ongoing struggle for power and autonomy among different groups of people.
(ii) If the red slayer thinks he slays
Or if the slain thinks he is slain
They know not well the subtle ways
I keep, and pass, and turn again
Ans.(ii) These four lines are from the poem “Brahma” by Ralph Waldo Emerson. The poem is a philosophical reflection on the nature of existence and the relationship between the individual self and the greater universal consciousness.
In these lines, Emerson is suggesting that both the slayer and the slain are ignorant of the true nature of reality and the interconnectedness of all things.
The first two lines, “If the red slayer thinks he slays / Or if the slain thinks he is slain,” are an acknowledgement of the apparent reality of life and death.
From the perspective of the individual self, it may seem as though one is actively participating in the events of life and death, and that these events have a concrete and final meaning. However, Emerson suggests that this is not the case.
The third line, “They know not well the subtle ways,” is a reference to the deeper, underlying nature of existence that is not immediately apparent to the individual self.
Emerson is suggesting that there are subtle, unseen forces at work that shape our lives and experiences in ways that we cannot fully comprehend.
The final line, “I keep, and pass, and turn again,” is a reference to the cyclical nature of existence. The phrase “I keep” implies a sense of continuity, while “pass” and “turn again” suggest movement and change. BEGC 105 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Together, these words convey the idea that existence is an ongoing process of transformation and evolution.
Emerson’s philosophy is rooted in transcendentalism, a philosophical and literary movement that emerged in the United States in the mid-19th century.
Transcendentalists believed in the inherent goodness of human beings and the natural world, and saw the individual self as a conduit to the divine.
They rejected the dogmatic approach of organized religion and instead sought to explore spiritual truth through direct experience and intuition.
Emerson was one of the most prominent figures of the transcendentalist movement, and his work had a profound impact on American literature and philosophy.
His writing often explores the relationship between the individual self and the natural world, and his work is characterized by a sense of optimism and faith in the potential of human beings to achieve greater understanding and enlightenment.
In “Brahma,” Emerson draws on Hindu mythology to explore the nature of the divine and the relationship between the individual self and the universal consciousness.
Brahma is a Hindu god associated with creation, and the poem is a meditation on the cyclical nature of existence and the relationship between life and death.
The poem suggests that our understanding of reality is limited by our individual perspective, and that true enlightenment can only be achieved by transcending our limited sense of self and embracing the interconnectedness of all things.
The slayer and the slain, in their ignorance, are unable to grasp the true nature of existence, but Emerson suggests that by seeking a deeper understanding of the world around us, we can achieve a greater sense of meaning and purpose.
(iii) But somewhere in my soul, I know
I have met the Thing before;
It just reminded me-‘t was alland came my way no more.
Ans. iii) These lines are from the poem “A Narrow Fellow in the Grass” by Emily Dickinson. BEGC 105 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The poem is a reflection on the natural world and the mysterious forces that govern it. In these lines, the speaker suggests that they have encountered something familiar and yet elusive, something that they cannot quite place.
The phrase “somewhere in my soul” suggests a deep, intuitive knowledge that is not based on conscious thought or reasoning.
The speaker is suggesting that their encounter with this mysterious Thing has stirred something within them, something that they cannot quite articulate.
The line “I have met the Thing before” implies a sense of recognition or familiarity, but the following line “It just reminded me-‘t was all” suggests that the encounter was brief and fleeting.
The speaker is left with a sense of uncertainty and longing, as though they have encountered something significant but are unable to fully understand or grasp its meaning.BEGC 105 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The final line, “and came my way no more,” suggests that the encounter was a singular event, and that the speaker may never encounter the Thing again. This adds to the sense of mystery and longing that pervades the poem.
Overall, “A Narrow Fellow in the Grass” is a meditation on the power of nature and the mysteries that lie beyond our understanding.
The speaker is left with a sense of awe and wonder, but also a sense of uncertainty and longing.
The poem suggests that there are forces at work in the natural world that are beyond our control, and that our encounters with these forces can have a profound impact on our lives and our sense of self.
Emily Dickinson was a poet known for her unique and unconventional style. Her poetry often explored themes of nature, spirituality, and the human experience, and her work is characterized by its vivid imagery, unconventional syntax, and dense symbolism.
Dickinson’s work has had a profound impact on American literature, and her poetry continues to be studied and admired by readers around the world.
(iv) We slowly drove-he knew no haste
and I had put away
My labour and leisure too,
for his civility.
Ans. iv) These lines are from the poem “The Road Not Taken” by Robert Frost. The poem is a meditation on the nature of choice and the paths we take in life.
In these lines, the speaker describes a chance encounter with a stranger on the road, and the way in which this encounter changes their perspective on the world.
The phrase “we slowly drove-he knew no haste” suggests a sense of leisure and ease. The speaker and the stranger are not in a hurry, and they are able to take their time as they travel down the road together.
This creates a sense of camaraderie and shared experience, as though the two are united in their common journey. BEGC 105 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The second line, “and I had put away my labour and leisure too,” suggests that the encounter has a profound impact on the speaker.
They are able to let go of their usual concerns and responsibilities, and simply enjoy the experience of being on the road with the stranger.
This creates a sense of liberation and freedom, as though the speaker is able to escape the confines of their ordinary life and enter into a new and exciting world.
The phrase “for his civility” suggests that the stranger’s kindness and courtesy have a significant impact on the speaker.
They are moved by his civility and hospitality, and this creates a sense of warmth and connection between the two.
Overall, these lines suggest that chance encounters and shared experiences have the power to change us in profound ways.
The speaker is able to let go of their usual concerns and embrace the moment, and this creates a sense of connection and camaraderie with the stranger.
The encounter serves as a reminder that there is more to life than just work and responsibility, and that the road not taken may lead to unexpected and exciting experiences.
Robert Frost was a poet known for his use of rural imagery and his focus on the human experience. His work often explored themes of nature, community, and the choices we make in life. BEGC 105 Solved Free Assignment 2023
“The Road Not Taken” is one of his most famous and beloved poems, and it continues to be studied and admired by readers around the world.
Q 1. Write an extended note on the poetic devices used in ‘Passage to India’.
Ans. “Passage to India” is a poem by Walt Whitman, originally published in his collection “Leaves of Grass” in 1900. The poem is a celebration of the human spirit and the interconnectedness of all living things.
Throughout the poem, Whitman employs a number of poetic devices to create a sense of unity and harmony, and to convey his message of universal brotherhood.
One of the most notable poetic devices used in “Passage to India” is repetition. Throughout the poem, Whitman repeats key phrases and ideas, creating a sense of rhythm and momentum.
For example, the phrase “Passage to India” is repeated throughout the poem, creating a sense of movement and progression.
The repetition of the phrase “Sail forth” also creates a sense of urgency and excitement, as though the reader is being urged to embark on a journey of discovery and exploration. BEGC 105 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Another key poetic device used in “Passage to India” is parallelism. Whitman often uses parallel structures to reinforce his message of interconnectedness and unity.
For example, in the lines “From Pent-up Aching Rivers,” “From Profound Centre,” and “From the Inmost Centre,” Whitman uses parallel phrasing to suggest that all living things are connected by a common source.
Whitman also makes use of imagery throughout the poem, using vivid and evocative language to create a sense of place and atmosphere.
For example, in the lines “Lo, soul, seest thou not God’s purpose from the first? / The earth to be spann’d, connected by network,” Whitman uses the image of a network to convey his message of interconnectedness.
The use of the word “spann’d” also suggests a sense of expansiveness and grandeur, as though the earth is a vast and awe-inspiring landscape.
The poem is also characterized by its use of free verse, a style of poetry that does not adhere to traditional meter or rhyme schemes.
This allows Whitman to experiment with language and structure, creating a sense of spontaneity and improvisation. BEGC 105 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The use of free verse also reinforces the poem’s message of freedom and liberation, suggesting that the human spirit cannot be constrained by conventional rules or structures.
One of the most striking aspects of “Passage to India” is its use of cataloguing. Whitman often lists a series of objects or ideas, creating a sense of abundance and diversity.
For example, in the lines “I will go to the bank by the wood and become undisguised and naked, / I am mad for it to be in contact with me,” Whitman uses a series of sensory images to suggest the richness and complexity of human experience.
The use of cataloguing also reinforces the poem’s message of interconnectedness, suggesting that all living things are part of a vast and diverse universe.
Finally, the poem makes use of a number of rhetorical devices, including apostrophe and anaphora.
Apostrophe is a figure of speech in which the speaker addresses an absent or imaginary person or object.
In “Passage to India,” Whitman frequently addresses the soul or the reader directly, creating a sense of intimacy and connection.
Anaphora, on the other hand, is the repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of successive clauses or sentences. This creates a sense of rhythm and momentum, and helps to reinforce the poem’s central themes.
Q 2. How does Howthorne present the organic-mechanical contrast in the novel The Scarlet Letter?
Ans. In Nathaniel Hawthorne’s novel The Scarlet Letter, the concept of the organic-mechanical contrast is a recurring theme that is used to explore the tension between the natural world and the artificial constructs of society.
Throughout the novel, Hawthorne uses a variety of literary devices and motifs to present this contrast and to comment on the implications of a society that is heavily reliant on mechanization and industrialization.
One of the primary ways that Hawthorne presents the organic-mechanical contrast is through his characterization of the novel’s central protagonist, Hester Prynne.
Hester is portrayed as a woman who is intimately connected to the natural world, often being described in terms of her beauty, grace, and free spirit.
In contrast, the Puritan society in which she lives is characterized by its rigid adherence to rules and regulations, its obsession with order and control, and its tendency to view nature as something to be tamed and subdued.
This contrast is most evident in the novel’s opening scene, in which Hester is brought out of prison and publicly shamed for committing adultery.
As she stands on the scaffold, surrounded by the grim, grey buildings of the Puritan settlement, she is described as being “tall, with a figure of perfect elegance on a large scale” (Chapter 2). BEGC 105 Solved Free Assignment 2023
This image of Hester standing alone in a cold, sterile landscape serves to highlight the contrast between her natural beauty and the harsh, artificial environment in which she is forced to live.
Similarly, throughout the novel, Hawthorne uses imagery and symbolism to highlight the organic-mechanical contrast.
For example, the scarlet letter that Hester is forced to wear is described as being “the symbol of her calling” (Chapter 2), and is contrasted with the cold, hard metal of the prison door.
This contrast between the natural and the mechanical is reinforced by the fact that the letter is made of “fine red cloth, surrounded with an elaborate embroidery and fantastic flourishes of gold-thread” (Chapter 2), which serves to emphasize the human artifice that has been imposed on Hester’s natural beauty.
Another way that Hawthorne presents the organic-mechanical contrast is through his depiction of the natural world.
Throughout the novel, he describes the forests and wilderness areas surrounding the Puritan settlement as being full of life, vitality, and freedom.
For example, in Chapter 16, he describes the forest as being “an immense and brooding shade,” where “the boughs were mossy with age” and “the trees stood up in their own pride, and scorned the rest” (Chapter 16).
This image of the forest as a place of power and freedom stands in stark contrast to the Puritan settlement, which is depicted as being cold, dark, and oppressive.
Moreover, the contrast is reinforced through the characterization of Roger Chillingworth, Hester’s former husband.
Chillingworth is a physician who has dedicated his life to studying and mastering the human body, using his knowledge of medicine to heal and manipulate those around him. BEGC 105 Solved Free Assignment 2023
However, his mechanical approach to medicine stands in stark contrast to the more intuitive, natural approach of Hester, who is able to heal and comfort others through her kindness and compassion.
This contrast is perhaps most evident in the scene where Chillingworth is examining the infant daughter of Hester and her lover, Arthur Dimmesdale.
As he looks at the baby, he sees it as “the subject of his professional care” and begins to examine it with “the cold and analytical eye of a medical observer” (Chapter 4).
In contrast, Hester sees the child as a living, breathing human being, and instinctively knows what it needs to thrive.
Q 3. Write a critical appreciation of the poem “O Captain! My Captain!”.
Ans. Walt Whitman’s “O Captain! My Captain!” is a poignant elegy that mourns the death of President Abraham Lincoln.
It is a poem that is widely regarded as one of the most memorable and iconic of all American poems, and has come to symbolize both the tragedy of Lincoln’s death and the triumph of the Union victory in the Civil War.
In this critical appreciation, I will examine the themes, language, structure, and symbolism of the poem to explore why it has endured as a classic of American literature. BEGC 105 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The poem is structured around a series of starkly contrasting images that capture the sense of loss and grief that accompanied Lincoln’s death.
The first stanza opens with the image of a ship that has safely navigated its way through a dangerous storm, and the joyous sense of relief that this brings.
However, the second stanza presents a stark contrast to this image of triumph and celebration, as the speaker mourns the loss of the ship’s captain, who has died just as they were reaching their destination.
This contrast is reinforced through the use of repetition, with the phrase “O Captain! My Captain!” repeated in each stanza.
This repetition serves to highlight the sense of loss and grief that the speaker feels, while also emphasizing the importance of Lincoln’s leadership in guiding the country through the Civil War.
The language of the poem is both simple and powerful, using vivid imagery and metaphor to create a sense of drama and emotion.
For example, in the second stanza, the speaker describes Lincoln’s death as “heart of contralto” that has been stilled.
This metaphor captures the sense of sadness and despair that the speaker feels, while also conveying the idea that Lincoln’s death has silenced a powerful voice of reason and justice.
Another example of powerful imagery is found in the third stanza, where the speaker describes Lincoln’s life as a journey that has been completed: “From fearful trip the victor ship comes in with object won.”
This image of a ship returning home after a long and difficult journey captures the sense of triumph that Lincoln’s leadership brought to the Union cause, while also conveying the sense of loss and sadness that comes with his death.
The poem’s structure also reinforces its themes and meaning. The use of an extended metaphor, with the ship representing the Union cause and Lincoln serving as its captain, creates a sense of unity and purpose that is central to the poem’s message. BEGC 105 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Moreover, the use of a formal structure, with each stanza following the same pattern of repetition and contrasting images, creates a sense of rhythm and symmetry that adds to the poem’s emotional impact.
Finally, the poem’s symbolism is also an important element of its enduring appeal. The ship represents the Union cause, while Lincoln is the captain who has led it to victory.
The journey that the ship has completed represents the long and difficult struggle of the Civil War, while the victory that it has achieved represents the triumph of justice and freedom over slavery and oppression.
Moreover, the symbolism of the ship is also significant in that it captures the sense of unity and shared purpose that Lincoln’s leadership brought to the Union cause.
As the speaker mourns the loss of the captain, he also recognizes the importance of the ship and the crew that have worked together to achieve their goal.
This sense of shared purpose and unity is central to the poem’s message, and serves as a powerful reminder of the importance of working together to achieve a common goal.
Q 4. How did Henrik Ibsen contribute to the growth of modern American Drama?
Ans. Henrik Ibsen is widely regarded as one of the greatest playwrights of the modern era, and his work has had a profound influence on American drama.
Through his use of realistic dialogue, psychological insight, and bold subject matter, Ibsen transformed the art of theater, paving the way for a new generation of writers who would continue to push the boundaries of what was possible on stage.
One of the most important ways in which Ibsen influenced American drama was through his use of realistic dialogue. BEGC 105 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Prior to Ibsen, most plays relied on highly stylized language and formal dialogue that did not reflect the way people actually spoke.
However, Ibsen’s plays were different. He was interested in capturing the way people really talked, and his characters spoke in a naturalistic, conversational style that was much more realistic than what had come before.
This focus on realism and naturalism was groundbreaking, and it had a profound impact on American drama.
American playwrights like Tennessee Williams, Arthur Miller, and Eugene O’Neill all cited Ibsen as a major influence on their work, and they continued to explore the possibilities of realistic dialogue in their own plays.
Another way in which Ibsen contributed to the growth of American drama was through his psychological insight.
In plays like A Doll’s House and Hedda Gabler, Ibsen explored the complexities of the human psyche, delving deep into the inner lives of his characters to uncover the motivations and desires that drive their actions.
This psychological realism was a major departure from earlier forms of drama, which had tended to focus on external action rather than inner thought and feeling.
Ibsen’s influence can be seen in the work of American playwrights like Arthur Miller, who was interested in exploring the psychology of his characters in plays like Death of a Salesman.
Finally, Ibsen’s bold subject matter was another way in which he contributed to the growth of modern American drama.
He was not afraid to tackle controversial and taboo subjects like adultery, suicide, and the oppression of women. BEGC 105 Solved Free Assignment 2023
His willingness to take on these difficult topics helped to break down barriers and expand the range of subjects that were considered appropriate for the stage.
This fearlessness was an inspiration to American playwrights like Lorraine Hansberry, who addressed issues of race and class in A Raisin in the Sun, and Tony Kushner, who tackled the AIDS crisis and the politics of the Reagan era in Angels in America.
In addition to these specific contributions, Ibsen’s overall impact on American drama was significant in other ways.
His emphasis on realism and psychological depth helped to elevate the status of theater as an art form, moving it away from its roots as a form of popular entertainment and towards a more serious and respected art form.
Moreover, Ibsen’s influence can be seen in the development of modernist drama, which rejected traditional forms and structures in favor of experimentation and innovation.
American playwrights like Samuel Beckett and Harold Pinter were part of this movement, and their work was heavily influenced by Ibsen’s willingness to push the boundaries of what was considered acceptable on stage.
Q 1. Do you agree with the view that the twentieth century short story primarily offers perceptions on human characters? Give reasons in support of your answer.
Ans. The short story has been a popular form of literature for centuries, but it was in the twentieth century that the form truly came into its own.
Many critics and scholars have argued that the twentieth century short story primarily offers perceptions on human characters, and I agree with this view.
One of the key reasons why the twentieth century short story is primarily focused on human characters is that the form itself is well-suited to exploring the complexities of human psychology and behavior.
With its compact structure and limited length, the short story is able to provide a snapshot of a character’s thoughts, feelings, and actions, without the need for extensive exposition or backstory. BEGC 105 Solved Free Assignment 2023
This allows writers to focus on the essential aspects of character, and to create vivid, memorable portraits of human beings in all their complexity.
Moreover, the twentieth century was a time of great social and cultural upheaval, and this is reflected in the themes and subjects of many short stories from the period.
As writers grappled with issues like war, political oppression, and social injustice, they often turned to the short story form as a means of exploring these themes in a more intimate, personal way.
By focusing on human characters and their experiences, these writers were able to offer powerful insights into the nature of human existence in the modern world.
Another reason why the twentieth century short story is primarily focused on human characters is that the form allows for a great deal of experimentation and innovation.
Many writers in the twentieth century were interested in pushing the boundaries of what was considered acceptable or conventional in literature, and the short story form offered them the opportunity to do so.
By focusing on human characters, these writers were able to explore new approaches to structure, narrative, and point of view, creating works of fiction that challenged readers’ expectations and expanded the possibilities of the form.
Additionally, the twentieth century saw the emergence of various literary movements and schools of thought that emphasized the importance of the individual and the subjective experience.
From existentialism to postmodernism, these movements were deeply concerned with the nature of human identity and consciousness, and the short story was a natural vehicle for their ideas.
By focusing on human characters and their perceptions of the world around them, these writers were able to explore the nuances and complexities of the human experience in new and exciting ways.
Finally, the twentieth century short story is primarily focused on human characters because the form is inherently suited to exploring the relationships between individuals. BEGC 105 Solved Free Assignment 2023
From romantic relationships to familial bonds, the short story has been used to examine the dynamics of human interaction in all its forms.
By focusing on human characters and their relationships to one another, writers were able to create stories that were both universal and deeply personal, touching on themes and issues that resonated with readers across generations and cultures.
In conclusion, I believe that the view that the twentieth century short story primarily offers perceptions on human characters is a valid one.
The form is well-suited to exploring the complexities of human psychology and behavior, and it allows writers to create vivid, memorable portraits of individuals in all their complexity.
Moreover, the themes and subjects of many short stories from the period reflect the social and cultural upheavals of the time, and the form allowed writers to experiment with new approaches to structure, narrative, and point of view.
By focusing on human characters and their relationships to one another, the twentieth-century short story offers powerful insights into the nature of human existence in the modern world, and continues to be a vital and important form of literature today.
Q 2. Discuss the major theme of All My Sons.
Ans. Arthur Miller’s play, “All My Sons,” is a powerful exploration of the American Dream, family values, and the consequences of greed and dishonesty.
The play delves into several major themes, but the most prominent and compelling is the theme of morality and responsibility.
At its core, “All My Sons” is a play about the consequences of a person’s actions, particularly those that are morally ambiguous or outright wrong.
The play is set in the aftermath of World War II, and centers around the character of Joe Keller, a businessman who has profited from selling faulty airplane parts to the military. BEGC 105 Solved Free Assignment 2023
This act of greed and deceit has cost the lives of 21 American pilots, including the son of his neighbor and former business partner, Steve Deever.
The central conflict of the play revolves around the question of who is responsible for the deaths of these pilots.
Joe has managed to convince himself that he is not responsible, arguing that he was simply following orders from his superiors and that his actions were justified by his desire to provide for his family.
However, as the play unfolds, it becomes clear that Joe’s actions were both immoral and illegal, and that he is responsible for the deaths of the pilots.
The play’s theme of morality and responsibility is explored through the interactions of the various characters.
Joe’s wife, Kate, is torn between her loyalty to her husband and her desire to see justice done for her son Larry, who is missing in action but presumed dead.
Joe and Kate’s other son, Chris, is struggling to reconcile his love for his father with the knowledge of his wrongdoing, while Ann Deever, Steve’s daughter and Chris’s love interest, is determined to uncover the truth about her father’s involvement in the faulty parts scandal.
The play’s climax comes when Joe finally admits his guilt and accepts responsibility for his actions.
However, this admission comes too late, as Chris and Ann have already decided to leave and start a new life together, and Kate is left to deal with the consequences of her husband’s actions. BEGC 105 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The theme of morality and responsibility is further emphasized through the play’s use of symbolism. The fallen tree in the Keller’s backyard is a powerful symbol of the family’s decay and the consequences of Joe’s actions.
As the play progresses, the tree becomes more and more symbolic of the moral decay that has infected the Keller family, and serves as a reminder of the consequences of greed and dishonesty.
In addition to the theme of morality and responsibility, “All My Sons” also explores other themes, such as the American Dream and the importance of family.
The play portrays the American Dream as a double-edged sword, offering the promise of prosperity and success, but also encouraging greed and selfishness.
Joe Keller’s desire to provide for his family is an example of how the American Dream can be used to justify immoral actions, and the play suggests that this kind of behavior is ultimately self-destructive.
Finally, “All My Sons” is a play about the importance of family and the bonds that tie us together. The play depicts the Keller family as a close-knit group, bound together by their shared history and experiences.
However, this bond is threatened by Joe’s actions, which have caused irreparable damage to the family and their relationships with one another.
Ultimately, the play suggests that family is both a source of strength and a source of vulnerability, and that it is up to each individual to uphold their moral responsibilities to their loved ones.
Q 3. Examine the growth of American drama during the seventeen, Eighteen and nineteenth centuries.
Ans. The history of American drama can be traced back to the seventeenth century, when the first plays were performed by European settlers in the New World.
These early plays were often religious in nature, and were performed in order to promote Christianity and educate the population.
During the eighteenth century, American drama began to develop a unique identity, with the rise of playwrights such as William Dunlap, who wrote the first American play to be performed professionally, “Andre,” in 1798.
Other notable playwrights of this era include Royall Tyler, who wrote “The Contrast” in 1787, and Mercy Otis Warren, who wrote several plays and political satires during the Revolutionary War era. BEGC 105 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The nineteenth century saw a further expansion of American drama, with a proliferation of playwrights and theatrical companies throughout the country.
This era saw the rise of the “melodrama,” a form of popular entertainment characterized by exaggerated emotions and larger-than-life characters.
Many of the most popular plays of this era were adaptations of European works, such as Victor Hugo’s “Les Miserables” and Sir Walter Scott’s “Ivanhoe.”
However, the nineteenth century also saw the emergence of a distinctively American form of drama, with playwrights such as August Wilson, Arthur Miller, and Tennessee Williams, among others, producing works that addressed the unique experiences and concerns of the American people.
These playwrights used drama to explore issues such as racism, class, and the American Dream, and their works helped to establish American drama as a major force in the world of theater.
One of the earliest and most significant contributions to American drama was made by Eugene O’Neill, who is widely regarded as the father of modern American drama.
O’Neill’s plays, such as “The Hairy Ape” and “Long Day’s Journey into Night,” explored themes such as addiction, family dysfunction, and the search for meaning in a rapidly changing world.
O’Neill’s influence on American drama cannot be overstated, and his work continues to be studied and performed today.
Another important figure in the growth of American drama was Tennessee Williams, who is perhaps best known for his plays “A Streetcar Named Desire” and “Cat on a Hot Tin Roof.”
Williams’ plays explored the themes of sexual repression, loneliness, and the search for personal identity, and his works helped to establish American drama as a major force in the world of theater.
Arthur Miller was another important figure in the growth of American drama, particularly in the post-World War II era.
Miller’s plays, such as “Death of a Salesman” and “The Crucible,” addressed issues such as the American Dream, the dangers of conformity, and the power of the individual to resist oppression. BEGC 105 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Miller’s works were particularly notable for their political and social commentary, and they helped to establish American drama as a means of exploring important issues and promoting social change.
In the latter half of the twentieth century, American drama continued to evolve and grow, with playwrights such as Edward Albee, Sam Shepard, and Tony Kushner producing works that pushed the boundaries of what was possible on the stage.
These playwrights addressed themes such as sexuality, race, and gender, and their works helped to further establish American drama as a means of exploring important social and political issues.
Q 4. Write a critical comment on the genre of The Scarlet Letter
Ans. The Scarlet Letter, written by Nathaniel Hawthorne and first published in 1850, is a novel that has been categorized under several genres, including historical fiction, romance, and allegory.
Its complex themes and layered symbolism have contributed to its enduring popularity and critical acclaim.
At its core, The Scarlet Letter is a work of historical fiction, set in 17th century Puritan New England.
The novel is firmly rooted in the historical context of the time, and provides a detailed portrayal of the harsh and oppressive society in which the characters live.
Hawthorne’s use of precise language and historical accuracy gives the novel a sense of realism that draws the reader into the world of Puritan New England.
However, The Scarlet Letter is also a romance, with the story revolving around the illicit love affair between the protagonist, Hester Prynne, and the Reverend Arthur Dimmesdale. BEGC 105 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The romantic elements of the novel are intertwined with the historical setting, and serve to highlight the tension between individual desires and societal expectations.
In addition to its historical and romantic elements, The Scarlet Letter is also an allegory, with the various characters and symbols representing broader themes and ideas.
The scarlet letter itself, which Hester is forced to wear as a symbol of her shame and sin, represents the oppressive power of society and the dangers of moral absolutism.
The characters of Hester, Dimmesdale, and the villainous Roger Chillingworth represent various facets of human nature and morality, and their struggles serve to highlight the complexity of the human condition.
Overall, The Scarlet Letter defies easy categorization, with its blend of historical accuracy, romantic elements, and allegorical symbolism.
The novel’s themes of sin, guilt, and redemption continue to resonate with readers today, and its impact on American literature and culture cannot be overstated.
The novel’s enduring popularity has ensured its status as a classic work of American literature, and its influence can be seen in numerous adaptations and retellings in various forms of media, from stage productions to film adaptations to modern retellings in literature and television.
The growth of American drama during the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries was a gradual process that reflected the changing social, cultural, and political landscape of the time.
In the 17th century, drama in America was primarily confined to religious plays performed by Puritan colonists, with few notable works produced outside of this context.
However, in the 18th century, as the colonies grew more prosperous and began to develop their own cultural identities, American drama began to emerge as a distinct art form. BEGC 105 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The first American play to gain widespread recognition was The Contrast, written by Royall Tyler in 1787.
The play was a social satire that poked fun at the hypocrisy and pretensions of the upper classes, and was a reflection of the growing sense of American independence and self-identity.
In the 19th century, American drama continued to grow and evolve, with playwrights like Eugene O’Neill, Tennessee Williams, and Arthur Miller producing works that reflected the changing social and political landscape of America.
O’Neill’s plays, such as The Iceman Cometh and Long Day’s Journey into Night, were marked by their psychological complexity and their exploration of the darker aspects of human nature.
Williams’ plays, such as A Streetcar Named Desire and Cat on a Hot Tin Roof, were known for their poetic language and their depiction of the struggles of ordinary people against oppressive social and cultural forces.
Miller’s plays, such as Death of a Salesman and The Crucible, were marked by their social criticism and their exploration of the conflicts between the individual and society.
Overall, the growth of American drama during the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries was a reflection of the changing social, cultural, and political landscape of the time.
American playwrights were able to use drama as a means of exploring and commenting on the issues and concerns of their time, and their works continue to have a lasting impact on American culture and society.
Today, American drama remains a vital and dynamic art form, with new voices and perspectives continuing to emerge and shape the future of the genre.