INDIAN WRITING IN ENGLISH
BEGC 103 Solved Free Assignment 2023
BEGC 103 Solved Free Assignment January 2023
Q.I Explain the reference to the context of the following:
(i) The new poets still quoted
The old poets, but no one spoke
Of the pregnant woman
Drowned, with perhaps twins in her,
Ans. The lines presented above are taken from the poem “MCMXIV” by the English poet Philip Larkin. The poem is a reflection on the outbreak of World War I and the impact it had on the English society.
The specific lines presented above are a commentary on the change in literary trends that occurred during the war.
The new poets that emerged during the war still quoted the old poets, but they no longer spoke of traditional poetic themes, such as love and nature.
Instead, they wrote about the harsh realities of war and the impact it had on the people.
The poem highlights the power of satire as a genre that can be used to comment on societal issues. Satire is a literary genre that uses humor, irony, exaggeration, or ridicule to expose and criticize social or political issues.
It has been used throughout history to challenge the status quo and to bring attention to issues that might otherwise go unnoticed.
One of the most significant uses of satire in literature is to criticize those in power. Satire can be used to highlight the flaws and failings of those in positions of authority, whether they be political leaders, religious figures, or members of the aristocracy. BEGC 103 Solved Free Assignment 2023
By exposing their weaknesses and making fun of their actions, satire can bring attention to the ways in which those in power are failing their constituents.
Satire can also be used to critique societal norms and values. By pointing out the absurdity or hypocrisy of certain beliefs or practices, satire can encourage people to question their assumptions and to reevaluate their own values.
It can also help to bring attention to marginalized groups or issues that are often ignored or dismissed by the mainstream.
In addition to its critical function, satire can also serve as a means of catharsis. By using humor and irony to address serious issues, satire can provide a release for the frustration and anger that people feel about the state of the world.
It can also be a way of building solidarity among those who share a common frustration or anger, helping to create a sense of community and shared purpose.
Overall, satire is a genre that can be used to address a wide range of social and political issues. BEGC 103 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Its power lies in its ability to expose flaws and failings while also providing a means of catharsis and community-building.
As Larkin’s poem suggests, satire can be used to address even the most difficult and tragic issues, such as the impact of war on society.
(ii) Fed on God for years
All her feasts were monotonous
For the only dish was always God
And the rest mere condiments.
Ans. These two lines are a part of a poem and can be interpreted in different ways depending on the context and the theme of the poem. However, a possible interpretation is as follows:
The first line suggests that the subject of the poem has been devoted to God for a long time, possibly following a religious tradition that requires a strict diet or fasts.
The phrase “fed on God for years” could also indicate a spiritual hunger or a longing for a deeper connection with the divine.
The second line describes the limited nature of the subject’s experiences and pleasures, despite their devotion. BEGC 103 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The phrase “all her feasts were monotonous” implies that the subject’s religious practices were not fulfilling or satisfying, perhaps because they were focused solely on God and did not allow for other joys or pleasures.
The image of God as the only dish also suggests a lack of variety or diversity in the subject’s spiritual diet, with “the rest mere condiments” serving as minor, insignificant additions to their primary focus on God.
Overall, these lines could be seen as a commentary on the potential drawbacks of extreme devotion or asceticism, and the need for balance and variety in one’s spiritual practices and experiences.
It could also suggest a critique of religious traditions that prioritize strict adherence to rules and rituals over a deeper, more personal connection with the divine.
(iii) May the sins of your previous birth
Be burned away tonight, they said
May your suffering decrease
The misfortunes of your next birth, they said
Ans. The two lines presented here suggest a focus on the cyclical nature of life and the idea of karma, which is a central concept in many Eastern religions and philosophies.
The first line expresses a wish for the person to be freed from the negative consequences of past actions or karma.
In some interpretations, it suggests that a person’s current situation or suffering may be a result of past misdeeds or karma from a previous birth.
The idea of “burning away” these sins may be seen as a purifying or cleansing process that allows the person to start fresh or begin a new cycle of rebirth without the burden of past wrongs. BEGC 103 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The second line speaks to the idea that a person’s current actions and choices can also affect their future karma and experiences.
By wishing for the person’s suffering to decrease in their “next birth,” the speaker is acknowledging that life is a continuous cycle of birth, death, and rebirth, with each new life shaped by past actions and intentions.
Overall, these lines suggest a belief in the interconnectedness of all things and the importance of cultivating positive actions and intentions in order to create positive karma and shape future experiences.
It also implies a sense of responsibility and accountability for one’s actions, as each new cycle of life is affected by past choices and behaviors.
(iv) O Bird of Time, say where do you learn
The changing measures you sing?
In blowing forests and breaking tides
In the happy laughter of new made brides
Ans. These lines are taken from the poem “Ode to the West Wind” by Percy Bysshe Shelley. The speaker is addressing the West Wind, which he personifies as a powerful force of nature that has the ability to bring about change and transformation.
In these particular lines, the speaker is addressing the “Bird of Time”, which can be interpreted as a symbol for the passage of time and the changes that come with it.
The speaker is asking the Bird of Time where it learns the “changing measures” it sings. This can be interpreted as a question about the source of inspiration for poets and artists, and where they draw their creativity from.
The answer the speaker suggests is that the Bird of Time learns from the natural world, in “blowing forests and breaking tides” and in the “happy laughter of new made brides”. BEGC 103 Solved Free Assignment 2023
This suggests that the natural world is a source of inspiration and renewal, and that poets and artists can find inspiration in the beauty and vitality of the world around them.
The phrase “changing measures” can also be interpreted in a musical sense, referring to the rhythm and meter of poetry.
The speaker may be suggesting that the Bird of Time learns from the rhythms of the natural world, and that poets and artists can find inspiration in the sounds and rhythms of the world around them.
The image of the “happy laughter of new made brides” suggests a celebration of life and new beginnings, which can be interpreted as a source of inspiration for poetry and art.
Overall, these lines from “Ode to the West Wind” suggest that the natural world is a source of inspiration for poets and artists, and that the changing rhythms and measures of the world around us can inspire creativity and renewal.
Q.II What is novel? Discuss its various aspects.
Ans. A novel is a fictional narrative work of extended length that follows a particular plot structure, and it is a genre of literature that has existed for several centuries.
The novel is typically composed of a variety of literary devices, including characterization, plot, setting, point of view, and theme, which make it a complex form of literature. BEGC 103 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Novels are popular because they provide a means of escape from everyday life and offer readers an opportunity to experience new worlds, ideas, and perspectives. In this essay, we will discuss various aspects of the novel.
The first aspect of the novel is characterization. Characterization refers to the process of creating and developing characters in the novel.
Characterization can be done through dialogue, description, and action. A well-written novel requires well-developed characters who are both realistic and believable.
A novel’s characters must be well-rounded, which means that they should have both positive and negative traits.
The protagonist is the main character of the novel and the one with whom the reader is meant to sympathize. The antagonist is the character who opposes the protagonist and causes conflict.
The second aspect of the novel is plot. The plot refers to the series of events that make up the story. A good plot is engaging and keeps the reader interested in the story.
The plot typically follows a particular structure, which includes an exposition, rising action, climax, falling action, and resolution.
The exposition is the beginning of the story where the setting and characters are introduced. BEGC 103 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The rising action builds suspense and tension leading up to the climax, which is the point of highest tension in the story. The falling action follows the climax and leads to the resolution, which is the end of the story.
The third aspect of the novel is setting. The setting refers to the time, place, and social context in which the story takes place.
A well-written novel will have a well-developed setting that enhances the story’s themes and adds depth to the characters.
The setting can be both fictional and real, and it can play a significant role in the story’s tone and mood.
The fourth aspect of the novel is point of view. The point of view refers to the perspective from which the story is told. The point of view can be first-person, third-person omniscient, or third-person limited.
The point of view is essential because it determines how the story is perceived by the reader and how much the reader knows about the characters and events in the story.
The fifth aspect of the novel is theme. The theme refers to the underlying message or meaning of the story.
Themes can be complex and multifaceted, and they often reflect the social and cultural context in which the novel was written.
A good novel will have a well-developed theme that is relevant to the reader and provides insight into the human condition.
In conclusion, the novel is a complex and multifaceted form of literature that requires a skilled writer to create and develop. It is characterized by its use of characterization, plot, setting, point of view, and theme.
A well-written novel is engaging, realistic, and provides insight into the human condition. The novel has been an important form of literature for centuries and continues to be a popular genre today.
Q.III Analyze the story and title of A Tiger for Malgudi.
Ans. A Tiger for Malgudi is a novel written by R.K. Narayan, one of the most celebrated Indian writers in English literature.
The novel revolves around the life of a circus tiger named Raja who escapes from his cage and wanders into the fictional town of Malgudi.
The story is narrated from the perspective of the tiger, and explores the themes of freedom, identity, and the relationship between humans and animals.
The title of the novel, A Tiger for Malgudi, is significant because it refers to the central plot of the story. BEGC 103 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The arrival of the tiger in the town of Malgudi creates a sense of excitement and fear among the people, and it becomes the focus of their attention.
The tiger symbolizes the wild and untamed aspect of nature that exists outside of human control. The title also suggests that the tiger is not just a creature, but a symbol of something larger and more significant.
The story of A Tiger for Malgudi is structured around the experiences of Raja the tiger, who is portrayed as a complex and multi-dimensional character.
Narayan uses the tiger as a lens through which to explore the lives of the people of Malgudi, and to comment on the human condition more broadly.
The tiger’s journey towards freedom becomes a metaphor for the journey towards self-discovery and the search for identity.
One of the key themes of the novel is the idea of freedom. Raja is initially confined to a small cage in the circus, where he is forced to perform tricks for the entertainment of humans.
However, when he escapes and enters the town of Malgudi, he experiences a newfound sense of freedom. BEGC 103 Solved Free Assignment 2023
He is able to roam around the town at will, and encounters a variety of other animals and humans, each with their own unique stories and struggles.
Through Raja’s experiences, Narayan explores the idea of what it means to be free, and the ways in which freedom can be both liberating and challenging.
Another important aspect of the novel is the relationship between humans and animals. Narayan depicts the people of Malgudi as having complex and sometimes contradictory attitudes towards animals.
Some characters are fearful of the tiger and see it as a threat, while others are fascinated by it and seek to understand it better.
The novel also explores the idea of anthropomorphism, or the tendency to attribute human qualities and emotions to animals.
Raja is portrayed as having his own thoughts and feelings, and is able to form relationships with other animals and humans that go beyond mere survival instincts.
Overall, A Tiger for Malgudi is a rich and complex novel that explores a range of themes and ideas. Through the character of Raja the tiger, Narayan is able to comment on the human condition and the relationship between humans and nature.
The title of the novel serves as a reminder that the tiger is not just a creature, but a symbol of something larger and more significant, and the story serves as a testament to the power of literature to illuminate the mysteries of the world around us. BEGC 103 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Q.IV Discuss the style and themes of the poems of Nissim Ezeikel with special reference to the poems prescribed in your course.
Ans. Nissim Ezekiel is considered as one of the pioneers of modern Indian poetry in English. His poems are known for their simplicity, irony, and wit.
Ezekiel’s style is characterized by his use of colloquial language and everyday diction, which make his poems accessible to a wider audience.
His poems deal with a range of themes, including love, alienation, identity, and the struggle to find meaning in life.
The poem “The Professor” is a perfect example of Ezekiel’s style. The poem is written in free verse and has a conversational tone.
The poem is a satire on the Indian education system, and the protagonist is a professor who is disillusioned with his job.
The poem highlights the gap between the ideal and the reality of education in India. The poem is full of irony and humor, and the use of everyday language makes it accessible to a wider audience. BEGC 103 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The poem also deals with the theme of alienation, as the professor feels disconnected from the world around him.
The poem “Night of the Scorpion” is another example of Ezekiel’s style. The poem is written in free verse and has a narrative structure. The poem is based on an incident from Ezekiel’s childhood, when his mother was stung by a scorpion.
The poem highlights the superstitions and beliefs of the people living in a small village in India. The use of colloquial language and everyday diction makes the poem accessible to a wider audience.
The poem deals with the theme of love and the power of a mother’s love, as the villagers come together to pray for the mother’s recovery.
The poem “Enterprise” is a departure from Ezekiel’s usual style. The poem is written in rhyming couplets and has a formal structure. The poem is a satire on the Indian middle class, who are obsessed with material success.
The poem highlights the shallowness of the middle class and their lack of spiritual depth. The use of formal language and rhyme makes the poem sound like a moral fable.
The poem deals with the theme of identity, as the protagonist struggles to find his place in a world that values material success over spiritual growth.
The poem “Background, Casually” is another departure from Ezekiel’s usual style. The poem is written in free verse and has a fragmented structure.
The poem is a meditation on the nature of reality and the human condition. The poem highlights the existential angst of modern man and the futility of trying to find meaning in life. BEGC 103 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The use of fragmented language and imagery creates a sense of disorientation and confusion. The poem deals with the theme of identity and the struggle to find meaning in a world that is constantly changing.
Final, Nissim Ezekiel’s poems are known for their simplicity, irony, and wit. His poems deal with a range of themes, including love, alienation, identity, and the struggle to find meaning in life.
His use of everyday language and colloquial diction makes his poems accessible to a wider audience. Ezekiel’s style varies from poem to poem, but his poems are always thought-provoking and engaging.
Ezekiel’s contribution to modern Indian poetry in English cannot be overstated, and his poems continue to be read and admired by readers all over the world.
Q.V Critically analyze the story Swimming Lessons by Rohinton Mistry.
Ans. Rohinton Mistry’s short story “Swimming Lessons” is a poignant tale that explores the complexities of family relationships and the power dynamics that exist within them.
The story revolves around the relationship between a mother and her son, and the impact that the mother’s love and sacrifice have on her son’s life.
The story is set in India and revolves around the life of a young boy, Rustom, and his mother, Jeroo. Jeroo is a strong-willed woman who has made many sacrifices for her family. BEGC 103 Solved Free Assignment 2023
She has always put the needs of her husband and children before her own and has worked tirelessly to ensure that they have a comfortable life. Her only desire is to see her children succeed and be happy.
Rustom, on the other hand, is a restless and rebellious teenager who is struggling to find his place in the world.
He is frustrated with the restrictions that his mother places on him and is resentful of the sacrifices that she has made for him. He longs for the freedom to pursue his dreams and live life on his own terms.
The central theme of the story is the conflict between a mother’s love and a son’s desire for independence. Jeroo loves her son unconditionally and wants what is best for him.
She believes that she knows what is best for Rustom and is willing to do whatever it takes to ensure his success.
However, her love and sacrifice come at a cost. Rustom feels smothered and suffocated by her love and is desperate to break free from her control.
The story is also a commentary on the social and cultural norms that shape Indian society. Jeroo’s sacrifices and devotion to her family are seen as a given, and she is expected to put her family’s needs before her own.
Her life revolves around her family, and she has no identity outside of it. Rustom, on the other hand, represents the younger generation that is questioning these norms and seeking to assert their independence.
Mistry’s writing style is simple yet powerful. He uses vivid descriptions to paint a picture of the characters and their surroundings, and his use of symbolism adds depth and meaning to the story. BEGC 103 Solved Free Assignment 2023
For example, the swimming lessons that Jeroo gives Rustom are symbolic of her desire to teach him how to navigate the challenges of life.
The water represents the unknown and unpredictable nature of the world, and Jeroo’s guidance represents the love and support that she offers her son.